DDG-51 Arleigh Burke - Flight IIA
The DDG-51 class has excellent littoral warfighting capability. But as the Navy embraces the new concepts of forward defense, the Marine Corps STOM/OMFTS concepts, and lighter, more mobile Army forces, it needs to evolve this capability to meet those concerns. The forward fit of the 5 inch 62 caliber gun aboard USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG81), which commissioned in 2001, marked the beginning of the evolution of the highly successful ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyer design to meet the rapidly expanding littoral warfighting mission. Other class changes critical to littoral warfighting effectiveness include the incorporation of embarked helicopters (SH-60R), an organic minehunting capability and the introduction of area theater ballistic missile defense capability to protect near coastal air-fields and seaports essential to the flow of forces into theater in time of conflict.
Class changes in production Flight IIA critical to littoral warfighting effectiveness include the incorporation of embarked helicopters (SH-60R), an organic minehunting capability and the introduction of area theater ballistic missile defense capability to protect near coastal air-fields and seaports essential to the flow of forces into theater in time of conflict. The addition of a helicopter hangar and the upgraded baseline 6.1 AEGIS Combat System are two of the most significant upgrades. The number of VLS cells is increased from 90 to 96, and the Phalanx close-in weapon system is replaced by vertical-launched the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Evolved Sea Sparrow missiles when they become available.
The ARLEIGH BURKE class Flight IIA (DDG 79+) feature a hull lengthened five feet over that of the DDG 51 class. The weight and metacentric height are reduced through using lighter superstructure scantlings. Lower hull plating thickness is increased over 3/4 the hull length amidships. Propellers have improved section to reduce onset of cavitation. The stern wedge (which improves fuel efficiency at cruising speeds) is extended out past the transom. Accommodations are increased for the air group, and have female berthing for four officers, six CPOs, and 18 other enlisted. There is no high-pressure air system; auxiliary power units are used to start the generators. The design uses a commercial slewing-arm davit for the 24 ft rigid inflatable boat (RIB). The computerized Operational Readiness Test System uses one UYK-44 computer with five OJ-454(V)/UYK display consoles in the weapon system equipment rooms. Other changes include the addition of five blast-hardened bulkheads to lessen vulnerability, adding a solid waste management system, and improving the air-conditioning system.
Combat systems include the Aegis Weapons System Mk 7 Mod 11. The aft pair of SPY-1D radar panels are raised seven feet to clear helicopter hangars. The torpedo reload magazine also accommodates Penguin and Hellfire air-to-ground missiles, Stinger infrared surface-to-air missiles, LAU 68 2.75-in rockets, and 25-mm gun and 40-mm grenade ammunition. It is able to carry up to 40 torpedoes for shipboard and helicopter use.
The at-sea reload systems for the VLS groups were eliminated to permit adding three VLS cells per group. The RIM-9P Evolved Sea Sparrow replaces the Phalanx installations when available; four missiles are carried in each of six Mk 41 VLS cells. Harpoon missiles were eliminated to reduce costs, but there is provision to reinstall them later between the stacks; without them, the ships will have no dedicated on-board antiship missile system.
These units incorporate CEC (Cooperative Engagement Capability) and will be able to counter theater ballistic missile attacks. Combat systems use UYQ-70 displays and a commercial fiber-optic distributed data interface network, and large-screen color displays in the CIC. The radar system incorporates a TIP (Track Initiation Processor). The Combat Direction Finding system is fitted.
The first 28 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers have a helicopter deck but no hanger or embarked helicopters. Ships in production Flight IIA, starting with USS OSCAR AUSTIN (DDG-79), also have landing and hangar facilities for operation of two multi-purpose Light Airborne Multipurpose System LAMPS MK III helicopters. This capability will be added for the remaining 29 ships of the class. The construction of the helicopter hangar is the most visible change for this new generation of AEGIS Destroyers. Located aft of the after Vertical Launching System (VLS), the hangar is large enough to accommodate 2 SH-60F helicopters, support equipment, repair shops and store rooms. The aft warping capstan and towing padeye are retractable to keep the helicopter deck clear.
As a result of the increased elevation of the after section of the ship, the aft facing AN/SPY-1D arrays were raised 8 feet to provide visibility over the hangar. The modifications require removal of Harpoon missile capability. Modifications were also made for additional crew required for a helicopter detachment to deploy with the ship.
The ship's Recovery, Assist, Securing, and Traversing (RAST) system is utilized to move the helicopter into and out of the port and starboard hangars. This enables the ships to operate SH-60-series helicopters in up to sea state five. Helicopter facilities including the following: dual hangars with bridge cranes and Navy standard helo hangar doors, Helo Control Station, RAST Control Station, Torpedo, Missile and Rocket Magazine with bridge crane and weapons hoist, Landing and Helo In-Flight Refueling (HIFR) facilities for LAMPS MK III SH-60B helicopters. VLA lighting, Stabilized Glide Slope Indicator (SGSI)/ Wave-Off Light System (WOLS) and Horizon-reference set are included. The deck aft is designed for Level I, Class 1, 2A, 4 (Type 2), and 6 Certification, and for RAST operations. Facilities on the bow are designed for Level III, Class A (Type 1) certification.
