High-Power Discriminator (HPD) radar
HPD is a single face, X-band active phased array radar system based on THAAD array technology and software reuse. This ship-based system will be mechanically trainable to allow for adjustable sector coverage for Navy Theater Missile Defense (TMD). The HPD radar provides the long range detection capability and high range resolution to support area defense against endo- and exo-atmospheric missiles.
The High Power Discriminator (HPD) is an X-Band solid state radar system that is an adjunct to S-Band Aegis SPY-1. It provides the Navy with long range acquisition and discrimination for Theater Ballistic Missile Defense. Its performance extends the defended footprint of the Navy Theater Wide System, and it is a low cost development and backfit aboard Navy Theater Wide AEGIS cruisers.
The Navy has embarked on a program to develop and deploy Area and Theater Wide ballistic missile defense capabilities aboard AEGIS ships. Studies have suggested that additional power and target discrimination may be needed to counter the far term Theater Wide exoatmospheric threat. This need may be met with the addition of a dedicated high power discriminator (HPD) capable of providing long range tracking and discrimination. A prototype HPD is the next logical step to validate expected benefits via shipboard testing in a realistic ballistic missile and at sea environment. Congress provided the Navy with funding to develop an HPD leveraged from the Army's significant investment in Theater High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD).
The High Power Discriminator concept is a ship based X-Band radar that provides long-range detection, tracking and discrimination of advanced theater ballistic missile (TBM) threats. HPD takes advantage of the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization's substantial investment in the Theater High-Altitude Air Defense (THAAD) radar by leveraging proven active array technologies and complex theater missile defense software. The HPD radar would work as an adjunct radar within the AEGIS Weapon System to counter the most advanced long-range TBM targets.
The Raytheon Company is the designer and developer for the Army THAAD Radar, and as such, is the only source with the requisite knowledge and technical experience to provide this HPD development. Therefore, the Naval Sea Systems Command intends to conduct a sole source procurement for the preliminary design of a prototype HPD from Raytheon Company. The prototype HPD is intended to be a shipboard adaptation of THAAD Radar to support Theater Wide Standard Missile SM-3 exoatmospheric intercepts. HPD preliminary design will be based on minimal changes to THAAD Radar to accommodate the shipboard environment.
The FY1998 budget request included no funds in PE 64307N to begin development of a High Power Discriminator (HPD). The House bill would authorize the budget request. The Senate amendment would authorize an increase of $35.0 million for the HPD Program. The conferees agreed to authorize an increase of $25.0 million for the HPD Program in PE 64307N. The conferees supported the concept of using existing X-Band radar technology in support of the Navy's theater ballistic missile defense effort. The proposed HPD would consist of a solid state X-Band radar for long-range acquisition and discrimination for theater ballistic missile defense and cruise missile defense. This concept would leverage the significant investment already made in the Army's ground-based radar.
In 1999 Raytheon Company was awarded an incrementally funded cost plus award fee letter contract to develop a prototype High Power Discriminator (HPD) radar for the U.S. Navy. Initial funding on the contract is $7.4 million. This is one alternative being assessed by the Navy to reduce risk in the Navy Theater Wide Theater Ballistic Missile Defense program. Under the four-year contract, Raytheon will, if fully funded, design, develop, fabricate and test a radar prototype. If fully funded, the radar will undergo extensive testing at a land-based site and at sea. Engineering and design work will take place in facilities located in Bedford and Sudbury, Mass. The contract has a not to exceed value of $118 million.
New radar programs funded in 1999 included two $120-million four-year development contracts to Raytheon (Sudbury, MA) and Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics and Surveillance Systems for research into a high-power-discriminator (HPD) radar to complement Aegis for theater missile defense. Raytheon is proposing an X-band system based on its successful Ground-Based Radar for THAAD, while Lockheed Martin is looking at a new S/C-band radar. A Navy official seemed to confirm in late 1999 that dual S/C-band technology was the way to go, at least for the far-term future following DD-21. According to some Navy officials, S-band provides more power for long-range detection, while C-band is better for detection of low-altitude threats, and multiple missions can be accomplished with a single antenna. To this end, the Navy may provide additional funding to Lockheed Martin to conduct research into what could eventually become the AN/SPY-2 for a CG-21, or 21st-Century cruiser. A crucial technology hurdle is the move from today's gallium-arsenide amplifier chips to gallium-nitride and silicon-carbon amplifier chips thought to be necessary for S/C-band performance.
The X-band high power discriminator radar effort received only $12.0 million in fiscal year 2002, resulting in the termination of many of the engineers working on the program.
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