Nagmash'ot / Nakpadon
Due to the losses incurred by the IDF mechanized infantry riding in Zelda M113 light APCs, the IDF developed heavy APCs to counter the threats that destroyed the lighter Israeli APCs. The IDF began to use its heavy APCs together with its tanks to perform ballistic breaches into walled compounds using tank guns and demolition charges in order to insert troops into PLO buildings.
Centurions were refitted into Puma combat engineer APCs and Nagmash'ot and Nakpadon heavy APCs. The British Centurion was named "Sh'ot" by the Israelis and upgraded to meet their demands in modern warfare. However, after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon in 1982 and the Lebanese resistance operations against them in 1984, a new version of the "Sh'ot" named "Nagmash'ot" (troop carrier), appeared in service in the Israeli army. It consisted of a turretless, well-armored vehicle with tasks to assist infantry troops in Lebanon during the Israeli occupation of Southern Lebanon.
The "Nagmash'ot" was constantly upgraded to meet challenges, and is known as the moving fortress. The turret has been removed and the hull has been more or less rebuilt. Judging from the pictures the hull has been raised on all of these, but the overall height seems to be a bit less than the original turreted tanks.
In 1993, the conflict in the Lebanon took to the development of the Nakpadon, an improved version of the Nagmashot and Nagmachon. The vehicle represents all new design in fighting compartment including 3rd generation reactive armor, side skirts are of "EKE" design (similar to USMC LTVP7 armor), rear section of side skirts can be built in either raised or lowered position, complete fighting compartment details plus 3 FN MAGS and one 40mm grenade launcher plus other details. It is shielded still more that the Nagmachon, mainly against mines and missiles anti-car. The protection against mines saved many occupants of wounds and saved many lives.
The Nakpadon can take 10 troops more than and is equipped with four machine guns, external. Due to great armored protection, it it weighs 55 tons more, being the VBI weighed already constructed. To compensate the weight, the engine 750 diesel AVDS of hp was changed by a AVDS used 1790-sa of 900 hp in the Merkava Mk 1. The Nakpadon is equipped with AGE of 3ª generation, lateral skirts with project EKE (identical to USMC LTVP7) and armed with machine guns MAG of 7,62 mm and 80 40 grenade launchers of mm. By the turn of the century about 400 Nakpadon were in operation in the IDF, as well as 400 Achzarit.
Britain, although not a major defense supplier to Israel, with exports of only $18 million in 2001, imposed a de facto arms embargo on the Jewish state in 2002 for the first time in two decades by cutting off the delivery of components used in the production of Nagmashot armored vehicles based on the chassis of the British Centurion tank. Britain sold Israel several hundred Centurions and some 200 were converted to Nagmashots. The main drawback of these vehicles was their lack of mobility and therefore, inability to support Markava MBTs. Both the Nagmachon and Nakpadon are burdened by excessive weight, the latter probably weighing 55 tones. The Nagmachon retains the upgraded Centurion's 750hp AVDS diesel, while the Nakpadon uses the 900hp AVDS 1790-6A power pack of the Merkava Mk 1. The suspension used by the vehicles is a hybrid, based on the cold Centurion system, but incorporating hydraulic bump stops. Road wheels tend to show signs of severe wear, wheel tires typically being almost totally destroyed by excessive thermal and mechanical loading. As funds became available, Merkava style suspension and all steel road wheels were retrofitted.
During the Cold War, combined arms heavy force tactics dictated that forces should avoid urban areas when possible. Avoiding urban areas allowed tankers to use the advantage of the vehicle’s longer weapons range compared to most infantry weapons. Open area also allowed them to avoid the danger of enemy infantry closing to within the dead spots of the vehicles’ sights. However, since the beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom, heavy forces have fought in every urban area in Iraq. The United States Army has clearly rediscovered combined arms heavy force tactics.
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