KOSTRAD - Army Strategic Reserve Command
KOSTRAD [Army Strategic Reserve Command], which had about 40,000 troops as of 2013 [up from between 25,000 and 26,000 troops two decades earlier], supervises operational readiness among all commands and conducts defense and security operations at the strategic level in accordance with policies of the ABRI commander. KOSTRAD came into being when Indonesia was dealing with the liberation of West Irian in 1960, and was formally constitued on 06 March 1961. This date is based on the formation of the embryo adoption of the army, the Army Corps to I / Army General Reserve (Korra-I/Caduad) through Decree Men / Army No.. Mk/Kpts.54/3/1961, dated March 6, 1961. Initially designated the Army General Reserve Corps, its name was changed to KOSTRAD in 1963.
The idea came from the Gen. Abdul Haris Nasution, who was the Army Chief of Staff (Army Chief of Staff). The consideration was that of the Republic of Indonesia was in need of a strategic reserve force that was ready for combat, and had the ability to be able to conduct operations independently or in joint command, which can be deployed at any time to all parts of the country to face all kinds of challenges, both from within and outside the country.
KOSTRAD forerunner was formed when Indonesia first dealt with the issue of West Papua's independence in 1960, the year the Strategic Reserve would carry out operations liberation of West Irian (now Irian Jaya). Success on a mission in New Guinea, the army re-assigned it to "Operation Dwikora" following confrontation with Malaysia on May 3, 1964. To carry out the operation at that time President, Soekarno, ordered the formation of a Strategic Reserve Command. Dwikora operation ended August 11, 1961.
Major General Suharto (later Indonesian president) was the first to be entrusted with the position of PANGKOSTRAD [KOSTRAD Commander]. It was from his position as Kostrad commander, in fact, that Suharto organized resistance to the 1965 coup. Since then the powerful post has been filled by officers considered particularly loyal to Suharto. As of 01 April 1998 Lt. Gen. Prabowo Subianto [Suharto's son-in-law] was serving as commander of KOSTRAD. Suharto was ousted on 21 May 1999 amid mounting public pressure and large scale violent pro-reform riots. Soon thereafter Son-in-Law Prabowo was pushed out of his position as commander of KOPASSUS and reassigned to head the army's command and staff training college in Bandung.
During the New Order era, the KOSTRAD force became increasingly visible. These green-beret troops had never been absent from the various military operations, such as G-30-S/PKI [30 September Movement/Indonesian Communist Party], Trisula, the PGRS [Sarawak People's Guerrilla Force] in Sarawak, the PARAKU [North Kalimantan People's Force] in North Kalimantan, and Operation Seroja in East Timor. KOSTRAD troops have also been relied on at the international level, as was the case with Garuda troops in Egypt (1973-78) and Vietnam (1973-75) and with those in the combined peace force in the midst of the Iran-Iraq war of 1989 and 1990.
In 1984 the PANGKOSTRAD became responsible to the ABRI commander for the conduct of combat operations, called defense and security operations. At present, KOSTRAD has a strength of some 35,000 to 40,000 army personnel with two infantry divisions: the 1st Division, headquartered at Cilodong, West Java, and the 2d Division, headquartered at Malang, East Java. Each of the divisions contains airborne and infantry brigades. KOSTRAD also includes a separate airborne brigade; one cavalry brigade; two field artillery regiments; and several combat support and service support units.
Terms in the military:
- Brigif: Brigade Infanteri (Infantry Brigade)
- Yonif: Batalyon Infanteri (Infantry Battalion)
- Yonif Linud: Batalyon Infanteri Lintas Udara (Airborne Infantry Battalion)
Indonesian army has three airborne infantry brigades (Brigif Linud). These three brigades were divided between the two Army Strategic Reserve Command (Kostrad) division. The 3rd/Tri Budi Mahasakti and 17th/Kujang-1 were under Kostrad 1st Division Command. The 17th Airborne Brigade had three battalion, the 305/Tengkorak in Karawang, 328/Dirgahayu in Cilodong and 330/Tri Dharma in Cicalengka. Kostrad 2nd Division commanded 18th Airborne Brigade that consisted of 501/Bajra Yudha in Madiun, 502/Ujwala Yudha in Malang and 503/Mayangkara in Mojokerto. In 2007 some sources placed 3rd Airborne Brigade as an independent unit.
To deal with the multidimensional threat, the Strategic Reserve is requested to be deployed on any region trouble spots simultaneously, especially in the West, Central and East. With the Strategic Reserve forces that exist today are two Infantry Division, the 1st Infantry Division in Cilodong West Java and the 2nd Infantry Division in Malang, East Java, need additional power unit title the army, especially in eastern Indonesia as a form of deterrence strategies in order to realize the effectiveness of the implementation of OMP and MOOTW. Therefore, in line with the Army Posture Plan, the Strategic Reserve Ideal posture forward, gradually developed into three Infantry Division.
In early 2005, the armed forces commander in chief announced plans to expand the independent brigade, based near Makassar, Sulawesi Selatan Province, into a third division to be based primarily in Papua, to become fully operatonal by 2014.
Development Strategic Reserve Infantry Division 3 has been started since the 2006 Work Program is the establishment of Headquarters 22 Infantry Brigade in Gorontalo. In the second half of the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2009, implemented gradually filling the ranks of brigade personnel Unit 22/3 consisting of a Strategic Reserve Battalion 221/Motuli 'ato in Popalo Gorontalo, Battalion 222/Mo'Tolongio otahangi in Gorontalo, Battalion 223/Mo'e'a in Sumalata Gorontalo, and Satbanpur Yonarmed-19/105 MM / Pull / Bogani in Lolak Bolmong.
By February 2010 the Army Strategic Reserve Command was reviewing the need for a 3rd Infantry Division Army Strategic Reserve Command in eastern Indonesia, in addition to the two existing divisions. Although there is no budget allocation for 2010, it was considered necessary, given the broad field conditions. The plans to establish a division of Strategic Reserve in eastern Indonesia were consistent with the strategy of defense in depth. Threats were seen to come from the north west axis, namely Natuna and Malacca, the center of the Celebes Sea, and the northern Arafura Sea.
22/Ota Manasa Infantry Brigade or Infantry Brigade is 22/OM Infantry Brigade was scheduled to be under the command of 3/Kostrad Infantry Division. The 22/OM Infantry Brigade Command Headquarters based in Gorontalo. This brigade was inaugurated by Army Chief of Staff Gen. TNI George Toisutta on December 15, 2009 to coincide with the commemoration of Juang Kartika in Jakarta in 2009. Formation 3/Kostrad Infantry Division based in Eastern Indonesia was projected to be completed in 2014. Initial brigade personnel came from shifting troops 22/OM (serpas) from 1/Kostrad Infantry Division and 2/Kostrad Infantry Division which has been implemented in stages since July 13, 2009. Brigade organic unit is a new unit that consists of a Battalion 221/Motuli 'ato in Motilango, Battalion 222/Mo 'otahangi in Tolongio, Battalion 223/Mo 'e'a in Sumalata, and Yonarmed 19/105 MM / Pull in Lolak, Bolaang Mongondow.
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