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Chapter 2

Force Projection Distribution Environment

"In order to make assured conquests it is necessary always to proceed within the rules; to advance, to establish yourself solidly, to advance and establish yourself again, and always prepare to have within reach of your army your resources and your requirements."

Frederick the Great
Instructions for His Generals, II (1747)


The Army CSS system anticipates support requirements for future operations and works towards acquiring the personnel and materiel resources and other capabilities to meet those requirements. It then distributes those resources to support forces both during peacetime training and throughout all stages of force projection operations. As depicted in Figure 2-1, it first supports the mobilization and deployment of forces to a theater. These forces include a modular CSS force, with an adequate C2 structure, sequenced to arrive early in the theater, and incrementally built to meet the needs of the supported force as it flows into the area.


Figure 2-1. Force Projection and Follow-On Sustainment



2-1. The CSS force focuses initially on establishing the CSS infrastructure for force generation. Such support includes sustainment support to early entry elements. Support includes all aspects of CSS to include maintenance, transportation, combat health support (CHS), supply, personnel/personnel services support, field services, contracting services, and Class A agent support.

2-2. Finally, the system meets the significant demands placed on it during post- conflict operations and reconstitution, redeployment, and demobilization of forces once objectives are met. The CSS system must be flexible enough to provide support to operations ranging from small unit operations in remote sites to theater-wide, high operational tempo (OPTEMPO) combat operations.



2-3. Strategic support elements fill the distribution pipeline with personnel and materiel resources and the capability to provide services required by the supported JFC. They conduct industrial operations, maintain the industrial base, provide information services, provide strategic-level services (such as depot supply and maintenance and defensewide base operations support), and manage strategic stockpiles (such as Army pre-positioned afloat [APA] assets). Their focus is to -

  • Determine support requirements at global and regional levels.
  • Acquire resources while forging strategic alliances.
  • Coordinate industrial base activity.
  • Integrate personnel, financial management, materiel, services, and distribution management information systems of the Army with other military Services and governmental agencies.
  • Provide base support and services.
  • Maintain national-level medical services and facilities.
  • Determine requirements for stockpiling and pre-positioning resources afloat and on land around the world.
  • Deploy and maintain forward presence forces.
  • Identify mobilization and demobilization requirements and resources.
  • Provide strategic mobility.

2-4. National strategic-level CSS elements are the links between strategic and operational bases. They consist of agencies and organizations from the private sector, Department of Defense (DoD), and other government agencies.



2-5. The Army depends primarily on private industry as the foundation for military materiel production. Therefore, the defense industrial base has a significant impact on major theater wars (MTWs) and short wars due to the long lead times required to build up the industrial base. Active plants and production lines have some capability to surge. Repair parts manufacturers may be able to surge production for items that sustain deployed weapons systems. Active end-item production lines are sometimes used to obtain urgent critical parts and subsystems. National policy makes use of commercial materiel as much as possible.



2-6. DoD resources include factories for producing ammunition, tanks, and engines; arsenals, depots, and other facilities; equipment; and skilled personnel.



2-7. Although each Service plays a large role, DLA is DoD's focal point for efforts related to the industrial base. DLA is responsible for providing consumable items of supplies and services that the military Services commonly use. Its responsibilities include worldwide integrated management of subsistence, petroleum, and property disposal operations. DLA provides logistics and service support to the Services through its supply centers and agencies.

2-8. DLA procures, stores, and distributes items to support the military Services and other customers. In addition, the agency buys and distributes hardware and electronic items used in the maintenance and repair of military equipment. The Services determine their requirements for supplies and other materiel and establish their priorities.

2-9. DLA provides contract administration services to all DoD components and administers and supervises -

  • The Federal Catalog System.
  • The Defense Personal Property Reutilization Program, including worldwide disposal of excess personal property, recovery of precious metals, and disposal of hazardous waste.
  • The DoD Industrial Plant Equipment Reserve.
  • The Defense National Stockpile.

2-10. DLA provides reutilization and marketing services in the COMMZ. Initially, salvage and excess materiel destined for the Defense Reutilization and Marketing Office (DRMO) is collected in the corps and division areas as the situation permits. As the theater matures, DLA-directed activities may use HNS to assist in evacuating this materiel to the COMMZ for inspection, classification, and disposal.



2-11. USTRANSCOM provides common-user airlift, sealift, and terminal services to deploy, employ, and sustain US forces on a global basis. In addition, it provides in-transit visibility (ITV) to joint forces. Its three transportation component commands are the Army's Military Traffic Management Command (MTMC), the Navy's Military Sealift Command (MSC), and the Air Force's Air Mobility Command. These subordinate commands remain under the combatant command (COCOM) of USTRANSCOM in all contingency operations.

