Movement to the Port of Embarkation
This chapter discusses redeployment functions performed in assembly areas and en route to the POE. The responsibilities of each organization involved in redeployment begin in the AA and RAA (refer to Figure 2-2 for a notional AA and to Figure 2-3 for a notional RAA). Subsequent chapters describe organizational responsibilities as forces move through and complete the redeployment process. Key organizations for redeployment operations are the ASCC/ARFOR, TSC/ASG or other support organizations, and the redeploying unit.
During movement to the POE, the ASCC/ARFOR commander and staff provide the interface between the JFC and the redeploying Army units. They ensure JFC priorities for movement are met and that the information required by the JFC to execute redeployment is accurate and up to date. When headquarters below division level perform ARFOR functions, personnel and equipment augmentation may be required to ensure needed capabilities are available. Fulfillment of these responsibilities in the AA/RAA is essential to a smooth redeployment process.
RECEIVE AND ISSUE CHANGE OF MISSION
The JFC issues a redeployment operations order (OPORD) or a mission change fragmentary order (FRAGO) to the ASCC/ARFOR commander. Such an order removes redeploying units subordinate to the ARFOR from their primary missions and authorizes movement. The ASCC/ARFOR headquarters relays the order to appropriate units, adding information about follow-on operations, security requirements, and movement limitations imposed by infrastructure and resources, when needed. It normally provides detailed briefings to units on redeployment processing, requirements, and procedures. This information is communicated by briefing teams, teleconferencing, or other suitable means.
In coordination with the JFC staff, the ASCC/ARFOR headquarters identifies the AA/RAA location and unit assembly area within it. Army forces establish necessary communications and a rear operations center or similar organization to support unit movements to the AA/RAA, coordinate en route support, and enforce security requirements. As directed by the ASCC/ARFOR commander, the TSC provides life support, particularly at the RAA.
ESTABLISH TURN-IN AREAS/WASH-DOWN SITES
The logistics support organization sets up equipment turn-in areas and wash-down sites within the AA, when such early turn-in may be more efficient than when conducted later in the redeployment process. However, the AA typically lacks sufficient facilities for wash-down operations, and these generally occur later in the process, as described in Chapter 4.
Timelines may be published for each area involved in the redeployment, for example, the AA, RAA, marshaling area, and staging area. In other cases, a single timeline may be published that identifies unit actions through all phases of the redeployment. ARFOR/subordinate commands develop timelines for completing the following actions where applicable--
Moving from AAs/RAA to POE(s).
Turning in equipment.
Conducting wash-down operations.
Determining container/flatracks/463L pallet/blocking, bracing, packing, crating, and tie-down (BBPCT) requirements and issue procedures.
Updating and creating the deployment equipment list (DEL).
Establishing life support measures.
VERIFY UNIT MOVEMENT DATA
Forces conduct redeployment on the basis of the time-phased force and deployment data (TPFDD) process. The TPFDD is the instrument that sequences the redeployment activities of the joint forces according to the JFC's defined end state and concept of operation. The TPFDD process is detailed in JP 5-series and CJCSM 3122-series manuals. FM 100-17-4 also discusses the process. Redeployment TPFDDs are normally developed with the redeployment OPLAN during the original force employment planning. They are updated and refined during redeployment preparation to reflect the status of units as they prepare for redeployment.
The ASCC/ARFOR commander issues guidance to ARFOR based on the orders and guidance received from the JFC. He is responsible for verifying unit readiness, movement availability data, passengers, and cargo details. He provides confirmed data to the JFC for the validation process through the designated Service feeder system into JOPES.
Commanders must be aware that changes made at or after the time of unit line number (ULN) validation cause major disruptions in the planning of sequenced movements and strategic lift. Therefore, they should take all prudent measures to avoid changes after the TPFDD is locked in at the time of ULN validation.
MANAGE CONTAINER, FLATRACK, AND PALLET REQUIREMENTS
The ARFOR or subordinate command processes unit requests and prioritizes requirements based on availability of these resources and the sequence of unit flow. It is also responsible for issuing and tracking these resources unless the TSC performs this function. USTRANSCOM, through its Army component MTMC, manages and employs the DoD common-user container fleet during exercises and across the range of military operations. Geographic combatant commanders are responsible for the management and control of DoD intermodal container assets and systems in their area of responsibility.
RECEIVE AND ISSUE UNIT RELEASE/MOVEMENT ORDER TO POE
A movement order may be issued sequentially for each movement or may be contained in one movement order designating the timing and means of transport to each point en route to the POE. In most cases, the TSC in coordination with the ARFOR or subordinate command issues movement tables, which give detailed instructions or data for moves to redeploying units. When necessary, moves are described as "road, rail, air, or barge" to signify the types of movement. A movement table is normally issued as an annex to a movement order or instruction.
