AIR DEFENSE ORDERS AND ANNEXES
To execute a plan, the platoon leader must be able to organize his thoughts and convey them in a concise and informative manner to his subordinates. To do this, the platoon leader must have a thorough understanding of the different types of orders and annexes he will receive and issue.
A warning order (WARNO) gives subordinate units advance notice of a contemplated action or order to follow. The purpose is to initiate the troop-leading procedures of subordinate units.
The amount of detail included in a warning order is dependent upon the time available, the means of communications available, and the information necessary for subordinate leaders. As more information becomes available, additional warning orders should be issued. Warning orders are normally oral orders but may be brief written messages.
The essential information required in a WARNO is as follows:
- "Warning order" stated so that addressees will recognize that orders follow.
- Address to whom the WARNO pertains.
- A brief description of the enemy and friendly situation.
- Time and nature of the operation. Mission or probable mission and time.
- Earliest time to move.
- Time and place for OPORD issuance.
- Special instructions including any details of early coordination, rehearsals, critical event time lines, special equipment requirements, attachments, et cetera.
- Acknowledgement that the WARNO has been received and understood. See the Sample WARNO illustration.
1st platoon moves night of 5-6 Aug to assembly area Pinto (VIC YR1016); prepare to advance early 7 Aug to provide AD for river crossing over Warta River. Road movement plan and OPORD to be issued at 051300Z August at grid YQ985105.
To carry out the plan, the platoon leader must be able to convey his thoughts in a concise and informative manner. The Army's operation order (OPORD) format standardizes the content and organization of information essential to clarity and execution of the order.
Leaders at all levels must practice preparing and presenting OPORDs. The time used will be time well-spent. Normally, at platoon level, the order will be oral or an annotated graphic overlay.
The five-paragraph OPORD tailored for an ADA platoon should contain the following information:
- Service Support.
- Command and Signal.
The Air Defense Operation Order Format table gives the format for an OPORD.
Information of the overall situation essential to a section leader's understanding of the current situation.
a. Enemy Forces (weather, terrain, identification, location, activity, strength, level of training, and suspected enemy tactics).
(1) Ground forces.
(2) Air forces.
- UAV RISTA type of operations.
- Weapons free zones for UAVs.
- Cruise missile flight profile.
Note: Air IPB should be briefed at this time to subordinates.
b. Friendly Forces and Commander's Intent (mission of next higher headquarters; locations and planned actions of units on left, right, front, and rear; fire support available; and the mission of any adjacent or supplementary air defense, if applicable).
(1) ADA forces.
(2) Supported forces.
c. Attachments and Detachments (units attached to or detached from your unit by higher headquarters and effective time).
d. Weather and Terrain.
(1) Beginning morning nautical twilight (BMNT).
(2) End (of) evening nautical twilight (EEnt).
(3) Moonrise and moonset times.
(4) Percent illumination.
(5) Weather forecast for next 24 hours or period of OPORD, including the low and chance of precipitation.
(6) Terrain information concerning vegetation, type of terrain features, trafficability of roads, cross-country movement, and local water features.
The mission includes who, what, when, why, and where. Include the command and support relationship and priority.
This paragraph contains the platoon leader's visualization of the execution of an operation from start to completion.
a. Platoon leader's intent for the operation. This should include the purpose, method, and the desired end state. The platoon leader may include the battery commander's intent and or the supported unit commander's intent.
b. Concept of operation for support of maneuver forces, stationary asset, convoy, et cetera. This should include the overall plan and missions of the platoon.
(1) Scheme of maneuver relevant to the supported force.
(2) Fire support target reference points, target list, and family of scatterable mines (FASCAM) locations.
(3) Coordinates of priority asset, if applicable.
c. Subunit Missions (using the platoon execution matrix, assign mission to each organic and attached section, or team to include the priority of protection for each unit).
d. Coordinating Instructions.
(1) Time of leader's reconnaissance, departure, and return.
(2) Weapon control status and air defense warnings
(3) Rallying points and actions at rally points.
(4) Actions at supported unit's objective or upon enemy contact to include disengagement criteria.
(5) Any information concerning two or more fire units not covered by SOP.
(6) Rehearsals, backbriefs, and inspections.
(7) Formations to be used by the platoon or supported unit.
(8) Crew endurance plan.
(9) Rules of engagement.
(10) Hostile criteria.
(11) Mission-oriented protection posture (MOPP).
(12) Actions on objectives.
(13) Passive and active AD (combined arms for air defense) instructions to pass on to the supported unit.
(14) Platoon timeline (SP, RP, stand-to, NLT defend time, et cetera).