When forward deployed in a joint operational area (JOA) the USTRANSCOM may place elements of these commands under the tactical control (TACON) of the JFC/TSC.

2-12. MTMC is the single manager for military traffic, land transportation, inland waterway, common-user containers, liner service and CONUS-originating Special Assignment Airlift Mission (SAAM) validation, and common-user ocean terminals within CONUS, except for those specific secretary of defense (SECDEF)-assigned functions that require operations OCONUS. This includes the management of JOA common-user ports. MTMC's general functions are to -

  • Provide traffic management for CONUS freight movements by commercial carriers.
  • Command and operate common-user military ocean terminals assigned by DoD.
  • Provide worldwide traffic management for DoD personal property movement and storage program.
  • Provide transportation planning to the JCS, military Services, and the unified and specified commands supporting the Joint Operations Planning and Execution System (JOPES).

For further information see JP 4-01.5.

2-13. MSC operates as the single manager for ocean transportation and for intercoastal service. MSC's functions are to -

  • Provide ocean transportation support to DoD components as required through US-owned or contracted equipment.
  • Serve as the single point of contact (POC) with ocean carriers concerning the negotiation of ocean rates, terms, and conditions of ocean transportation.
  • Maintain and operate an ocean transportation service for movement of personnel, cargo, bulk petroleum, and mail.
  • Provide transportation planning support to JCS, unified and specified commands, and military Services in support of JOPES.

2-14. Air Mobility Command is the single manager for all strategic and intertheater fixed-wing common-user transportation. It consists of controlled transport aircraft, and the personnel, facilities, and equipment necessary to support operations. Its functions are to -

  • Provide airlift to DoD components as required.
  • Operate a worldwide passenger reservation system for travel via DoD transport aircraft, commercial contract airlift, and the Civil Reserve Aircraft Fleet (CRAF).
  • Operate common-user ports and air terminals at US Air Force (USAF) installations and commercial airfields.
  • Provide transportation planning support to JCS, unified and specified commands, and military Services in support of JOPES.



2-15. AMC performs assigned materiel and related functions for research, development, test and evaluation; acquisition, logistics support, and technical assistance for materiel systems; and other materiel-acquisition management functions. It provides Army national-level maintenance support and serves as DoD's single manager for conventional ammunition. AMC's missions include -

  • Provide equipment and services to other nations through the Security Assistance Program.
  • Develop and acquire non-major systems and equipment.
  • Provide development and acquisition support to program managers.
  • Maintain the industrial mobilization capabilities necessary to support the Army.
  • Manage Army pre-positioned stocks (APS), less Class VIII, worldwide.
  • Manage the Logistics Civil Augmentation Program (LOGCAP).

2-16. AMC also manages operational policies, programs, objectives, and resources associated with operational projects worldwide. All of the above functions and capabilities are available to the ASCC/ARFOR through the AMC logistics support element (LSE). (See FM 63-11 for information on the LSE.)



2-17. Many government agencies outside of the DoD have a major impact on Army distribution, including the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), General Accounting Office (GAO), Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), Environmental Protection Agency, and General Services Administration (GSA). For more details, refer to JP 3-08.



2-18. Operational CSS ties tactical requirements to strategic capabilities to accomplish operational plans. Army support at this level is integrated into the total support package required to conduct joint/multinational campaigns and other military activities in a JOA. Geographic JFCs have many options when establishing their theater support systems. They may use uni-Service, cross-Service, common-Service, or joint-Service support arrangements. The geographic JFC assigns support responsibilities based on the type of Service support agreement. He may use either the dominant-user or the most-capable-Service concept as discussed in Appendix B.

2-19. The seams separating operational CSS from strategic and tactical are often indistinguishable. Support personnel at the operational level are cognizant of the JFC's theater strategic perspective and the requirements at the tactical level. Army commanders at the operational level must be prepared to operate in unified, multinational, and interagency operations. Based on METT-TC and JFC guidance, the ASCC/ARFOR commander develops an organization capable of executing CSS tasks and directing the integration of CSS to effectively support the campaign plan.

2-20. Army forces often operate in support of non-DoD civilian agencies in achieving objectives associated with the economic, political, and informational elements of national power. In some cases, these interagency operations may require support from the Army's distribution system. Army CSS personnel coordinate with other involved agencies to ensure effectiveness and efficiency in the total support effort within the limits of Title 10, DoD directives, interagency agreements, and applicable federal laws.