THEATER SUPPORT COMMAND
The TSC is the Army's operational-level support command, and normally provides support beyond the capability of the tactical component of the ARFOR. The TSC or other support organization receives the OPORD and forwards a copy to subordinate units. The TSC conducts a review of specified tasks published in the OPORD to determine requirements and available unit capabilities. Using data gathered from all available sources, the TSC then provides an initial outline of required tasks. It determines the specific shortfalls that must be filled to accomplish the mission. The TSC commander normally directs an ASG and/or LSE to provide much of the support discussed below for redeploying units.
ESTABLISH PROCEDURES TO PROCESS APS AND EXCESS MATERIEL
Procedures for return of APS to appropriate storage locations and transfer of property and accountability are tailored, coordinated, and established early in the redeployment planning process. AWRSPTCMD and USAMMA, as the storage site managers must be involved in this process. Established US Army policy and procedures require the unit to which the APS was issued to return APS in serviceable condition to the storage facilities from which it was issued. The AMC LSE is the in-theater key organization responsible for facilitating the turn-in process of APS managed by AMC. Turn-in procedures for support operations or stability operations may require units to retain APS with unit equipment throughout the redeployment process. In larger scale operations, units may be required to turn in the APS equipment to the in-theater LSE/USAMMA element during redeployment operations at the designated assembly area. Similarly, other non-APS excess equipment turn-in procedures may require units to turn in APS at the theater collection point. The ASCC or the TSC may request the LSE or an ASG to execute this turn-in mission. FMs 100-17-1 and 100-17-2 have additional guidance for turn-in of APS.
ACCOMPLISH MATERIEL MANAGEMENT AND DISPOSITION
The TSC through its MMC and in coordination with the Defense Logistics Agency (DLA) determines the disposition of excess materiel and publishes instructions. If an LSE is involved in redeployment operations, it also has important responsibilities in this area as identified in FM 63-11.
The MMC issues instructions based on the reconstitution plan, theater stockage objectives, and the overall maintenance program. The TSC materiel manager directs units to turn in materiel to ASG units or the LSE. The supply unit receives, inspects, classifies, and stores turned-in materiel. The AMC AWRSPTCMD also has key responsibilities for retrograde of APS stocks in the theater (see FMs 100-17-1 and 100-17-2). The TSC provides materiel management support in the assembly areas for the following:
Battle damage assessment (BDA) and emergency repair procedures.
Item classification to include Class V.
Early recovery of APS.
Formation of maintenance contact teams.
Coordination of contracted support services.
Support from the TMDE team.
Repair of materiel as needed. The maintenance units, the LSE, or contractors may repair items in theater or send items to repair facilities outside the theater. The TSC MMC identifies the items requiring redistribution instructions. Retrograde of materiel to CONUS or to other storage locations occurs continuously, but more extensively when redeploying forces. For Class I, II, III, IV, V, VI, VII, and IX items, the TSC--
Receives, identifies, and determines disposition.
Stores or prepares for shipment to the port or a theater storage location.
Arranges for movement.
PLAN FOR OPERATION OF CONVOY SUPPORT CENTERS
The TSC is responsible for establishing and operating any required convoy support centers, to include aircraft support locations for units self-deploying by air. These centers are en route support locations for moving units. Depending on the distances to be traveled, the TSC establishes one of the following levels of support at these locations.
Level I - minimal support (beverages, covered rest area, latrine, fuel, and limited maintenance).
Level II - rest/refueling support (warm/cold meal, beverages, fuel, maintenance, covered rest area, and latrine).
Level III - overnight support (all the functions of Level II, plus sleeping area and shower). Figure 3-1 depicts a notional center capable of providing Level III support.
PLAN FOR OPENING POE MARSHALING AREA
The TSC establishes and operates the POE marshaling area and assists with opening the port staging area for POE operations. The marshaling area should be separate from the staging area. Operations conducted within the marshaling area are primarily accomplished by the unit, with the ASG usually acting as a facilitator. It may be helpful to establish and operate a redeployment coordination center that provides oversight and supervision over the marshaling area and staging area. This center coordinates activities between these two locations and resolves movement conflicts.
PLAN FOR COORDINATING MOVEMENT TO POE MARSHALING AREA
Movements into the POE marshaling area must be carefully managed to avoid congestion and exceeding the capacity of the facility. Early planning in the AA/RAA ensures that units arrive at the POE on time and fill scheduled modes of transportation. The MCA controls movement into the port area.
Figure 3-1. Notional Convoy Support Center
Upon receiving a warning order, the unit starts the redeployment process. Units evaluate the assigned mission, current unit status, and requirements to accomplish the redeployment mission. If the unit is redeploying to another theater, it must also plan for employment in the new theater (see Chapter 2).
MOVE TO AA
The unit normally conducts a tactical movement to the AA and continues to receive CSS through normal support channels.
Unit reconstitution for redeployment involves those actions required to assemble and organize the unit, and to cross-level personnel, supplies, and equipment as necessary. Units are consolidated under their unit identification codes (UICs). They also inventory and verify equipment documents.
