The Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA) provides the basic framework for cooperation in military logistic matters.This important international agreement provides for the exchange of logistic support, supplies and services on a reimbursable basis. It is focused on logistical support. The agreement does not, in any way commit a country to any military action.
As of October 2003, the US had ACSAs with 76 countries, including most NATO nations, as well as the NATO Maintenance and Supply Agency (NAMSA), NATO Allied Command Transformation, and SHAPE. At that time there were seven ACSAs awaiting final signature by the country and the appropriate combatant commander. As of mid-2004 the US had 76 ACSAs in place with coalition members, allies and other organizations worldwide.
ACSAs reduce logistics burdens and are considered "critical logistics enablers" by providing on site commanders increased interoperability, enhanced operational readiness and cost effective mutual support. The ACSA accomplishes this by establishing a mechanism to provide logistical supplies between two parties in exchange for reimbursement either in cash, replacement in kind, or equal value exchange.
An ACSA is an agreements negotiated on a bilateral basis with US allies or coalition partners that allow US forces to exchange most common types of support, including food, fuel, transportation, ammunition, and equipment. Authority to negotiate these agreements is usually delegated to the combatant commander by the Secretary of Defense. Authority to execute these agreements lies with the Secretary of Defense, and may or may not be delegated. Governed by legal guidelines, these agreements are used for contingencies, peacekeeping operations, unforeseen emergencies, or exercises to correct logistic deficiencies that cannot be adequately corrected by national means. The support received or given is reimbursed under the conditions of the acquisition and cross-servicing agreement.
The Acquisition and Cross Servicing Agreement (ACSA) statute (formerly known as "NATO Mutual Support Act") was enacted to simplify exchanges of logistic support, supplies, and services between the United States and other NATO forces. It was subsequently amended in 1986, 1992, and 1994: to permit acquisition and cross-servicing agreements (ACSAs) with the governments of eligible non-NATO countries; to require equal-value exchanges (EVEs) of logistic support, supplies, and services; to allow ACSAs with United Nations organizations; and to authorize the loan or lease of equipment. Annual reports are required listing all ACSA transactions in the previous fiscal year and projecting requirements for the next fiscal year.
The ACSA authorities provide the combatant commanders and the Service component or sub-unified commands the means to acquire and provide mutual logistic support during training, exercises and military operations, or to permit expedited access to the logistics assets of foreign country armed forces to satisfy the logistics support requirements of deployed US Armed Forces.
DOD components may use acquisition-only authority to acquire of logistic support, supplies and services (LSSS) from a country, not a member of NATO, if it meets one or more of the following criteria: (1) Has a defense alliance with the United States. (2) Permits the stationing of members of the US Armed Forces or the home porting of US naval vessels in such a country. (3) Has agreed to pre-position US materiel in such a country. (4) Serves as host country for US Armed Forces during exercises or permits other US military operations in such a country.
Cross-servicing agreements with authorized countries and international organizations provide for the reciprocal provision of LSSS with the military forces of that country or international organization. The Secretary of Defense must consult with the Secretary of State and provide 30-day advance notification to the Committees on Armed Services and Foreign Relations of the US Senate and the Committees on Armed Services and International Relations of the US House of Representatives before designating non-NATO countries as authorized for cross-servicing agreements.