2-21. Operational support forces may be augmented with representatives from other Services to integrate support to and from other Services. The JFC designates which Services provide common support to joint forces. They may need to interface with support elements of allied forces, coalition forces, and other agencies to synchronize support operations.

2-22. To smooth the seams between the operational and strategic level, elements of the national strategic-level sustainment base deploy and integrate into the operational-level support force. DLA and AMC support the JFC as members of the integrated theater support structure. DLA contingency support teams and the AMC LSE provide POCs for supply support, distribution, and services such as contract administration support, reutilization, and marketing services. Other strategic agencies that may deploy elements as components of the integrated support force may include USTRANSCOM, the US Space Command, the Army and Air Force Exchange Service (AAFES), the Department of Transportation (US Coast Guard), and the National Imagery and Mapping Agency (NIMA).

2-23. In many scenarios, host nation support (HNS), contractors, multinational partners, and local procurement provide operational and tactical support. HNS agreements fulfilling the JFC's requirements for support need to be pre-negotiated. Such support arrangements must be integrated into the distribution plan and coordinated with other Services, allies, and coalition partners to prevent competition for resources and to ensure high priority requirements are met. HNS may include functional or area support and use of host nation facilities, government agencies, civilians, or military units. DoD/Department of the Army (DA) civilians and government contractors also provide support. For command and control purposes, DoD/DA civilians and some contract personnel may be assigned to operational support organizations within the LSE.

2-24. Support planners must incorporate support provided through contracting into the theater support plan. Contracting may be an effective force multiplier for supporting forces throughout all phases of an operation. Such support may come from systems contractors, theater support contractors, or external support contractors. Systems contractors provide support through pre-arranged contracts awarded by program managers and the AMC. They support specific materiel systems throughout the system's life cycle. Theater support contractors support deployed operational forces under pre-arranged contracts awarded within the mission area by contracting officers serving under the direct contracting authority of the theater principal assistant responsible for contacting (PARC). External support contractors support deployed forces under pre-arranged contracts or contracts awarded during the contingency to support the specific mission. Contracting officers awarding these contracts are not under the contracting authority of the theater PARC or the systems officers under program managers or AMC. For example, AMC provides commercial depot support through contracts of its commodity commands. Its Logistics Augmentation Program (LOGCAP) office also provides external support contractors through its pre-arranged umbrella contract. With all contracted support, it is critical that the efforts of all contracting personnel (Army elements, other Services, and nations) are fully coordinated so that resources are attained economically and applied most effectively to meet the prioritized requirements of the joint/multinational force commander.

2-25. The operational level of CSS is the focus for the majority of future general support operations. Key elements of the Army's distribution system located at the operational level include dedicated transportation, general support supply, sustainment maintenance, Level III medical (with in-theater hospital facilities), and personnel support elements. Direct support elements also support forces operating in this area. Many of the stocks to support the AO are stored within the operational level, allowing CSS units at the tactical level to remain as mobile as possible. Total asset visibility (TAV) and dedicated transportation support are critical to reduce CSS reaction time, lower maintenance downtime, and optimize stockage levels on the battlefield. The ITV piece of TAV allows distribution managers to plan for and execute CSS operations through the use of timely and accurate information regarding the flow of supplies and unit equipment. The Movement Tracking System (MTS) provides a capability to redirect in-transit assets to weight the battle (see Chapter 6 for further discussion). Support at this level includes common support to joint and multinational forces as required.



2-26. Tactical CSS is the synchronization of all CSS activities required to sustain soldiers and their systems. CSS providers at this level may support joint and multinational military forces. Tactical forces deploy with their organic CSS units. The bulk of the CSS organizations at the tactical level are made up of these units. However, as at the operational level, HNS, joint and multinational sources, DoD/DA civilians, and civilian contractors may provide some support. Habitual relationships continue to exist between supporting and supported units. The tactical-level supporter's focus is manning, arming, fueling, fixing, moving, and sustaining the soldier and his equipment.

2-27. Tactical-level support personnel provide support to the battle commander. All CSS activities are synchronized to sustain soldiers and their systems and to remove obstructions to the tactical commander's scheme of operations. Tactical CSS is tied to the tempo of operations. Telemetry (measuring and transmitting OPTEMPO data) applied to both soldiers and equipment can aid in anticipating future CSS requirements.

2-28. Tactical CSS elements provide coordinated, tailored warfighter support. They control inventories, maintenance, transportation, personnel, medical, finance, and field services necessary to satisfy specific tactical requirements.


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