Starting with Winston Churchill (DDG 81), DDGs will have the 5"/62 cal. gun and dual SH-60R helicopter facilities. They also will have LASM, NFCS and Link 16. The forward fit of the 5 inch 62 caliber gun aboard DDG81, USS WINSTON S. CHURCHILL (DDG81), which commissions in 2001, marks the beginning of the evolution of the highly successful ARLEIGH BURKE class destroyer design to meet the rapidly expanding littoral warfighting mission.
Units beginning with DDG 83 have the "Smart Ship"' operational cost-savings features and procedures developed with the cruiser Yorktown (CG 48). The Navy intends to incorporate the ideas and technologies from Smart Ship into all 27 of its Ticonderoga class cruisers and 25 Arleigh Burke-class destroyers, starting with DDG 83. These ideas bring automation to maintenance, engineering, damage control, and bridge functions, saving the Navy money. Systems incorporated include: Integrated Condition Assessment System (ICAS) to monitor ship operations; Damage Control System (DCS), with computers, high-speed processors, and touch-screen displays to monitor ship integrity status; Integrated Bridge System (IBS), which automates bridge and navigational functions, reducing required personnel to as few as two; Standard Monitoring and Control System (SMCS), a computerized propulsion control system; and installation of a fiber-optic local-area network (LAN).
In early 1996 Bath Iron Works, the lead design yard for DDG-51 Flight IIa, awarded a contract to York International to manufacture 200-ton HFC-134a centrifugal compressor air-conditioning (AC) plants for DDG-83 and follow-on ships. This will be the first installation of the Navy's newly developed ozone-friendly AC plant. Each ship will receive four plants. This plant, in addition to using an ozone-friendly refrigerant, offers significant improvements over the CFC-114 AC plants currently used on DDG-51-class ships.
McCampbell (DDG 85) marks the introduction of Navy Area TBMD capability aboard DDGs.
DDG 88 is programmed to receive the first Engineering Development Model 4B variant SPY-1E radar, with signal-processing and transmitter changes to improve the radar's capability to detect low-observable targets under clutter conditions. A later development may be the addition of a capability to track and engage ballistic missiles.
DDG 96 and later ships are to receive the updated 5"/62 cal Mk 45 Mod 4 gun, with the capability to fire guided shells to 63 nm ranges. They will not have towed-array sonars but will receive the UYQ-65 display for the SQQ-89(V)10 sonar suite, which incorporates the Enhanced Modular Signal Processor (EMSP).
Evolution of the DDG 51 design is continuing, with Flight IIA destroyers being delivered in several baseline configurations to accommodate equipment and computer program changes. All Baseline 5 ships, DDG's 51-78, will eventually receive Baseline 5.3.8. A major effort to replace outdated military computing systems with modern commercial hardware and software began with AEGIS Baseline 6 Phase I (DDG 79-84). Baseline 6 Phase III (DDG 85-90) introduces Cooperative Engagement Capability and the Evolved Seasparrow Missile (ESSM). Baseline 7 Phase I (DDG 91-112) will complete the planned commercialization of the AEGIS Weapon System (AWS) computing plant.
The AWS, which includes the SPY-1D radar and SM-2 surface-to-air missiles, provides the ship's air defense capability. ESSM (and/or the Phalanx close-in weapon system when fitted), SM-2 missiles, countermeasures, and the 5-inch gun provide self-defense against aircraft and anti-ship missiles. The SPY-1D radar system is a multi-function, phased array, three-dimensional (range, altitude, and azimuth) radar that conducts search, automatic detection, and tracking of air and surface targets. AN/SPY-1D(V), a new variant under development for installation in Baseline 7 Phase I ships, is intended to improve performance against targets in clutter and provide an enhanced capability to counter deceptive electronic attack measures.
For undersea warfare (USW), DDG 51 uses the AN/SQQ-89 USW combat system, up to two embarked Light Airborne Multi-Purpose System (LAMPS) Mark III helicopters, torpedoes, and vertically launched USW standoff weapons. Surface warfare weapons include the 5-inch gun and LAMPS Mark III helicopters armed with Penguin or Hellfire missiles. Shore targets are engaged with Tomahawk missiles and the 5-inch gun. Links 4A, 11, and 16 provide connectivity to other Navy, Joint, and Coalition forces.
The AN/SQQ-89(V) series of USW combat systems links acoustic sensors and weapon control systems with advanced data processing and information displays. The AN/SQQ-89(V)6 is the baseline system for ships with a towed array and is installed in Flight I and Flight II ships and other combatants. It integrates the AN/SQS-53 series hull mounted sonar, the AN/SQR-19(V) towed array sonar, and the AN/SQQ-28(V) LAMPS Mark III shipboard electronics with the USW Control System Mark 116 series. In Flight IIA ships, the USW suite does not include the towed array sonar.
According to the DOT&E,the DDG 51 is operationally effective in an open ocean, blue-water environment - it's designed operating environment. However, it is currently less effective and at greater risk in littoral areas, where it may encounter asymmetric threats. Flight I and II ships are operationally suitable, but maintainability, compatibility, interoperability, and safety deficiencies degrade the operational suitability of Flight IIA variants.