People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK)
The People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) PREPAK was formed in 1977 demanding the expulsion of "outsiders" from the state. Led by Achamba Singh and Tajila, the group had an estimated cadre strength of 1,000 as of 2005. It is primarily trained by the NSCN-IM. The PREPAK is part of the Manipur People's Liberation Front (MPLF), an umbrella organization also including the UNLF and PLA. Other than the Manipur valley, PREPAK operates in small areas of Nagaland and Mizoram. It reportedly received weapons and training from the Kachin Independent Army (KIA) of Burma and has camps in Bangladesh.
The People's Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) was formed under the leadership of R.K. Tulachandra on October 9, 1977.
Kangleipak is the ancient name of Manipur. A series of dacoities and ambushes committed in 1978 and 1979 were also attributed to PREPAK. The object was to snatch arms from the security forces and collect money for purchasing arms. Their arsenal was built up by looting arms from the police and para-military forces and buying from the poorly paid Myanmarese soldiers deployed across India's borders. In 1980 a small group split off from PREPAK to form the
Kangleipak Communist Party (KCP). On November 12, 1985, the founder and chairman of PREPAK R.K. Tulachandra was killed in a shootout in Kabowakching area, 14 km. south of Imphal. Following his death, S. Wanglen became the Commander-in-Chief (C-in-C) of PREPAK. The organisation's General Secretary, Lumbeban Masunga was killed on May 19, 1993. In 1980s and in early 1990s, many cadres were killed in factional clashes. The fraction-riddled party was transformed into a well organised and trained force in the late 1990s. In this process PREPAK leader late Urrikhinbam Sarat alias Meiraba played a crucial role.
In the early nineties, PREPAK along with other Meitei militant organization launched a social reformation campaign to eradicate the social crimes. It had given punishment against those persons involved in rape cases. The party also took action against drug users, drug peddlers and smashes alcohol vendors in an attempt to bring a social change in Manipur.
On safeguarding Manipur's territorial integrity, PREPAK's Defence Secretary Chinglemba Mangang declared on October 17, 2003 that the MPLF (a conglomeration of three militants groups - UNLF, RPF and PREPAK) was fully prepared to extend all possible help, including "military support" to the Manipuri peoples' fight against any threat to their
Claiming to be the "most genuine revolutionary groups" in Manipur, the PREPAK's demand is the establishment
of an independent state of Manipur.
PREPAK has a well-defined command structure. The Central Committee of the party is the highest decision making body and all political and military decisions are made by it. The political wing is headed by a Chairman. The armed wing of the outfit is called the Red Army and is under the direct control of a Commander-in-Chief. For the convenience of operation, it has set up district commands. A district command is headed by a district commander and includes in its ranks lieutenants, sergeants major, sergeants, corporals, and lance corporals. A district command is further divided into units. A women's wing has been set up and work mainly in organizational activities.
Presently, the post of Chairman is vacant. Vice-Chairman is Naba and Subhash @ Paliba is the General Secretary. Tajila is the Commander-in- Chief. Other Secretaries are Home, Defence, Finance, Organisation and Publicity and Propaganda. Chinglemba Mangang is the Defence Secretary and Chief of Army staff of PREPAK.
Achamba was the Chairman of the party but he was removed from the party some time back. The party has not made public about his removal. This is the information I which got from some party members. However, they to divulge the reasons for his removal.
According to web site, the South Asian Terrorism
Portal, it has about 200 fighters. But sources closed to the rebel group
claimed that it has more than 500 committed fighters. It is believed that PREPAK has bought a wide range of weapons including AK - series, rocket launchers, mortars, snipers, explosives etc. from the South Asian markets. Of late, PREPAK has become a force to reckon with. It has launched a serious of operations against Indian security forces alone and with coordination with other militant groups like United National Liberation Front (UNLF) and Revolutionary People's Front (RPF).
