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Appendix F
Intelligence Analysis Tools and Indicators

F-1. Analytical tools assist in the processing of relevant information that the G-2/S-2 uses to develop products that can enhance the probability of successful operations. Tools assist in deriving a logical and correct solution to complex situations. Tools themselves are not products of intelligence and are not intended to be used to brief the commander.

F-2. There are four basic tools that may be used in analyzing relevant information in a counterinsurgency environment: time-event chart, association matrix, activities matrix, and link diagram. These tools assist in processing events, personnel, and relationships between individuals and activities. Used together these tools will transform diverse, seemingly unrelated, and incomplete data or information within a complex situation into understandable analytical products that answer leader essential elements of information and CCIR.


F-3. The time-event chart is a chronological record of individual or group activities. It is designed to store and display large amounts of information in as little space as possible. (See Figure F-1, page F-2.)

F-4. Analysts use triangles to show the beginning and end of the chart. Triangles are also used to show shifts in method of operation or change in ideology. Rectangles or diamonds are used to indicate significant events or activities.

F-5. Analysts highlight noteworthy or important events by drawing an X through the event symbol. Each symbol contains a chronological number and date (day, month, and year), and may contain a file reference number. The incident description is a very brief explanation of the incident. It may include size, type of incident or activity, place and method of operation, and duration of incident. Arrows indicate time flow.

Figure F-1. Time-Event Chart


F-6. The association matrix displays a relationship between individuals. It reflects associations within a group or similar activity, and is based on the assumption that people involved in a collective activity know one another. The format of an association matrix is a right triangle; each name requires a row and column. (See Figure F-2.)

F-7. The association matrix shows known and suspected associations. Analysts determine a known association by "direct contact" between individuals. Direct contact is defined as faceto-face meetings or confirmed telephonic conversation between known parties and all members of a particular organization (proponent FM TBD). This is depicted as a filled circle and placed in the square where the two names meet within the matrix. An unfilled circle indicates suspected or weak associations. When an individual dies, a diamond is added at the end of his or her name.

Figure F-2. Association Matrix


F-8. The activities matrix determines connectivity between individuals and anything other than persons (interest/entity). (See Figure F-3, page F-4.) Analysts develop a tab to the matrix listing the short titles of each interest/entity. Each short title explains its significance as an interest or entity.

F-9. The activities matrix reveals an organization's membership, organizational structure, cell structure and size, communications network, support structure, linkages with other organizations and entities, group activities and operations, and, national or international ties. The activities matrix format uses a rectangle base. Rows are determined by the names from the association matrix, and columns are determined by the interest or entity short titles.

F-10. The activities matrix shows known and suspected connections. Analysts develop the criteria for known connectivity. Criteria may be determined and defined by CCIR, commander's intent or directive, insurgent doctrine, or the staff judge advocate. Known connectivity is depicted as a filled circle and placed in the square where the individual and interest or entity meet within the matrix. An unfilled circle indicates suspected or weak associations.

Figure F-3. Activities Matrix


F-11. The link diagram depicts the linkages between interests or entities, individuals, events, organizations, or other interests or entities. (See Figure F-4.) Analysts use the link diagram to support investigative efforts in terrorism, counterintelligence, and criminal activity, and to graphically portray pertinent information from the association matrix and activities matrix, independently or synthesized. The link diagram format is the organization of symbols (circles, rectangles, and lines) and follows rules in FM 34-60.

F-12. The link diagram displays known and suspected linkages. A solid figure represents known linkages. Suspected or weak linkages are dashed figures. Each individual and interest or entity is shown only once in a link diagram.

F-13. Circles represent individuals. The name is written inside the circle. "Also known as" (AKA) is depicted as an overlapping circle. A diamond is placed next to the circle for a deceased person.

F-14. Rectangles represent anything other than persons and may overlap to show a circle included in multiple interests or entities. The short title is written inside the rectangle. Lines are not required for circles of common association inside the same rectangle; connection is implied.

F-15. Lines represent linkages, associations, and connectivity. Lines do not cross.

Figure F-4. Link Diagram

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