Frigate Project 11356 Krivak III
The Talwar Class has a displacement of 4,000 tons and speed of 30 knots and is capable of accomplishing a wide scale of missions in the ocean, primarily, finding and eliminating submarines and large surface ships. The frigate is armed with a new Club attack anti-ship system with a vertical missile launcher, as well as with a RBU-6000 jet bomb launcher, Shtil-1 multi-channel medium-range surface-to-air missile system, a Kashtan anti-aircraft missile and artillery system and Puma-Universal artillery system. The Talwar class are a multi-purpose frigate equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors including the deadly klub type cruise missiles. These ships are designed to carry and operate one heavy duty helicopter.
The Talwar-type frigate is a further development of the Project 1135.1 patrol ship designed by the Severnoye Design Bureau. Ships of this type were initially built for coast guard forces. Project 1135.6 frigates differ from Project 1135.1 patrol ships in the range of tasks they can perform and in the assortment of weapon systems. The latter include the Club-N missile system recently developed by the Yekaterinburg-based Novator Design Bureau. The Talwar-type frigates carry eight standardized vertical launch tubes of the Club-N system which are installed in front of the pilot house. Another missile system, Shtil, installed closer to the bow, is intended to combat air targets at a range of 3 to 25 km. Its ammunition load comprises 24 missiles.
The 'Talwar' class guided missile frigates represent the cutting edge of technology in stealth, reach and punch. They have ushered in highly automated integrated weapon platforms that are essential for blue water operations by the Indian Navy. Commissioning of these new frigates not only enhances India's defensive potential at sea but also dramatically affects the power equations in Asia.
A guided missile frigate's mission spans the entire spectrum of naval warfare both as a single unit and a consort ship. Trishul is well endowed to take up this role. The propulsion plant which includes four gas turbines enables her to cruise in excess of 30 knots. All weapon systems are integrated into a versatile computer aided action information system which can monitor and control under any threat. These ships, equipped with state-of-the-art weapons and sensors, are being inducted into the Indian Ocean region for the first time.
The weapon suite includes a long range surface-to-surface missile capable of striking targets at a range in excess of 200 kms, a 100 mm artillery gun with capability of firing 100 rounds per minute, advance torpedo launchers and anti- submarine rocket launchers. The ship has a wide array of state-of-the-art electronic warfare equipment. They also operates Kamov 31 helicopter for airborne early warning.
The Indian Navy signed a contract for supply of three vessels and support equipment in November 1997. The design was customised to cater to specific Indian Naval requirements encompassing an intelligent blend of Russian, Western and indigenous equipment. The ships built by Baltiysky Shipyard at St Petersburg are the first of the stealth frigates being inducted into the Indian Navy and represent a quantum leap in terms of technology and weapon punch.
As many as three more project 1135 frigates were under negotiation between Indians and Russians. However, plans to acquire another three vessels of the class seemed for a time unlikely to be realized, as priority was being given to construction in India of the indigenous Project 17 Class frigates. Ministry concluded a contract in November 1997 with a Russian firm for supply of three modern frigates to the Indian Navy at Rs 3,040 crore. The first frigate, INS Talwar was to be delivered in May 2002, the second INS Trishul in November 2002 and the third INS Tabar in May 2003.
For delay in delivery in excess of 90 days, the seller was to pay liquidated damages at the rate of one percent of the contractual price of the vessel for each month of delay or pro rata for fraction of a month, but not exceeding five per cent of the contractual price. The Russian firm delayed the delivery of three frigates by 13 months, seven months and 11 months respectively. The contract stipulated levy of liquidated damages for the delays and the same worked out to USD 38.5 million equivalent to Rs 177.10 crore. This was yet to be recovered as of December 2004.
An overseeing team was established at Russia to watch progress of the project, quality of frigates, unsatisfactory performance of any system or equipment, and also to certify the quality of construction with reference to specifications and design. The contract also provided for training to the ships' crew and repair personnel on all repairs including major overhauls.
A supplementary agreement was concluded in October 2001 for providing training followed by sea practice to the crew. The training period varied from five days to six months and was to be completed before the beginning of the ships' acceptance. Another supplementary agreement was concluded in November 2001 for deputation of Delivery Acceptance Team (DAT) of 15 Indian specialists to carry out delivery acceptance of each frigate. The time for delivery acceptance of a frigate was 60 days.
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