Sea Guard of the Border Guard Service
The Coast Guard of the Border Service of the FSB (Russian: Beregovaya okhrana Pogranichnoy sluzhby FSB Rossii), previously known as the Maritime Units of the Soviet KGB's Border Troops , is the coast guard of Russia, part of the Border Guard Service of Russia under the Federal Security Service of Russia.
The area of the Coast Guard of the Russian FSB Border Guard responsibilities include the protection of the country's water lines. And it's not only the maritime boundary, which has a length of nearly 38 thousand kilometers. Almost 4 times less, but too much - 7000 kilometers of the state border runs along the river. Another 475 kilometers of the state border of the falls on lakes.
Coast Guard are specialized paramilitary services designed to monitor compliance with the legal regime of the territorial and internal waters , maritime economic zone and the continental shelf, which is under the jurisdiction of the state, to ensure safety of navigation in the territorial waters, rendering assistance to vessels and aircraft, distress, weather reconnaissance, protection of fisheries, as well as the fight against smuggling. To perform these tasks authorities use patrol ships, icebreakers, tugs, patrol boats, airplanes and helicopters.
In Russia the Coast Guard is the body of the Border Service of Federal Security Service. The purpose of the formation of these bodies is to create a modern, integrated and multi-functional protection of the national interests of Russia in the system in the border area (seaside), in the internal sea waters and territorial seas, exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of Russia, providing favorable conditions for lawful economic, fishing and other activities in the sea space of the border Russia.
The Sea Guard of the Border Guard Service have in their composition border patrol ships and boats, destined for duty in the seas, rivers and lakes, boundary ships and boats supply, patrol ships and boats of different classes and projects. Since 1992 marine parts were renamed Naval forces of the Border FPS Russia. Marine Guard (MBG) FPS began to form after the decree of the President of 29 on August 1997 the year "On measures to ensure the protection of marine biological resources and state control in this sphere." Head of the Department of Marine Protection FPS Russia was Admiral Innocent Naletova . With 1999 on 2003 Vice-Admiral Valery K. Logvinenko Deputy Director of the Federal Border Service of the Russian Federation - Head of Marine Protection Department. In May 2005 the Coast Guard PS FSB - a new structure was created within the Border.
The purpose of the formation of the Coast Guard of the Border Service of the Federal Security Service is the creation of a modern, integrated and multi-functional protection of the national interests of Russia in the system in the border sphere in the border area (seaside, internal waters and territorial sea), in the exclusive economic zone and continental shelf of Russia, taking into account ongoing changes in the political, economic and social life in the country and providing an enabling environment for legitimate economic, commercial and other activities in the sea space of the border of Russia.
On 11 November 1921 a special commission of representatives of the Cheka and the Naval Command completed a "Regulation on the relationship between the naval command, osobotdelov the RSFSR and Marine Management Inspectorate boundaries troops Protection Cheka." Regulations contain the basic principles of relations between the Maritime Command and the Cheka. But the border guards could not cope with the numerous gangs acting in the border area. Therefore, October 22, 1921 adopted the Regulation on the relationship between the military command and special departments Cheka RSFSR borders. It was envisaged that the special departments, continue to be responsible for protection of borders and serve them directly allocated command border military districts of the Red Army. Border troops of the Cheka were disbanded. After the defeat of the major armed groups on all borders (except Central Asia), September 27, 1922 STO passes border security under the jurisdiction of the successor of the Cheka - the State Political Directorate (GPU). To solve this problem was to create a separate Frontier Corps (ETR) GPU troops, which consisted of all of the court and guarding the border. The number of staff was determined to be 50 thousand persons.