PROCESS PERSONNEL AND EQUIPMENT FOR REDEPLOYMENT
This process includes all actions that can be completed at the AA assuming availability of support assets and supplies. The items listed below are key elements that the unit should complete as early as possible in the redeployment process:
Identify to supporting personnel managers those soldiers and civilians who will deploy as individuals. (Units must complete evaluation reports for eligible soldiers who will redeploy individually before the soldiers leave the theater.)
Input status changes and other actions to pay and personnel systems.
Process awards and decorations.
Conduct medical screening (including shots, physicals, and dental checks).
Provide stress control/family support reorientation briefings.
Perform equipment checks and services in accordance with technical manuals.
Conduct an equipment inventory (Class VII, organizational clothing and individual equipment (OCIE), and basic issue items (BII)).
Refine the DEL. Any changes to the unit's equipment and container status must be reflected on the DEL.
Verify ULN data with the supported JFC. Units ensure that assigned ULNs accurately reflect the unit's strength and equipment make-up.
Draw equipment and supplies as required. Units draw equipment and supplies required to conduct follow-on missions, usually when redeploying to another theater.
Requisition required parts.
Schedule/defer required maintenance.
CONDUCT SECURITY OPERATIONS
Security operations at the AA are conducted in accordance with ARFOR and subordinate command guidance by the units, using organic equipment and personnel.
PACK AND LOAD CONTAINERS
Facilities and procedures for customs and agricultural supervision are established based the planned destination and types of equipment being redeployed. If units are to load equipment/containers within the AA, they must fully comply with agricultural and customs inspection requirements. Refer to Appendix C for further information on customs and agriculture inspections.
INITIATE DOCUMENTATION FOR MOVEMENT
Units may generate military shipment labels (MSLs) while still in the AA. Any equipment moving from the AA to the POE or POD primarily by rail must have MSLs applied prior to loading. The unit completes all documentation before loading. Documentation includes hazardous shipping declarations, papers, labels, placards, secondary cargo load plans/cards, packing lists, and MSLs. The unit completes the input to the DEL of actual weights, dimensions, and final destination before producing MSLs and applying them to equipment and containers. Units must ensure that actions to maintain total asset visibility (TAV), including in-transit visibility (ITV), during the redeployment process are complete. These actions should include preparation of radio frequency (RF) tags for containerized ammunition and other critical items as appropriate.
The ASCC/ARFOR commander provides planning guidance to the units. The unit commander uses the timeline to manage personnel, priorities, and efforts. He normally uses synchronization timelines that outline the flow of the unit through the redeployment process.
IDENTIFY BBPCT, CONTAINER, FLATRACK, AND 463L PALLET REQUIREMENTS
Units integrate redeployment guidance, such as mode of movement and equipment and supply turn-in directives, with unit status. This information is used to develop BBPCT, container, flatrack, and 463L pallet requirements. Units forward requirements to their higher headquarters or TSC.
VERIFY UNITS FOR REDEPLOYMENT AND CONDUCT TRAINING
Unit commanders complete verification statements and checklists indicating the status of the units. These are compared to the redeployment criteria published by the JFC and ASCC/ARFOR commander. Units meet all requirements outlined for redeployment prior to submitting the unit verification to higher headquarters. For follow-on missions to another theater, units may have to conduct specified training to meet JFC requirements.
CONDUCT WASH-DOWN AND CUSTOMS INSPECTION
The unit may perform the initial wash-down of equipment at the RAA. However, final wash-down and inspections occur at the POE.
PREPARE TO CONDUCT RAIL OPERATIONS
Rail operations depend upon theater capability and availability. Units configure all equipment moving to a SPOE for sea lift prior to rail loading. Rail moves from the AA may terminate at the marshaling area. Port calls may be published as early as arrival at the AA for rail movement depending upon theater rail system capability and availability. Rail transportation from the AA normally serves as in-theater transport and moves assets directly to the POE.
PREPARE TO PROVIDE LOAD TEAMS AND DRIVERS TO POE
Selected individuals may move from the AA to the POE to facilitate train download, SPOE staging, and vessel upload. The TSC or other support organization should identify these requirements prior to rail movement from the AA.
IDENTIFY EXCESS MATERIEL AND FOLLOW DISPOSITION INSTRUCTIONS
The unit processes all excess equipment and supplies as required by ARFOR/TSC guidance. The goal is to reduce unit movement requirements to the POE. For example, supplies required for tactical operations can be downloaded and turned in at the AA to reduce the unit movement requirements to other assembly areas or the POE.
RECEIVE EQUIPMENT AND SUPPLIES
When redeploying to another theater, units draw and receive the equipment and supplies required to conduct follow-on missions.
PREPARE FOR MOVEMENT TO POE
The unit normally moves from an assembly area to its POE marshaling area. This movement may require stops en route at TSBs or en route support locations. Units--
Load equipment, containers, flatracks, and 463L pallets. Units coordinate with customs inspectors before loading containers, military vans (MILVANS), and so forth. Customs inspectors come "on-site" to inspect items for shipment and certify seals.
Configure all equipment for transport: convoy, linehaul, and so on.
Conduct pre-combat inspections (PCIs), including convoy safety and personnel movement briefs.
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