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Glossary

AA assembly area
AAR after-action review
AAS Army aviation site
ACE armored combat earthmover, M9
AFJPAM Air Force joint pamphlet
AFV armored fighting vehicle
alt alternate
AM amplitude modulation
AMA aviation maintenance area
AMC Army Materiel Command
ammo ammunition
AO area of operation
assy assembly
atk attack
ATTN attention
AVLB armored vehicle-launched bridge
background The features in a target area that surround the target.
BDU battle-dress uniform
blending A CCD technique that causes a target to appear as part of the background. Many target characteristics must be considered when attempting a blending treatment, including target size and shape, regular patterns in the target scene, and rough or smooth target contours.
btry battery
C2 command and control
C2W command and control warfare. The integrated use of PSYOP, military deception, OPSEC, EW, and physical destruction supported by intelligence to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary C2capabilities while protecting friendly C2capabilities against such actions.
C3 command, control, and communications
C3CM command, control, and communications countermeasure. The integrated use of OPSEC, military deception, jamming, and physical destruction supported by intelligence to deny information to, influence, degrade, or destroy adversary C3capabilities while protecting friendly C3capabilities against such actions.
camo camouflage. The use of natural or artificial materials on personnel, objects, and tactical positions to confuse, mislead, or evade the enemy.
camouflage net Part of a system designed to blend a target with its surroundings and conceal the identity of critical assets (aircraft, fixed targets, vehicles, personnel) where natural cover and/or concealment might be absent or inadequate.
camouflage net set Standard DOD set consisting of a hexagon-shaped net (673.6 sq ft), a diamond-shaped net (224.5 sq ft), and a net repair kit.
camouflage net spreader A plastic or aluminum disc or paddle that is supported by a lightweight pole and used to support camouflage nets above the ground, buildings, or vehicles.
cap capacity
CB counterbattery
CCD camouflage, concealment, and decoys. Methods and resources to prevent adversary observation or surveillance; confuse, mislead, or evade the adversary; or induce the adversary to act in a manner prejudicial to his interests.
CCD treatment A combination of CCD equipment and techniques applied to a selected target and/or its background to reduce or delay target acquisition.
chaff Material consisting of thin, narrow, metallic strips of various lengths and frequency responses used as artificial clouds to scatter radar signals.
clutter EM radiation from sources around the target that tend to hinder target detection.
CM countermortar
countermeasure Any technique intended to confuse or mislead hostile sensors.
COMSEC communications security
concealment The protection from observation or surveillance.
conspicuity A term peculiar to the CCD community that denotes the perceived difference of one feature in a scene as compared to other features in the scene.
corner reflector An object that reflects multiple signals from smooth surfaces mounted mutually perpendicular and produces a radar return of greater magnitude than expected from the size of the object the reflector conceals.
counterreconnaissance All measures taken to prevent hostile observation of a force, an area, or a place.
countersurveillance All measures, active or passive, taken to counteract hostile surveillance.
cover Any natural or artificial protection from enemy observation and fire.
covered approach Any route that offers protection against enemy observation or fire.
CP command post
CSS combat service support
cu cubic
DA Department of the Army
DC District of Columbia
deceive Any action that causes the enemy to believe the false or purposely causes the enemy to make incorrect conclusions based on false evidence.
deception Those measures designed to mislead the enemy by manipulation, distortion, or falsification of evidence, inducing him to react in a manner prejudicial to his interests.
decoy An imitation in any sense of a person, an object, or a phenomenon that is intended to deceive enemy surveillance devices or mislead enemy evaluation.
detection The discovery of an existence or presence.
disguise Any alteration of identity cues for items, signals, or systems sufficient to cause misidentification by the enemy.
dispersal Relocation of forces for the purpose of increasing survivability.
disrupt Any action intended to interrupt the shape or outline of an object or an individual, making it less recognizable.
div division
DLSC Defense Logistics Service Center
DOD Department of Defense
DSN Defense Switched Network
ea each
ECCM electronic counter-countermeasure. Any action involving effective use of the EM spectrum by friendly forces, despite the enemy's use of EW.
ECM electronic countermeasure. Any action involving prevention or reduction of an enemy's effective use of the EM spectrum. ECMs include electronic jamming and electronic deception.
electronics security The protection resulting from all measures designed to deny unauthorized persons information of value that, when analyzed, might alert the enemy to the intentions of friendly forces (for example, a signal security provided by encryption equipment).
EM electromagnetic
EM spectrum electromagnetic spectrum. The range of frequencies from zero to infinity where energy is transferred by electric and magnetic waves. EM waves at the lower end of this spectrum (low-frequency navigation aids and AM and shortwave radio services) are refracted back to earth by the ionosphere to frequencies as high as 50 MHz. At frequencies above 50 MHz, propagation is generally limited to LOS. These frequencies are used by TV, FM radio, and land-mobile and point-to-point communication services. They extend on to parts of the EM spectrum generally termed as radar, IR, visible light, UV light, and cosmic rays.