The Soviet naval border guards worked mainly to prevent violations of the territorial borders, the function of the Coast Guard FSB of Russia incomparably greater. The zone of interests moved beyond the waters under the jurisdiction of the state. These areas include the Svalbard area, the sea lanes of the Baltic Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Caspian Sea, the Black Sea waters adjacent to the coast of Abkhazia, as well as the Convention Area in the Pacific Ocean. Security in the Arctic, including objects of oil and gas complex, adherence to swim in the waters of the Northern Sea Route, also belongs to the Coast Guard competence. The specially formed for this new border management Russian Federal Security Service for the western and eastern Arctic regions of Murmansk and Petropavlovsk respectively. And the largest ship base established in Petropavlovsk, is a new outpost on Wrangel Island, and throughout the Northern Sea Route 7 observation points will be built. Also do not forget that in the conduct of a single huge segment as the protection of marine biological resources and the fight against transnational organized crime.
The present stage of development of the Border Guard Service began in 2003, when the forces and means of the Federal Border Guard Service became part of the FSB of Russia. A set of measures was implemented to transform the border troops into border agencies, optimize their composition and strength, form a qualitatively new system of organization of border activities. The Coast Guard development programs have been developed, changes have been made to the legislation of the Russian Federation concerning the activities of the Federal Security Service agencies in the maritime space and on the territory of the coastal regions of the Russian Federation. In the field of international border cooperation, the Coast Guard studied in detail the experience and functioning of the coast guards of foreign countries. After 15 years, the range of tasks set by the state for the Border Service of the Federal Security Service of Russia has changed significantly. In addition to protecting the state border, the Coast Guard began to participate in solving such specific tasks as ensuring the safety of objects of maritime economic activity, countering terrorism in the marine space, monitoring the navigation regime along the Northern Sea Route (NSR), protecting marine biological resources, monitoring research activities , search and rescue of people, ships and objects in distress at sea, ensuring the safety of state protection objects, environmental monitoring at driving situation. International cooperation has expanded. Four forums have been created for coastal protection of coastal states in the Arctic, on the Baltic and Black Seas, and in the North Pacific. Border directorates of the Federal Security Service of Russia for the Western Arctic region in Murmansk, Eastern Arctic region in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky and the Republic of Crimea in Simferopol were established. The responsibility areas of the border authorities of the Arctic region cover the waters of the five Arctic seas, border areas and the coastline of over 22.5 thousand km. The work carried out in 2016 at the initiative of the Federal Security Service of Russia to secure the borders of the Russian continental shelf in the regulatory area of ??the Northeast Fishery Commission in the Barents Sea allowed the Coast Guard ships to protect the economic interests of Russia in more than 20 thousand. sq. miles In the 90s and early 2000s, often the marine guards could hear from poachers that they had better radio and Fleet ships, but such conversations are now gone. With regard to the criminal community, over the years 2013-2014, the Coast Guard squeezed out nearly the entire army crab poaching of the exclusive economic zone of Russian Far East. Remarkably, at the final stage, they helped Japanese colleagues, who passed us information about the ships that they defended.
The readiness to respond in a timely manner to security threats has been confirmed in practice by the border authorities in Crimea. Proof of this is the joint actions with the Black Sea Fleet in 2018 to prevent five provocations against Russian drilling platforms in the Black Sea from Ukraine, preventing the border administrationís illegal activities of Turkish and Ukrainian poachers and, of course, preventing Ukraineís attempts on Russia's sovereignty to the water area of ??the Kerch Strait in November 2018.
In close cooperation with the Federal Agency for Fishery, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia and other interested departments, an additional effective barrier has been created for illegal, unreported and unregulated (IUU) fishing, which was reflected in intergovernmental agreements with countries in the Asia-Pacific region, to whose ports poaching vessels delivered valuable catches. species of aquatic biological resources of Russian origin.
In the interests of implementing the state policy in the field of countering terrorism, the system of countering terrorist activities in the maritime space is being improved jointly with the staff of the National Anti-Terrorism Committee. On the basis of the border departments in Murmansk, Simferopol, Kaspiisk, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk and Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky, the staffs of operational headquarters in the sea areas (basins) to counter terrorism are deployed.