4. SERVICE SUPPORT
This paragraph contains CSS instructions for support of the operation.
a. Rations, POL, and water.
b. Ammunition control, ASP location, and resupply plan.
c. Maintenance: motors, ADA systems, and communications (contact teams).
d. Uniform and equipment.
e. Method of handling sick, wounded, and EPWs (supported unit coordination).
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL
This paragraph contains instructions relative to command and to the operation of common communications equipment.
(1) Chain of command and locations.
(2) Locations of headquarters CPs and alternate CPs (battalion, battery, platoon, and supported unit headquarters).
(1) Supported unit frequency.
(2) Convoy frequency (if applicable).
(3) Challenge, password, signals, and codewords.
(4) Early warnings frequency; IFF code book number.
(5) Listening silence instructions.
(6) Artillery or FIST element frequency.
(7) Alternate frequencies.
(8) Antijamming procedures (if not addressed in SOP).
1. Prior to the briefing, orient personnel with maps (if time permits construct a sandtable). Provide personnel with strip maps and graphic overlays posted on maps.
2. Conduct a backbrief at the end of the OPORD to ensure personnel understand the order.
3. Establish rehearsal location and date-time group.
A fragmentary order (FRAGO) is an order which presents material extracted from a more detailed order or which changes a previous order. Like warning orders, FRAGOs are usually brief oral or written messages. A mission order is one form of fragmentary order which provides experienced leaders with the essentials of an order; that is, their mission or a change to a previously issued mission. FRAGOs may be oral, written, or graphic. In all instances, they are brief. See the FRAGO illustration.
Reference: OPORD 7
Map series V661, sheet 7061, edition 1, scale 1:50,000.
2d platoon GS to brigade eff 141400ZJan.
Tank battalion delaying advance of TF 1-6.
1st section LOC TS456835, PTL 6400 mils. 2d section LOC TS481814, PTL 1600 mils. 3d section LOC TS454783, PTL 3100 mils.
4. SERVICE SUPPORT
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL
Platoon CP currently at TS454814.
An annex is an integral part of an order which deals with one aspect of an operation. Its purpose is to keep the basic text of an order short. Annexes allow the distribution of certain information to key players in the task force. Annexes include--
- Details that amplify the basic order (operations overlay and intelligence instructions).
- Combat support instructions (ADA, fire support, and engineer).
- CSS instructions (service support overlay and traffic circulation and control instructions).
- Any other information or directions required to amplify the order.
Many times, the platoon leader supporting a specific unit will be required to write the AD annex to the supported unit's OPORD. Annexes can be attached to the order or distributed separately. Unless there is good reason to the contrary, each copy of an order is issued complete with all annexes. See the Sample ADA Annex Format illustration.
ANNEX_(AIR DEFENSE) TO OPERATION ORDER NO_
References: maps, charts, and other relevant documents. Time zone used throughout the order.
Items of information affecting air defense support not included in paragraph 1 of the operation order or which need to be expanded.
a. Enemy Forces.
(1) Reference to intelligence annex, if applicable.
(2) Enemy air capabilities.
b. Friendly Forces.
(1) Outline higher headquarters plan.
(2) Outline higher and adjacent unit AD plans.
(3) Note additional AD resources supporting the unit.
c. Attachments and Detachments. Air defense resources attached and detached to include effective times.
A clear, concise statement of the air defense mission.
a. Commander's Intent.
b. Concept of Operation. A brief statement of the air operation to be carried out, to include air defense priorities.
c. Tasks to subordinate ADA units.
d. Coordinating instructions.
(1) Instructions applicable for two or more subordinate units.
(2) Reference to supporting appendixes not referenced elsewhere in the annex.
(3) WCS, ROE, and ADW.
4. SERVICE SUPPORT
5. COMMAND AND SIGNAL
Last name of commander
This sample of an execution matrix is only a guide to aid the platoon leader in his planning process. An execution matrix may also be used as an ADA annex. This sample matrix simply takes the place of paragraph three in this text, except for coordinating instructions. There is no specified format for this matrix; however, the following steps may be used to construct one.
Step 2. List the stages or phases of the operation down the left side of the matrix. When planning, you may elect to leave blank rows for "Be Prepared" and "On Order" missions.
Step 3. Fill in the blocks with brief descriptions of the actions required for each stage or phase as they apply to the element on the top of the matrix. Use abbreviations where possible, and you may have to make a legend to assist in abbreviating. If a unit's task is the same from one stage or phase to the next, list it only the first time, do not recopy it. If additional instructions are required, such as PTL azimuth, sector of search degrees, directed movement techniques, position in a formation, or air avenue of approach orientations, draw a diagonal line through the box. List the actions required in the upper left-hand portion. List the additional instructions in the lower right-hand portion of the divided box. See the Execution Matrices illustration.
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