EW electronic warfare. Any military action involving the use of EM energy to determine, exploit, reduce, or prevent hostile use of the EM spectrum; action which retains friendly use of the EM spectrum.
FAAS-V field artillery ammunition support vehicle
FARP forward arming and refueling point
FEBA forward edge of the battle area
fed federal
FLIRS Forward-Looking Infrared System. An imaging IR sensor used to acquire a target's heat signature.
FLOT forward line of own troops
FM field manual
FM frequency modulation
FOB forward operating base
FOD foreign object damage
fog oil Petroleum compounds of selected molecular weight and composition to facilitate the formation of smoke by atomization, vaporization, and subsequent recondensation.
FOS false operating surface. A simulated horizontal construction placed to represent operating surfaces such as runways, taxiways, parking pads, and access roads.
freq frequency
ft foot, feet
gal gallon(s)
gen generator
GHz gigahertz
GI government issue
GSR ground-surveillance radar
hardening The construction of a facility to provide protection against the effects of conventional or nuclear explosions. The facility may also be equipped to provide protection against chemical or biological attacks. Construction usually involves reinforced concrete placement and/or burying the structure.
HC hydrogen chloride
HEMTT heavy expanded mobility tactical truck
hiding The choice of a position or materials to obstruct direct observation.
HMMWV high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle
how howitzer
HQ headquarters
HTF how to fight
HUD heads-up display
HVT high-value target
hyperspectral Refers to a sensor or data with many bands extending over a range of the EM spectrum.
imaging radar An electronic or optical process for recording or displaying a scene generated by a radar sensor.
in inch(es)
indiv individual
intervisibility The condition of the atmosphere that allows soldiers the ability to see from one point to another. This condition may be altered or interrupted by weather, smoke, dust, or debris.
IPB intelligence preparation of the battlefield. A systematic approach to analyzing the enemy, weather, and terrain in a specific geographic area. It integrates enemy doctrine with the weather and terrain conditions as they relate to the mission and the specific battlefield environment. IPB provides the framework for determining and evaluating enemy capabilities, vulnerabilities, and probable courses of action.
IR infrared
IR smoke screen It produces obscuration in one or more of the transparent IR spectral bands between 0.7 and 14 microns. In most cases, an effective IR smoke screen is also an effective visual smoke screen. However, effective visual smoke screens are not necessarily effective IR smoke screens.
JCCD Joint Camouflage, Concealment, and Deception
JSTARS Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System
JT&E Joint Test and Evaluation
lb pound(s)
LCSS Lightweight Camouflage Screen System
LLTV low-light television
LOC lines of communication
LOS line of sight
low emissivity paint Paint used to lower the apparent temperature of a target (or nearby scene features), thus making the hot target less conspicuous to a thermal target-acquisition sensor. Using a paint that has too low an emissivity (less than 0.6) causes the target to become more visually conspicuous (or shiny).
maskirovka The battlefield doctrine of the former Soviet Union.
MCRP Marine Corps reference publication
MCWP Marine Corps warfighting publication
mech mechanized
METT-TC mission, enemy, terrain, weather, troops, time available, and civilian considerations
MHz megahertz
mil military
min minute(s)
MLRS Multiple Launch Rocket System
mm millimeter(s)
MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain
movement techniques The methods used by a unit to travel from one point to another (traveling, traveling overwatch, and bounding overwatch) are considered movement techniques. The likelihood of enemy contact determines which technique is used.
MTI moving-target indicator
multispectral Refers to a sensor or data in two or more regions of the EM spectrum.
NA not applicable
NBC nuclear, biological, chemical
NCO noncommissioned officer
NIR near infrared
No. number
NSN national stock number. A 13-digit number assigned to each item of supply purchased, stocked, or distributed within the federal government.
NVD night-vision device
NWP Navy warfighting publication
obsc obscurant. Suspended particulates or entrained liquid droplets that can absorb and/or scatter EM radiation in various parts of the EM spectrum (visual, IR, radar).
obscuration The effects of weather, battlefield dust, and debris; the use of smoke munitions to hamper observation and target acquisition; and the concealment of activities or movement.
OPFOR opposing forces
OPORD operation order
OPSEC operations security. The process of denying adversaries information about friendly capabilities and intentions by identifying, controlling, and protecting signatures associated with planning for and conducting military operations and other activities. It includes countersurveillance and physical, signal, and information security.
oz ounce(s)
POL petroleum, oils, and lubricants
PSYOP psychological operations
pub publication
radar A device that uses EM waves to provide information on the range, the azimuth, or the elevation of objects.
radar camouflage Any radar-absorbing or -reflecting material that changes the radar-echoing properties of an object's surface.
radar clutter Unwanted signals, echoes, or images displayed by a radar unit that interfere with the observation of desired signals.
radar imagery The picture produced on a radar screen by recording the EM waves reflected from a given target surface.
radio detection The detection of a radio's presence by intercepting its signals without precise determination of its position.
radio direction-finding The act of determining the azimuth to a radio transmitter, from a specific location, using signal-detecting equipment.
radio fix The location of a radio transmitter determined by simultaneously using two direction-finding devices stationed at different locations and plotting the results on a map. The intersection of the two azimuths indicates the transmitter's location.
radio range-finding The act of determining the distance to a radio transmitter. This technique involves using electronic equipment to intercept and measure a transmitter's emissions and then translating this information into a distance.