Unfortunately, not always possible to stop the illegal actions of Russian law violators without force action. Sometimes it is necessary to operate in an open physical confrontation, many hours of harassment poaching vessels and their failure to meet the legitimate demands to stop. This also applies to the dangerous maneuver against boats and motor boats border coast guard, which endangers the lives and health of border guards. In such cases, when all possibilities to detain violators, and the localization of the conflict within the framework of legal authority, we have to resort to the use of weapons, while making every effort to prevent violations, and at the same time does not cause damage to the poaching of ships and boats crew members health. In 2014-2015 the border ships, aircraft and marine squads directions 28 times to use weapons.
First, the signals are fed to a halt in the event of non-compliance should be a warning shot from guns. And after all the arguments have been exhausted, the shot at azimuth group is made to stop the vessel. This requires great skill and training of artillerymen, and they with a jeweler's precision are doing their job.
In the whole in 2014-2015 there were brought to administrative responsibility more than 12 thousand persons. Impose more than 11 thousand administrative fines totaling more than 540 million rubles. Instituted 370 criminal cases, in which 233 people were convicted. Filed more than 450 claims for compensation for damage to aquatic bioresources in the amount of about 220 million rubles. As a result of the control and verification activities for the fishing fleet vessels identified about 1.5 thousand violations of the law. Withdrawn from illegal circulation of more than 2.8 thousand tons of fishery products. Detained 51 Russian and 45 foreign vessels and 547 small vessels for violation of the regime. According to the decisions of the judicial authorities there were seized 46 Russian and foreign vessels.
The Coast Guard needs to cooperate with neighbors. That is why, in close cooperation with Rosrybolovstvo, the Russian Foreign Ministry and other relevant agencies at the international level to curb illegal fishing formed an additional effective barrier, which is reflected in the signed intergovernmental agreements with Japan, South Korea, China, the DPRK, the ports that deliver the catch poachers court. At the final stage of approval a draft intergovernmental agreement between Russia and the United States aimed at combating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing. As part of the intergovernmental agreements in national laws of Japan and the Republic of Korea they introduced changes aimed at tightening control of deliveries to domestic markets and preventing the reception of crab crab products without certificates confirming the legality of their origin. In addition, in order of organized interaction in 2014, in Japanese economic zone security control ships in the sea of Japan detained four illegal fishing vessel. They also assisted the Russian FSB border control on the Sakhalin area in detention in our exclusive economic zone of two poaching vessels.
Despite a tough anti-Russian rhetoric associated with the political crisis in Ukraine, Russia managed to depoliticize the business relationship with the US Coast Guard. After all, environmental issues, oil spill, conservation of bio-resources, safety of navigation - all of which are critical to states. And to put these questions, depending on the political situation is extremely unfavorable for all parties. At the invitation of American colleagues, in 2014 Russians already participated in a meeting in Washington of representatives of States members of the Coast Guard Arctic Council (Canada, Denmark, Norway, Russia, the USA, Finland, Iceland, Sweden) for initiating the establishment of the Arctic Coast Guard Forum. This meeting actually gave practical interaction of professionals Coast Guard to prevent and combat maritime security threats in the Arctic to a new level.
Activities for the protection of marine biological resources and state control in this area are primarily aimed at fulfilling instructions and decisions of the country's leadership to ensure the implementation of state programs for the development of the fishing industry and create favorable conditions for law-abiding fishermen to carry out fishing. In this regard, it is obvious that the protection of marine bioresources and state control are an effective tool to deter illegal fishing, which causes appreciable damage to the economy and hinders the normal functioning of the fisheries that are strategically important for the state.
Complying with the state task of protecting economic interests in the field of fisheries, in 2018 the Coast Guard officers of the border agencies conducted 41,296 inspections on Russian and foreign fishing vessels, during which they revealed 1,459 violations of legislation on fisheries and the preservation of aquatic biological resources.
