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ALLIED PRESS INFORMATION CENTER (APIC): News media center set up during combined operations. APICs are staffed by public affairs personnel from the forces of the countries participating in the combined operations.

ARMED FORCES RADIO AND TELEVISION SERVICE (AFRTS): The organization through which DOD provides U.S. forces and their families overseas with radio and television news, entertainment and CI.

ARMY-FUNDED (AF) NEWSPAPER: A CI newspaper published with appropriated funds. Unit newspapers almost always are produced as AF newspapers.

AUDIENCE: "Audience" and "public" are used interchangeably. Both terms refer to the target group at which an item of communication is directed.

BROADCAST PUBLIC AFFAIRS DETACHMENT (BPAD): A mobile public affairs detachment capable of providing the radio programming of AFRTS to deployed troops.

CIVILIAN ENTERPRISE (CE) NEWSPAPERS: CI newspapers published under a contract with a civilian publisher. Under the contract the publisher sells advertisements and is granted limited exclusivity in distributing to post barracks and family housing areas. The newspapers are published at no cost to the Army. The Army retains editorial control over the newspapers' content. Most large installation newspapers are published under CE contracts.

CI NEWSPAPER: A newspaper published by the Army to provide information to internal audiences. CI newspapers may be either AF or CE (containing ads sold by a civilian printer).

COMMAND INFORMATION (CI): A function of command, CI provides news and information to internal audiences (soldiers, their families, DA civilians and other workers, cadets, and retirees). During war, CI must be the overriding mission of public affairs at all levels.

COMMUNITY RELATIONS (CR): Direct contact between the military and civilian communities. The goal is to gain public understanding for, and acceptance of, the military mission. In CONUS, the PAO is responsible for CR; in peacetime overseas, CR is a task shared with G5/J5. During combat operations, CR becomes a civil affairs responsibility.

DEADLINE: The time by which reporters must complete their stories to get them into the planned issue or broadcast.

DISCLOSURE: Literally, to open up or expose. In the context of media relations, it means the exchange of factual information regarding an operation or incident.

DOD NATIONAL MEDIA POOL: A group of civilian news media representatives, mobilized by OASD-PA to cover major deployments when it is unlikely that other media representatives will be on hand or when the need for OPSEC is paramount.

ESCORT: The individual -- usually a PAO or NCO -- who accompanies members of the press while they are in theater and accredited by the news media center, allied press information center or joint information bureau.

EXTERNAL PUBLIC: Audiences not generally associated with the military. In addition to the general public in the United States, this category of audience includes local populations overseas and, by extension, the enemy and his civilian population. The external public is usually reached through the civilian news media.

FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA): Federal law that makes the public release of most information about DOD activities mandatory. The Army's FOIA Program is explained in AR 340-17, Release of Information and Records from Army Files.

HOST-NATION SENSITIVITIES: Cultural, religious, and political customs and topics identified by the Embassy Country Team as potentially offensive to local populations and governments. U.S. military commands receive periodic listings of sensitivities; PAOs are required to observe these sensitivities in external as well as internal information products.

INTERNAL PUBLIC: Audiences with a direct relationship to the Army and the command. The major groups of internal audiences are soldiers, soldiers' family members, Department of the Army civilians and civilian contract U.S. employees, Military Academy and ROTC cadets, and military retirees.

JOINT INFORMATION BUREAU (JIB): A news media center set up and operated by public affairs personnel of more than one DOD component. JIB personnel may include personnel from other federal agencies.

MAXIMUM DISCLOSURE, MINIMUM DELAY: The DOD policy of informing the American public. The policy is intended to reduce the time "bad" news is in the limelight by satisfying the demand for information as quickly as facts are available.

MEDIA: The means by which news is transmitted to the public, including both military and civilian television, radio, newspapers and magazines. Also, the representatives of news organizations, both American and international, who gather, evaluate, package and distribute through print and electronic means, information for consumption by the public.

MEDIA REGISTRATION: The process of registering news media representatives, leading to official recognition and acceptance in the theater of operations. Accredited members of the media have access to units and soldiers, and to military support services as directed by Unified Commanders.

MOBILE PAD (MPAD): An 18-member public affairs detachment charged with augmenting press camp headquarters (PCHs), and corps and higher PAO operations.

NEWS MEDIA CENTER: Provides the means through which a commander can cope with media interest for the least outlay in terms of time and personnel. Centers register or accredit news media, brief reporters, and provide them with military escorts and limited work space. When operated by unified/specified commands, news media centers are called JIBs. At the combined commands, they are called APICs or Combined Information Bureaus.

NEWS RELEASE: News and features about the Army, released to the civilian and military media, so that the public can assess the Army's readiness and capabilities. News releases may be initiated by Army public affairs practitioners, or they may be generated by inquiries from the media. News releases may not violate security, accuracy, policy, and propriety (SAPP) rules, host-nation sensitivities, FOIA or Privacy Act.

NEWS RELEASE AUTHORITY: The person officially responsible to release news about the Army or its elements, usually limited to the commander and the PAO. Army regulations limit release of specific types of information to certain echelons.

NEXT-OF-KIN NOTIFICATION: The process of notifying the primary and secondary next of kin when a soldier is killed, wounded or missing. The Casualty Assistance Center confirms notification is complete before the soldier's name can be released to the media and public.

OASD-PA: The Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs.

OCPA: Office of the Chief of Public Affairs, U.S. Army.

OPINION LEADERS: Individuals in a civilian community whose attitudes influence those of the citizenry at large. Opinion leaders do not necessarily hold public office; teachers, clerics, and successful businessmen, for example, can also sway public opinion.

PAO: Public affairs office or officer.

PRESS CAMP HEADQUARTERS (PCH): A public affairs unit whose primary mission is to set up, operate and maintain news media centers at corps level and above.

PUBLIC AFFAIRS GUIDANCE (PAG): Specific guidance issued by OASD-PA or subordinate commands for major military exercises and contingencies. PAG supplements or clarifies published doctrine.

PUBLIC AFFAIRS TEAM (PAT): A public affairs unit whose mission is to provide command information support to divisions and separate brigades.

PUBLIC INFORMATION (PI): A function of command, PI is the means used by the commander to provide news and information to the various external publics through U.S. and other civilian news media.

QUERY: A formal request by a member of the public or a media representative for information.

SAPA: Office symbol for Secretary of the Army for Public Affairs, sometimes used interchangeably with OCPA.

SAPP: Security, accuracy, policy, and propriety are the principles applied by Army PAOs when they make internal and external releases. (By Army as well as by DOD regulations, public affairs products must not violate OPSEC nor offend the sensibilities of the intended audience. They must be accurate and truthful; they must be handled in accordance with policies (e.g., notification of next of kin).

UPAR: Unit Public Affairs Representative. An individual at battalion or brigade level with the additional duty as public affairs representative. Usually someone out of the S-1 shop.

Table of Contents
Appendix F - Initiatives that Worked in Theater
Appendix H - Chief of Staff of the Army Guidance

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