Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE)
The Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE), located at Fleet Area Control and Surveillance Facility, NAS North Island California, provides (IT-21) tactical range training and testing services to U.S. Navy units of the Pacific Fleet.
The US Navy, with its forward deployed forces and rapid reaction capabilities, is at the forefront of that defense. Consequently, a high level of operational readiness by US Pacific Fleet forces is essential to maintain peace in the international arena. Fleet readiness is a direct function of quality training, and the Southern California Offshore Range (SCORE) was established and designed to provide Fleet operators with this essential training.
SCORE is a state-of-the-art, multi-warfare, integrated training facility serving a wide variety of customers. Under the command of the Fleet Area Control and Surveillance Facility, San Diego (FACSFACSD), SCORE conducts a multitude of operations including multi-warfare and battle group evolutions, on and around San Clemente Island (SCI). While the majority of the scenarios are designed to support the Commander of Third Fleet and Commander, Naval Air Force U.S. Pacific Fleet training and readiness requirements, other events are also conducted which facilitate the test, evaluation, and development of weapon systems and tactics. All SCORE operations are monitored, controlled, and evaluated by Range Operations Center (ROC) personnel at NAS North Island, CA.
Underwater vehicles are tracked utilizing phase coded acoustic pingers (MK84). Surface ships and aircraft are tracked (high accuracy) by the Position Measurement System (PMS) or the Large Area Tracking Range (LATR) system, using DGPS participant instrumentation packages (PIPs). Ships and aircraft are also tracked with (low accuracy) APX 72 IFF. Track accuracy is nominally 5 meters for differential GPS (PMS/LATR), 10 meters for surface and underwater platforms (acoustic) and 50 meters for aircraft (non GPS). Air and surface EW Range participants are usually tracked via assigned Mode III IFF or PMS, depending on accuracy needed and to facilitate pointing of antennae. Submarines participating in an EW exercise concurrent with an ASW or combined event are tracked with the underwater tracking system. SCORE currently has no ability to track surface or air units with tracking or surveillance radars; therefore, only units that are instrumented or have an operative IFF transponder can be tracked by SCORE.
SCORE can support a wide range of exercises, including surface ship Over-The-Horizon Targeting (OTH-T) exercises throughout the SOCAL area while ASW or other operations are being conducted on the underwater range. Shallow water operations can be supported with surface and in-air tracking in the Tanner/Cortez Bank areas.
SCORE supports concurrent multi-warfare operations. Multiple ASW exercises can be conducted concurrently with MINEX, STRIKEX, EW or NSFS. SCORE can currently support up to five concurrent unit level exercises from the ROC on North Island. A mix of concurrent multi-warfare or battlegroup exercises may also be supported.
SCORE consists of several sub-range components; the Southern California Anti-Submarine Warfare Range (SOAR), the Electronic Warfare Range (EWR) which includes the Range Electronic Warfare Simulator (REWS) and a variety of multi-axis emitters and jammers, two MINEX Training Ranges (MTR), a training minefield (Kingfisher) and the Shore Bombardment Area (SHOBA). Additionally, SCORE utilizes other instrumentation equipment such as Global Positioning System (GPS) based tracking systems, which enable support of Strike Warfare (STK), Mine Readiness Certification Inspections (MRCI), Missile Exercises (MSLX), as well as major battlegroup exercises: COMPTUEX (CTX), FLEETEX (FLTX), and Joint Task Force Exercise (JTFEX). DynCorp performs the day to day operation of SCORE from various range facilities on Naval Air Station North Island (NASNI) and SCI and maintenance and logistic support of associated equipment located at various sites on SCI, NASNI and elsewhere.
Southern California ASW Range (SOAR) Anti-submarine warfare (ASW) training is accomplished utilizing a mix of air/surface tracking systems and underwater tracking with a highly sophisticated hydrophone array. The ASW range is comprised of seven sub-areas and encompasses approximately 670 square miles of 3-D underwater tracking area, located 68 nautical miles off the coast of San Diego. The range routinely supports air, surface, and subsurface unit level torpedo firing exercises as well as inner and middle zone battle group training. SOAR supports the vast majority of Pacific Fleet Undersea Warfare (USW) training exercises.
