SPY-1E Sea-based Midcourse Defense (SMD)
SPY-IE or SBAR (S-band Advanced Radar) is an unofficial designation lor a next-generation active array version of SPY-1 [some years ago, Lockheed used the SPY-2 designation for this system]. The only official DOD mention of the "SPY-1E" nomenclature is the FY2004 budget submit for the Solid State SPY Radar which mentions an "FY 2003 includes: Congressional plus-up for Solid State SPY-1E Multi-Mission Radar".
The Navy currently purchases SPY-1D(V) radar for its destroyers. This new SPY-1E version under development could be used in developing an anti-missile defense. This is the newest radar in a long line of superior Aegis systems. SPY-1E radar is an Aegis hybrid that is anticipated to be the key to successfully identifying and tracking hostile missiles so that they can be targeted and brought down before they hit their intended target.
The Sea-based Midcourse Defense (SMD) SPY-1E solid-state S-band radar provides greatly improved detection at much greater ranges, a key requirement to counter ballistic missile defense threats. SPY-1E radar is an Aegis hybrid that is anticipated to be the key to successfully identifying and tracking hostile missiles so that they can be targeted and brought down before they hit their intended target. Additionally, SPY-1E will improve the US Navy's ship self-defence and anti-air warfare capabilities.
SPY-1E significantly enhances the capabilities of the Aegis Weapon System with the technology needed to defend against next-generation threats. The legacy SPY-1 radar can search, track and guide missiles simultaneously and has the capability of tracking hundreds of targets concurrently, from the wave tops to the exoatmosphere. SPY-1E will provide a step increase in the capability of the Aegis Weapon System.
The ship's AN/SPY-1E radar finds the ballistic missile target and the Aegis weapon system calculates a solution on the target. When the missile is ordered to launch, the Aerojet MK 72 solid-fuel rocket booster launches the SM-3 out of the ship's Mark 41 vertical launching system (VLS). The missile then establishes communication with the launching ship. Once the booster burns out, it detaches, and the Aerojet MK 104 solid-fuel dual thrust rocket motor (DTRM) takes over propulsion through the atmosphere. The missile continues to receive mid-course guidance information from the launching ship and is aided by GPS data. The ATK MK 136 solid-fueled third stage rocket motor (TSRM) fires after the second stage burns out, and it takes the missile above the atmosphere (if needed). The TSRM is pulse fired and provides propulsion for the SM-3 until 30 seconds to intercept. At that point the third stage separates, and the Lightweight Exo-Atmospheric Projectile (LEAP) kinetic warhead (KW) begins to search for the target using pointing data from the launching ship. The ATK solid divert and attitude control system (SDACS) allows the kinetic warhead to maneuver in the final phase of the engagement. The KW's sensors identify the target and attempt to identify the most lethal part of the target and aim the KW at that point. If the KW intercepts the target, it provides 130 mega joules of kinetic energy at the point of impact.
SPY-1E Sea-based Midcourse Defense (SMD) Program
Lockheed Martin had been working on these new capabilities since 1999, and the first prototype was to be ready in 2006. Initially DDG-88 Preble was programmed to receive the first Engineering Development Model 4B variant SPY-1E radar, with signal-processing and transmitter changes to improve the radar's capability to detect low-observable targets under clutter conditions. A later development would be the addition of a capability to track and engage ballistic missiles.
The SPY-1E was among several South Jersey projects were included in the Defense Authorization Bill passed in August 2001 by the House Armed Services Committee. Among the many projects in the bill were $67 million for SPY-1E Solid State Radar. Developed and designed by Lockheed Martin-Moorestown, the SPY-1E is the next generation of radar for the Navy Theater-Wide program. The funding provided for SPY-1E is critical to the future of the DD-21, the next generation of warships. The Navy is developing the most advanced warship in the world, and the $67 million will allow Lockheed Martin, Moorestown and the subcontractors that work with Lockheed to compete for the right to provide the advanced radar systems on the new ships.
Linear-array testing for the US Navy's (USN's) next-generation AN/SPY-1E active solid-state S-band multifunction radar system was due to start later in 2002 at Lockheed Martin Naval Electronics & Surveillance Systems (NE&SS)-Surface Systems' Moorestown, New Jersey, facility. Lockheed Martin NE&SS-Surface Systems was producing a single-face prototype to prove out technologies for the SPY-1E variant under the $420 million contract modification.
During May 2002 it was decided that the radar suite on CVN-77 would duplicate that on CVN-76, although originally it had been intended to deploy the SPY-1E or SPY-2 Volume Search Radar and Raytheon SPY-3 target detection radars, with the SPY-1F as a possible fallback for the SPY-1E/SPY-2. Aegis identifies and tracks anything that moves from the ocean surface to the stratosphere, including enemy ships, missiles and aircraft, as well as friendly ships, aircraft and missiles.