For violations of the law, 15 Russian and 18 foreign vessels were detained. It is worth noting that detentions are carried out only in cases when violations are committed that entail tangible economic or environmental damage to aquatic biological resources. These include, for example, fishing without permits, in forbidden areas, forbidden tools for the production of aquatic biological resources, the accumulation on board of a fishing vessel of the catch of aquatic biological resources and products from them that are not included in the fishing documentation. By the way, more than 71 tons of catches of fish caught without permits or not recorded in trade logs were found on board foreign vessels alone.
Over the years, the dynamics of the number of detained vessels changes. Looking back three years ago, we will see that compared to 2016, the total number of Russian and foreign fishing vessels detained for violating the law has decreased by 36% (from 52 vessels in 2016 to 33 vessels in 2018).
The situation is different with vessels under foreign flags. Since 2016, the number of detained foreigners has practically not changed (in 2016 - 16, in 2017 - 16, in 2018 - 18). Violators of the law were ships under the flags of nine states (Japan, Tanzania, Turkey, Norway, Ukraine, Sierra Leone, China, the DPRK, Togo). Statistics show that the vast majority of Russian and foreign ships are still detained in the seas of the Far East (in 2018, 28 ships, or 85% of the total number of detained ships). But if the number of Russian vessels detained in this region has decreased 2.5 times since 2016 (from 35 in 2016 to 14 in 2018), then the number of detained foreigners remained almost at the same level (in 2016 - 16, in 2017 - 15, in 2018 - 14).
In accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation, ship captains and their shipowners are subject to administrative or criminal liability. The amounts of administrative fines are estimated at millions of rubles. The ships under the flags of Sierra Leone, Togo and Tanzania (the so-called ships under the "convenient" flags) are confiscated in court to the state.
One of the important directions of our work is the participation of the forces and means of the Coast Guard Border Guard Units in solving the tasks of search and rescue of people, ships and objects in distress at sea, in cooperation with the emergency services of federal executive authorities rescue support (JI) for the maritime activities of the Russian Federation. Every year, sometimes at risk to health and life, under difficult weather and weather conditions, the Coast Guard officers, alone or in cooperation with the search and rescue services, provide assistance to people and ships in distress at sea.
Sea Guard - Equipment
The Russian Federal Border Guard Service prepared a draft concept of development of ship of the border authorities of the Coast Guard until 2015. It was supposed to create new projects of ships and boats with high performance characteristics, corresponding to world standards, necessary to border guards. Hence, the requirements - high seaworthiness, autonomy, high speed. Ships and boats have to be equipped with the latest information systems with a high degree of automation, have a comfortable environment for the crew. Moreover, the special model would be created for each region - depending on local conditions. After all, say, in the Caspian Sea and the Pacific Ocean conditions are different - and the ships need different in their capabilities. Now developed a boundary patrol ship designs ice navigation class for a long patrol in the Arctic seas, multifunctional border patrol ship for a long patrol the territorial sea and exclusive economic zone. There was also a boundary interceptor craft projects for high-speed purposes in coastal areas. Simultaneously with the implementation of the shipbuilding program planned modernization of existing ships guard the exclusive economic zone and the territorial sea, are due to expire at the service life and maintenance of technical readiness of the existing ship-katernogo composition. The Coast Guard planned to retrofit them with modern weapons and hardware with high performance automation and diagnostics. This will partly reduce the number of personnel and to implement a smooth transition to the hybrid option of acquisition, and eventually to full manning in a professional manner.
At first the Coast Guard ships and boats of the Soviet projects were modernized, then in recent years there was a transition to a new ship structure with new capabilities. To replace the ships and boats of the Soviet period, the frontier agencies receive modern ships and boats of new projects. The ships were built according to special projects, which were virtually absent until the mid-2000s. Under the conditions of international sanctions, the Cost Guard was able to eliminate dependence on foreign products, to prevent a decrease in the rate of construction of ships and boats.
