Project 1174 "Rhinoceros"
Ivan Rogov class
Amphibious Warfare ship
The Ivan Rogov Class Large Landing Ship provides sea-lift and landing of troops and equipment on the coast of enemy occupied territory. The rise of the Soviet amphibious capability under Admiral Gorshkov during the 1970s was marked by the construction of the amphibious dock landing ship Ivan Rogov [and the replenishment ship Berezina] Along with the deployment of Soviet naval infantry to the Indian Ocean and the Mediterranean, these ships enabled the Soviets to show the flag while enhancing Moscow's credibility among Third World nations.
Military material is landed via a bow ramp and also via assault boats through the doors of the flooded well. The tank deck covers an area 54 metres by 12.3 metres to provide 660 square metres of floor area for the transportation of material and is accessed via the bow ramp. The docking bay, with doors at the stern of the ship, can be flooded for amphibious operations using small landing craft. The docking bay measures 67.5 metres by 12.3 metres.
The ship has the capacity for the military lift of one battalion of 520 marines and 25 tanks. If no landing craft are carried then the additional space in the docking bay allows a total of 53 tanks or 80 armoured personnel carriers to be transported.
The ship has two air defence missile systems, the OSA-M (Gecko) Air Defence Missile System and the Strela-3M (Grail) portable air defence missile system.
The OSA-M is installed at the aft of the superstructure to provide defence against anti-ship missiles, aircraft and surface targets. The system features a double launcher, a control system, a reloading system and the air defence missile. The ship carries 20 missiles. The range is up to 10 kilometres and the reaction time is up to 20 seconds. The system uses semi-active radar homing. The ship is equipped with two close range portable air defence missile systems, Strela-3M, each system having a quadruple launcher.
The ship has a 75 mm AK-726 multi-purpose gun, with 1000 rounds of ammunition. The AK-726, provides defence against air, sea and coastal targets. The maximum firing range is 15.7 kilometres and the gun is capable of firing up to 100 rounds per minute. The range of ammunition which can be fired includes contact and proximity rounds and practice and discharge rounds. The gun incorporates two barrels in one cradle. Laying of the gun mount and the fire control can be carried out in automatic mode using the fire control radar system, in semi-automatic mode using the Prizma optical sighting device mounted on the turret or in manual mode using the gunner's sights.
The ship is armed with four 30 mm AK-630 air defence guns. The AK-630 is for engaging airborne threats, small sea targets, floating mines and light armoured coastal targets. The ship has a 122 mm rocket launcher, Grad-M with 320 rockets.
The ship accommodates four helicopters. Landing parties can be air lifted by helicopter. The helicopter hangar is located within the superstructure. Helicopters can be brought out of the hangar through two exit doors, one leading to the helicopter landing pad forward of the superstructure and the other to the second landing pad behind the superstructure. Both landing pads are equipped with helicopter refuelling and replenishment stations. The ship's helicopters are the Kamov Ka-27 or Ka-29. The KA-27 (Helix) is a naval anti-submarine helicopter, and the KA-29 is the combat transport version. The helicopters are equipped with emergency flotation ballonets. The helicopter has the capacity to ferry 16 fully equipped and armed troops. For cargo carrying, the helicopter can carry two tons in the cabin plus four tons on a sling. In the medical evacuation role the helicopter can carry four stretcher patients and seven seated patients with one medical officer.
The ship's propulsion is provided by two gas turbine engines, each rated at 18,000 horsepower. There are two shafts driving two fixed pitch propellers. The ship has two retractable thrusters for manoeuvring and position keeping. The range at the maximum speed of 19 knots is 6,000 miles. At a speed of 14 knots the range is increased to 7,500 miles.
Landing Ship 1174 "Admiral Rogov" was used from 1978. By 2008 not one of these ships was left in service. The last one "Mitrofan Moskalenko" was put in reserve in the Northern Fleet, and was put on sale as scrap metal by the Defense Ministry in 2008. The reserve of the Russian Navy by 2015 included 2 BDK Project 1174 ("Alexander Nikolayev" and "Mitrofan Moskalenko"). These ships are in good condition, but to restore their technical readiness, if necessary, would require a considerable amount of repairs, including the replacement of the main power plants.
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