Mine Training Range (MTR) Aerial Mine Warfare (MIW) training is conducted utilizing various air tracking, scoring, and shape recovery systems. Submarine Launch Mobile Mine (SLMM) operations are conducted in the waters of OPAREA SHOBA. Mines are recovered via the MK-V Marine Mammal Program, providing precision position measurements. The MINEX Training Ranges (MTR-1/2) are located along the western side of SCI, with MTR-2 (Eel Point) located approximately mid-island. Eel Point is the most commonly used initial point (IP). SCORE supports unit level training and integrated airwing exercises with flexible network-based software designed to accommodate various minefield patterns and shape recovery including Mine Readiness Certification Inspection (MRCI).
Kingfisher Training Range (KTR) Mine Countermeasure (MCM) training is accomplished through Kingfisher operator training and surface ship mine detection and avoidance training. The Kingfisher Training Range (KTR) is located approximately two miles northwest of Eel Point on the western side of SCI. Operations are controlled and evaluated from the ROC at North Island. Exercise debriefs are provided by SCORE Analysts and include CPA info and/or valid/invalid contact verification.
Electronic Warfare Range (EWR) Command and Control Warfare (C2W) training services including Electronic Attack (EA), Electronic Protection (EP), and Electronic Combat (EC) training services are provided using SCI based emitters, jammers and sensors. Electronic Warfare systems are located on SCI, and are controlled remotely from the ROC at North Island. Primary range emitters transmit over a 200 degree sector to the southeast and northwest of SCI and can provide line-of-site, multiple threat signal simulations, and jamming services to air, surface, and subsurface units. Remote EW range sites are equipped with mobile threat, jammers, false targets, and cryptologic simulators to provide additional threat density and exercise diversity. Additionally, the Portable Air Defense System (PADS) is available for threat avoidance training for aircraft.
Shore Bombardment Area (SHOBA) is used to conduct strike warfare, close air support, laser targeting, naval gunfire, small arms and special warfare operations. The Shore Bombardment Area (SHOBA) range is an area overlying and including the southern tip of SCI. It is comprised of two ordnance impact areas. SHOBA operations are scheduled by SCORE/FACSFAC. EWTGPAC personnel evaluate NGFS exercises and function as SHOBA Safety Observer for firex's, spotter training, coordinated supporting arms exercises, artillery mortar exercises, and when requested, laser bombing exercises and close air support exercises with personnel on the ground. Air to ground ordnance missions without personnel on the ground are controlled by SCORE M&O contractor personnel located in the ROC at NAS North Island. Other exercises may also be accomplished using the sea portion of SHOBA. The SHOBA is primary used to support both live-fire and inert weapons firing and support the following fleet training evolutions: FIREX-I and FIREX-II, Close Air Support (CAS) training, SACCEX, gunnery exercises (GUNEX), Spotter Surveillance Training, Strike Exercises (STRIKEX), Air Defense Exercise (ADEX), Small Arms Training, Combat Search and Rescue (CSAR) Training, MSLXs, Naval Special Warfare (NSW) training, and Bombing Exercises (BOMBEXs).
SOCAL Missile Range SCORE conducts live fire missile exercises in Warning Area 291 and the waters contiguous to SCI. FLETA HOT will normally be the primary air and waterspace with additional areas within W-291 (extended range missiles will require the shutdown of Control Area 1177). Surface to Air, Air to Air, and Air to Surface Missilex participants will have appropriate tracking packages installed. ROC personnel will coordinate and provide BQM target launch/recovery and telemetry data. The range can support dynamic missile-firing exercises up to and including FLEETEX level events.