RAM radar-absorbing material. Material that absorbs and dissipates incident radar energy as contrasted to radar-scattering material, which reflects the incident energy in a different direction.
RAP radar-absorbing paint. A coating that can absorb incident radar energy.
RATELO radiotelephone operator
rckt rocket
RCS radar cross section. The size of a conducting square, metal plate that would return the same signal to a radar sensor as a target, provided that the radar energy received at the target is reradiated equally in all directions.
recon reconnaissance. An exploratory survey of a particular area or airspace by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, IR, or other means. It may imply a physical visit to the area.
redundancy The use of multiple systems with similar perceived functional capabilities to provide higher system survivability.
relocatable asset A military asset that normally stays in place for a short period of time relative to a fixed asset.
reverse-slope position A position on the ground that is not exposed to direct fire or observation; for example, a slope that descends away from the enemy.
revetment A barrier used to protect assets against attack.
ROM refuel on the move
RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition
RT rough terrain
S&S supply and service
SAM surface-to-air missile
SCSPP standard camouflage screening paint pattern
Scud A surface-to-surface missile.
signature Detectable indications that forces are occupying or operating in an area. Signatures can be EM (visible, IR, NIR, radar) or mechanical (acoustic, seismic). Common detectable EM signatures include visible vehicle tracks, thermal flames, and radar signal returns. Common mechanical signatures include radio noise, humans conversing, and seismic ground waves produced by tanks and heavy vehicles.
SLAR side-looking airborne radar
smk smoke. An artificially produced aerosol of solid, liquid, or vapor deposited in the atmosphere that inhibits the passage of visible light or other forms of EM radiation.
smky smoky
smoke generator A machine that produces large volumes of smoke to support hasty or deliberate operations for screening, protecting, and/or sustaining airfields, ports, staging areas, and bridge crossings. Present smoke generators vaporize liquid aerosol materials such as fog oil, diesel fuel, and polyethylene glycol. These generators consist of a heat source to vaporize the liquid aerosol material and an apparatus for the production of airflow to efficiently disseminate the smoke vapor into the atmosphere where it disperses and condenses.
smoke pot An expendable bucket- or pot-like munition that produces dense smoke by burning combustible material.
smoke screen Smoke generated to deceive or confuse an enemy as to the activities of tactical elements.
SOP standing operating procedure
SP self-propelled
sq square
STANAG standardization agreement
std standard
surveillance A systematic observation of airspace or surface areas by visual, aural, electronic, photographic, IR, or other means.
survivability operations Activities involving the development and construction of fighting and protective positions (earth berms, defilade positions, overhead protection, camouflage) that reduce the effectiveness of enemy detection systems.
TAA tactical assembly area
TACSOP tactical standing operating procedure
target acquisition The process involving the detection and identification of hostile operations and equipment for subsequent engagement.
target scene The view of a target area that includes both the target and its surroundings.
temp temporary
terrain analysis The process of examining a geographic area to determine what effects its natural and man-made features may have on military operations.
terrain mottling A camouflage technique normally used in desert terrain. It involves scarring the earth with heavy equipment to expose patches of bare ground. Equipment and supplies are placed on the bare patches to avoid detection by aerial reconnaissance.
thermal contrast The difference in radiance (as usually measured in the 8-to-14 micron band) between two features of a scene; for example, a target and its background.
thermal crossover A temporary situation, in the morning or evening, when the target and background temperatures become equal.
thermal emissivity The ratio of the emissive power of a surface to that of a black body. The emissivity is 1 for a black body and 0.9 for most natural and man-made materials. The apparent temperature of a target can be reduced by reducing its real temperature and/or lowering its emissivity. Unfortunately, as the thermal emissivity is lowered, its reflectivity in the visual portion of the spectrum increases, thus making the target more conspicuous to a visual sensor. A typical compromise is 0.7, which lowers the apparent target temperature but does not make it too shiny in the visible spectrum.
TM technical manual
TMD tactical missile defense
tone down The process of blending a target or other high-value asset with the background by reducing its brightness characteristics using nets or coatings. The recommended reflectance of a target as compared with the surrounding scene is 10 percent or less.
TOW tube-launched, optically tracked, wire-guided
TRADOC United States Army Training and Doctrine Command
TV television
UAV unmanned aerial vehicle
US United States
USAES United States Army Engineer School
UV ultraviolet
V volt
VHF very high frequency
w/ with
w/o without
WSA weapons storage area
m micron(s)



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