In the 80s PREPAK's area of operation was largely confined to
the Imphal valley. However, its area of activities gradually
expanded to the southern hilly parts of Manipur and its
contiguous areas straddle along Mizoram and Assam. From the
early 90s PREPAK has been operating in Chandel district of
Manipur, in coordination with other militant groups such as RPF,
UNLF and with support from other tribal rebel groups like
Kuki National Front (KNF), and Zomi Defence Volunteers
(ZDV). PREPAK is also reported to carry out attacks in certain
areas of Mizoram and in North Tripura.
PREPAK's support base comes from the dominant Meitei community.
It has strong support base in the four valley districts - Imphal
West, Imphal East, Thoubal and Bishenpur - of Manipur.
PREPAK's main source of income used to come from extortion from
businessmen, contractors, and employees of the state government,
but of late the party has stopped extortion from the people.
According to a decision taken in 1998, the party has stopped
extortion of money from individuals. In a press release to the
local newspaper Sangai Express on 17 June 2004, PREPAK claimed
that there was no change in the decision. The PREPAK, which
earlier collected a monthly tax of 1 to 2 per cent depending on
the salary of the employees, declared along with UNLF and RPF in
January 2002 that the party would no longer collect money from
the government employees from 15 January. Since then PREPAK
along with the UNLF and RPF has stopped collecting monthly tax
from government employees. The group also receives financial
support from its sympathisers. So far there has been no report
of PREPAK's involvement in drug smuggling to finance its party
In Manipur, its cadres are given training in two different
areas. The General Headquarters (GHQs) of the rebel group is
located in Sajik Tampak area of Chandel district. So far many
batches of PREPAK cadres had received guerrilla warfare training
in the thick jungles of the district. In the bordering
Churachanpur district, it is reported that PREPAK has also set
up training camps. Besides, PREPAK also receives military
training in Nagaland-Myanmar border with support from NSCN (Khaplang).
Peoples Revolutionary Party of Kangleipak (PREPAK) the United
National Liberation Front (UNLF), the two banned outfits had
decided to launch joint operations from December 2003. General
Secretary of PREPAK, Paliba, announced the decision to launch
joint operations at a function held to observe the MPLF's
"national black day" on October 15, 2003.
PREPAK along with other militant groups operating in northeast
had banned screening of Hindi films from 15 November 2003. It
considers Hindi movies as a threat to the socio-cultural values
of the people of the region. In a joint press release on August
7, 2003 militants groups appealed to all concerned, particularly
cinema hall owners, cable TV operators and producers and
directors of regional films, to comply with this decision in the
larger interest of the Region as a whole. The press release
stated Arunachal Pradesh as a glaring example where Hindi has
been imposed to become almost a local language. PREPAK perceive
this as a direct threat that must be resisted.
From 1999 to 2003, Indian Army, Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
and state security forces killed 26 cadres of PREPAK. During
this period, 22 PREPAK rebels were arrested from various places
of the state, while PREPAK killed 2 security forces and injured
8 personnel in various attacks launched against the Indian
security forces. Seven civilian casualties were also reported in
encounters between PREPAK and security forces during this
PREPAK has closed connections with RPF and UNLF militant groups.
In 1999, PREPAK along with RPF and UNLF formed the Manipur
People's Liberation Front (MPLF). The three constituents of
MPLF have been waging an armed struggle for more than 40 years.
The party has also links with Kuki militants like Kuki
National Front. It has also understanding with Zomi
Defence Volunteers (ZFD). Relations are being developed
between PREPAK and Hmar Peoples Convention Democratic (HPCD),
a Mizoram underground group.
In the early eighties PREPAK used to receive weapons and
training in exchange for hard cash from the Kachin
Independence Army (KIA) of Myanmar. PREPAK has also links
with Tripura's All Tripura Tribal Force (ATTF) and
National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT).
PREPAK publishes a monthly journal called Literature. It
also publishes occasional papers and booklets.
Talks with the Government
PREPAK has ruled out talks with the Government of India unless
the question of independence of Manipur is included in the
agenda. The organisation rejected former Manipur Chief Minister
Radhabinod Koijam's cease-fire offer of March 1, 2001.