During 2001, SCORE supported USW by conducting 227 exercises during 132 days and 778.4 hours of operation involving 442 aircraft (fixed wing and rotor), 130 ships and 70 submarines. These same exercise participants utilized 267 weapons against 223 targets. With regards to MIW, SCORE supported 36 exercises during 32 days and 94.8 hours of operation, honing the skills of 66 aircraft and 30 ships. A total of 140 weapons were expended in MIW. In the area of electronic warfare (EW), the range facilitated 645 exercises during 223 days and 3139.7 hours of operation exercising the abilities of 1322 aircraft, 591 ships and one submarine. SCORE also supported the SHOBA in 2001, which entailed 284 exercises during 151 days and 1166.1 hours of operation involving 1251 aircraft and 74 ships. A total of 112,062 weapons were expended in SHOBA. Additionally, SCORE was involved in 20 missile exercises during 19 days and 99.1 hours of operation involving 71 aircraft and 21 ships.
During 2001, SCORE also supported a wide variety of training exercises including battlegroup exercises such as MEFEX, CTX, FLTX, JTFEX; as well as unit level training including: BOMBEXs, CAS Exercises, CSSQT Exercises, FIREX-I and FIREX-II Exercises, GUNEXs, Kingfisher Exercises, Laser Training Exercises, MINEXs, MSLXs, PADS Events, Small Arms Exercises, Spotter Surveillance training, Avoidance Subsystem (TAS) Exercises, TORPEXs, TRACKEXs, Tactical Readiness Evaluation (TRE) Exercises, Tactical Weapons Proficiency (TWP) Exercises, Tailored Shipboard Trained Availabilities (TSTA 1 and TSTA 2), Final Evaluation Problem (FEP), and STRIKEXs, Seabased Weapons Advanced Tactics School (SWATS) Exercises, Threat Viking Exercises. Reimbursable RDT&E/Foreign Military Sales (FMS)/Reserve Exercises in 2001 included Littoral Airborne Sensor- Hyperspectral (LASH) tests, S-3B Central Processing Mobile Unit (CPMU) tests, NATO Sea Sparrow tests, CANFLTPAC TGEX 01, ONR/ARETE Airborne Sensor tests, MAGICC C&C Integration testing and flight demonstrations, EODMU Three MK-5 Mammal MRCI recoveries, MCM- hyperspectral testing, Integrated Undersea Warfare (IUSW)-21 MCM testing, and Japanese Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) research/testing in the area of USW, EW, and MCM.
SCORE continues to investigate, implement and integrate upgrades to range systems and organizational infrastructure which will ultimately improve fleet training. Theses efforts include: the testing and installation of a "first generation" MAGICC; the installation of a laser evaluation system (LES) in SHOBA for laser designator training; the creation of two laser training ranges; the addition of six surface target/towing platforms: Floating at Sea Targets (FASTs), night infrared targets, catamaran/trimaran targets, mobile LESs for at-sea laser training, Roboski and the Improved Surface Towed Targets (ISTT).
Regarding organizational innovations; SCORE has streamlined coordination throughout SCI, improved safety procedures and implemented mitigation tools to facilitate environmental compliance; all of which will ultimately improve fleet training. Designation of SCORE as the SCI operational control (OPCON) activity by CINCPACFLT will provide SCORE with the authority to coordinate activities, designate objectives, assign tasks, schedule and de-conflict events, establish safety precautions, address environmental compliance, brief users, conduct and monitor exercises, collect and process data and provide authoritative direction necessary to accomplish range training and operational testing within the SCI Range Complex.
Furthermore, SCI and all of the range sub-components have been renamed as the "SCI Range Complex" or "Adversary Island." This title encompasses 83 operational areas in a controlled, simulated adversarial environment. These operation areas support the training services previously listed. The concept of Adversary Island is paramount to a sophisticated tactical training range since it allows for battlespace and facilities where friendly forces can plan and exercise against a simulated enemy of today and tomorrow, in the confines of a safe learning environment.
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