Second Chief Directorate
The Second Chief Directorate was responsible for internal security, although some of its functions were assumed by the Fifth Chief Directorate. The Directorate included twelve numbered Departments, the Political Security Service, the Industrial Security Directorate, and a Technical Support Group.
The NKGB 2nd Department was established when the NKGB secret political and counterintelligence departments were joined into one at the end of July 1944. From 1944 to 1947, the 2nd Department was the largest of all the KGB departments. It consisted of nine branches, which later became separate divisions. From 1945 to 1950, it was in charge of all spheres of counterintelligence work, fighting against foreign secret services and counterintelligence. It collected information about Great Britain, America, Germany, Poland and other European countries, and repatriation and Zionism.
Between 1950 and 1960, it only had the function of political counterintelligence. From 1954 to 1959, the 2nd Department consisted of five branches, which carried out counterintelligence work in America and European countries, and monitored foreign tourists and sailors (from approx 1956, also Soviet tourists going abroad). Among its functions were also: keeping records on “repatriates and re-emigrants” and preliminary operative checks; counterintelligence on “national emigration” (i.e., monitoring Lithuanian tourists coming to the Baltic States); the search for “state criminals” (mostly “German collaborators”, “destroyers” and so on); counterintelligence in border districts; the surveillance of people suspected of “spying”; industrial espionage, and the fight against so-called nationalism and anti-Soviet activities.
Six of the numbered Departments were responsible monitoring and countering the activities of foreign embassy personnel:
The 1st Department staff in the early 1970s included some fifty staff officers and three hundred surveillance officers from the Surveillance Directorate. Headquartered a half a mile from the United States embassy in a five-story, the Department had five Sections.
- 1st Section - recruitment of U.S. embassy personnel
- 2nd Section - counter intelligence operations from the embassy.
- 3rd Section - identify and monitor Soviet citizens who have had contact with Americans
- 4th Section - manage contacts between Americans and Russians outside of Moscow
- 5th Section - responsible for work against Latin American embassies.
2nd Department -- British Commonwealth
3rd Department -- Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Scandinavia
4th Department -- All other Western European nations
5th Department -- Non-European developed countries
6th Department -- Non-European developing countries
The 7th Department was responsible for operations against tourists. As of the early 1970s the staff of two hundred was evenly divided between Moscow and the rest of the Soviet Union, along with some sixteen hundred part-time informants and agents.
- 1st Section - American, British, and Canadian tourists
- 2nd Section - other nationalities
- 3rd Section - hotels and restaurants catering to foreigners
- 4th Section - controls the Intourist and Sputnik travel agencies
- 5th Section - contacts between tourists and Soviet citizens
- 6th Section - observation posts at facilities used by tourists and foreigners across the Soviet Union
The 8th Department was responsible for the computer information systems of the Second Chief Directorate.
The 9th Department was tasked with monitoring and recruitment of foreign students, including the use of faculty and student informants at Soviet universities.
The 10th Department was responsible for influencing and recruiting foreign journalists. It also staffs the Foreign Ministry's Directorate for Servicing the Diplomatic Corps (UPDK.
The 11th Department regulated international travel by Soviet citizens.
The 12th Department was responsible for investigation of corruption, graft, and waste at government enterprises.
Political Security Service
The Political Security Service, often called "The Service" (Sluzhba) within the KGB, consisted of twelve Directions (Napravlenipe) until 1969, when the 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th Directions reformed into a new Fifth Chief Directorate.
The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th Directions were responsible for working with local KGB offices and their informant networks.
10th Direction was responsible for countering economic crimes such as currency speculation and black market activities.
11th Direction was responsible for monitoring dissidents.
12th Direction was created in 1963 for operations against Chinese diplomats in Moscow.
Technical Support Group
The Technical Support Group was responsible for surreptitious entry operations to penetrate targets ranging from foreign embassies to the homes of Soviet citizens.
Industrial Security Directorate
The Industrial Security Directorate was responsible for the security of important production and research facilities, as well as the utilization of Soviet commercial activities for clandestine operations. Of the Directorate's six Departments, four were responsible for heavy industry, armament factories, nuclear research, and production centers. The 5th Department, which operated within the Ministry of Foreign Trade, was responsible for commercial exhibitions and Soviet trade associations. The 6th Department was responsible for operations against foreign seamen in at Soviet ports.
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