The only official DOD mention of the "SPY-1E" nomenclature is the FY2004 budget submit for the Solid State SPY Radar which mentions an "FY 2003 includes: Congressional plus-up for Solid State SPY-1E Multi-Mission Radar".
S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR)
The Navy is in the process of developing a family of new radars to pace the evolving threat, replace obsolete equipment and provide capabilities to meet new mission requirements. The S-band has long-range TBMD search, track, discrimination, ship self defense and anti-air warfare capabilities. The S-band solid state multi-function radar is a four-face phased array with over 25,000 S-band T/R modules which would replace the existing AN/SPY-1 radar on future ships.
The S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR) provides greatly improved detection at much greater ranges, a key requirement for sea-based missile defense. Instead of relying on one centralized transmit/receive module, as the SPY-1D(V) does, it will deploy many separate modules in each of the four antennas on a ship. That distributed design enables greater range and performance. The S-Band Advanced Radar has twice the range of the Navy's current frontline radar and it detects smaller threats that pop up quickly, the company said. Executives said the SBAR is far superior to SPY-1 in terms of detection and range. The two elements have been regarded as key requirements in ballistic missile defense. The system is also designed to operate close to shore, where it can see through the clutter of waves and sea mist, and distinguish between harmless fishing boats and high-speed missiles that skim along six inches above the water.
In 1994 and 1995 Lockheed Martin displayed a series of active array versions of the SPY-1 which it had developed using internal funds. The company proposed to use various size arrays on LHD [6 ft], FFG [7.5 ft], CVN [9 ft], DDG & CG [12 ft]. Reportedly, the total system weight is about the same as existing systems, though with more of the mass budget concentrated in the array itself. This leaves more space below deck, but contributes to top-weight problems.
On February 19, 2002 Lockheed Martin, Naval Electronic & Surveillance Systems, Moorestown, N.J., was awarded a cost-ceiling $420,000,000 cost-plus-award-fee contract to develop the S-Band Radar component of the Sea-based Midcourse Defense (SMD) Advanced Radar Suite. Work will be performed in Moorestown, N.J., and is expected to be completed by March 2007. Contract funds will not expire by the end of the current fiscal year. This contract was not competitively procured. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity (N00024-02-C-5321).
The FY2004 House defense appropriations bill included $35 million to develop S-Band Advanced Radar (S-BAR) technology that can be used to allow ships to track hostile missiles and aircraft. The solid-state radar could be used on Aegis-equipped ship or other modern vessels. Lockheed Martin was under contract to develop scalable, solid-state S-band multi-mission radar for advanced AAW and Sea-based Missile Defense applications. This higher frequency radar will improve the ability of the destroyer to track aircraft and missiles and to counterattack shore-based gun or missile batteries that attempt to strike the ship. Coupled with today's advanced SPY-1 Family of Radars, Lockheed Martin was focused on building a robust portfolio of naval phased array radar systems for the 21st century. Lockheed Martin's evolutionary development in advanced T/R modules, digital signal processing, algorithms, radar control, and COTS open architecture processing systems allows Lockheed Martin to bring the best capability to the fleet.
Lockheed had a single-face demonstrator running, and this technology in turn supported their win of the Volume Search Radar [VSR] contract. Lockheed had achieved good results in the development of the S-Band Advanced Radar, which provided the Navy the flexibility to consider alternatives for the DD(X) Volume Search Radar. Considering the maturity of the technology, the Navy in 2003 switched the Volume Search Radar from L-band to S-band, thus leveraging the previous investment and Lockheed's success.
Lockheed Martin engineers demonstrated a prototype in May 2003 for Navy officials. The US Navy (USN) announced on 30 July 2003 that is had decided to switch the basis for the volume search radar (VSR) on its DD(X) next-generation destroyer from L band to S band. The new VSR will be based on technology from Lockheed Martin's next-generation S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR) - also known as SPY-1E. The signal processing, however, will remain the same because it is also used for the DD(X) multifunction radar.
In November 2003 the company displayed the radar capabilities of the S-Band Advanced Radar [SBAR] for a delegation of U.S. Navy officials, legislators and international customers.
On April 14, 2004 Northrop Grumman Ship Systems, Pascagoula, Miss., was awarded a $77,959,027 cost-plus-award-fee modification to previously awarded contract (N00024-02-C-2302) to effect change from L-Band to S-Band Volume Search Radar, and establish a land-based testing facility in support of the DD(X) program. The change will allow greater flexibility in future ship defense against air threats and enable leveraging of S-Band Advanced Radar investments. Work will be performed in Tewksbury, Mass. (66 percent), Moorestown, N.J. (24 percent), Pascagoula, Miss. (10 percent), and was expected to be completed by June 2006. The Naval Sea Systems Command, Washington, D.C., is the contracting activity.
The switch to the higher frequency radar was aimed at improving the ability of the destroyer to track aircraft and missiles, as well as counter-attack shore-based gun or missile batteries that attempt to strike the ship. Reflecting increasing pressure to broad-band the DD(X) mission across multiple warfare areas, adoption of an S-Band radar meant the DD(X) would not be able to support ballistic missile defence (BMD) as the S-Band radar would not have the power output required to fulfil that mission. Still, the design concept was said to retain potential to be scaled up in size for possible use on the next-generation cruiser, CG(X), intended to have a significant BMD capability.
The 2005 Defense Appropriations Act, which passed the House on June 22, 2004, included $20 million to develop S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR) technology, (a radar that allows ships to track hostile aircraft and missiles - including ballistic missiles). The solid-state radar could be used on Aegis-equipped ship or other modern vessels. Most notably, (SBAR) will be a prime radar contender for the planned guided missile cruiser called CGX, which the Navy expects to begin building in 2011.
In FY 2006 Missile Defense Agency work included S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR) algorithm research and analysis in the areas of digital signal processing, radio frequency processing, systems engineering, and radar control processing. Lockheed received $15,000,000 for S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR) Algorithm Research and Analysis in Support of MDA-Specific Applications in 2005. This is a continuing earmark [Appropriations Report Language - Conference RPT 108-622, Line 67, Page 349].
The FY2007 budget request included $1.0 billion in PE 63892C for the sea-based Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense system. The House bill would authorize an increase of $40.0 million in PE 63892C. The Senate amendment would authorize an increase of $100.0 million in PE 63892C. The conferees agreed to authorize $1.1 billion in PE 63892C, an increase of $100.0 million. The increase was directed as follows: $10.0 million for continued S-band advanced radar algorithm work; $20.0 million for Aegis BMD signal processor, 2-color seeker development, and acceleration of the open architecture program; and $70.0 million to support the procurement of 24 additional SM-3 block 1B missiles over fiscal years 2008 to 2011.
Solid-State S-band Radar (S4R)
In 2002 the Appropriatinos conferees agreed to transfer $22,000,000 from the Missile Defense Agency's sea-based midcourse program to the Navy (PE 0604307N) only for the development of Solid State S-Band radar. In addition, the conferees agree that $10,000,000 in sea-based midcourse funds shall be made available for radar development, the exact technology to be decided by the agency after a careful consideration of relevant radar options.
The Solid-State S-band Radar (S4R) EDM is an active, electronically-steered, antenna-based radar system designed to be scalable to support multiple missions, including air surveillance, cruise missile defense, ballistic missile defense, counter target acquisition and littoral operations. The proven design is derived from the S-band antenna developed for the U.S. Navy's Volume Search Radar on the DDG-1000 next-generation destroyer. The S4R EDM was developed using Silicon Carbide (SiC) based high-power Transmit/Receive (T/R) modules. SiC provides greater power than other commonly used materials due to its increased heat tolerance. With more power, the radar has longer range and provides more precise target discrimination. Transmit/Receive modules are the most critical components of a solid state antenna. They serve as multiple function circuits that generate and transmit signal power over the full face of the radar, receive the reflected radar signal, amplify it for processing and electronically steer the radio frequency beams in space.
The S4RT Family of Radars is scalable to support various Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) and Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) missions for platforms ranging from corvettes, frigates, destroyers, cruisers, amphibs, to aircraft carriers. Solid-state antenna electronics bring new advantages to the surface combatant including improved reliability, graceful degradation, and enhanced sensitivity / operation in littoral clutter. These advantages enable the support of multiple simultaneous missions, including air surveillance, cruise missile defense, and BMD.
The S4RT design is derived from the S-band antenna developed for the U.S. Navy's next-generation destroyer and the Aegis Ballistic Missile Defense signal processor (MMSP). These open architecture designs, based on open standards and commercial components/parts, have been proven with the S4RT demonstrator during live operation target tracking with multiple antenna technologies including GaAs and SiC T/R modules.
Lockheed Martin announced on 9 January 2007 that it has tracked live targets for the first time using a new prototype of a ship-based S-Band radar. Export sales of the US Navy's (USN's) two Littoral Combat Ship (LCS) designs were the target launch market for the Scalable Solid-State S-band Radar (S4R), formerly known as S-Band Advanced Radar (SBAR).
In January 2008 Lockheed Martin successfully demonstrated digital beamforming (DBF) capability to locate and track live targets with its Scalable Solid-State S-band Radar (S4R) engineering development model. DBF is the most advanced approach to phased-array antenna pattern control. It provides significant performance advantages over conventional analog beamforming techniques, including improved operations in severe environmental clutter and, through the use of multiple simultaneous beams, increased search and track timeline efficiency.
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