Over the ten years up to 2019, a total of 386 ships and boats have been taken from industry with the necessary characteristics to effectively carry out the tasks of border activities. Today, in the Coast Guard, the share of the modern ship composition is 66%. Considering the rapid development of modern technologies and the significant spatial limits of sea areas, the priority today is equipping ships with modern helicopter complexes. This significantly expands the capabilities of the border authorities in timely opening of the surface situation, fixing offenses and, if necessary, disembarking special-purpose groups on the vessel violating the emergency forces to stop it. Today, the Coast Guard is carrying out serial construction of border ships of two projects armed with helicopter complexes to solve the tasks of border activities in the territorial sea and the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation.
The development of the Arctic, with its natural resources and logistical advantages, has not been overlooked by maritime border guards. The border agencies of the Arctic region are equipped with ice-class ships. Thus, in 2016, the first border guard patrol ship of the project 22100 Polar Star, which was designed and built to carry the border service in the exclusive economic zone, on the continental shelf and in the Arctic seas, entered the border control in the Western Arctic region (Murmansk). Russian Federation. The ship according to its characteristics corresponds to the best world analogues. It embodies the latest achievements of design ideas, including in the field of information technology. In addition, the ships of this project are equipped with helicopter complexes and can carry unmanned aerial vehicles integrated into automated systems for technical control of the surface situation.
The target for mass construction of boundary ships and boats did not exist during the Soviet era. Now ships are built for special projects, which until the early 2000s did not exist. Despite the economic difficulties related to the sanctions, the Coast Guard did not reduce the rate of shipbuilding and, moreover, can take import substitution of diesel engines for a number of boats for domestic projects. The Baltic patrol boat ocean going "Polar Star" class are equipped with helicopter project complexes. In addition, they are adapted to accommodate UAVs, which can be integrated to work with automated technical control surface surveillance systems. Another five ships of the 2nd rank entered the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and the Far East region. In addition, the Caast Guard is developing the first draft icebreaking class patrol ship with a displacement of 7,600 ton for use in the Arctic. And, of course, there is a constant renewal of the fast patrol boats of border that are very well proven as an interceptor violators.
In December 2014, the Russian FSB Border Guard Service received several new ships and boats for the Coast Guard. And some of them - the two new ships and six speedboats in addition to the already delivered "Mongoose" and "Sobol", will come to the Crimea. This in turn will generate almost entirely naval grouping of the Coast Guard in the new Russian border guard.
Specific opportunities incude the new patrol ships of the project 22460 "Hunter". Their role is especially important for the protection of borders and territorial waters of the continental shelf in the area. "Hunter" could easily perform tasks in the sea with a young and broken ice thickness of up to 20 centimeters. Its equipment allows to carry out rescue work, as well as to environmental control. Analogues of this patrol, which is rightly called a new generation of spacecraft, yet in Russia. One of the main features of the "Hunter" - the presence on board the landing site for the light helicopter. Within minutes, a helicopter can be equipped with a hangar-seekers. It is noteworthy that the pad and hangar were placed on a ship with a displacement of only about 670 tons. Also in the stern of the ship there is a sloping slipway on which the speedboat rigid-inflatable type, which can be used, for example, for fast delivery Boarding Party on the intruder.
Coast Guard speedboats Grouping was joined by the "Sable" at a speed of 47 knots and high-speed boats "Mongoose" at a rate of progress of over 50 knots (about 100 km / h). In terms of features it actually interceptor boats. They are designed not only for the protection of coastal zones and natural resources, but also to capture high-speed targets. According to its seaworthiness and combat characteristics, they are not inferior to foreign and superior to the best domestic boats of this class and has already become a real storm poachers.
But the most anticipated completion pogram launched in 2004 and passing tests coast guard vessel rank 1 "Polar Star", specially designed for use in the Arctic. This is the first ship of this level, built in the last 20 years. He - the only one in the history of Soviet and Russian shipbuilding is designed specifically for the border guards. The ship is equipped with modern navigational and tactical systems for helicopter-based complex and able to overcome the ice field in the Arctic sea ice with a thickness of up to 1 meter.
The Coast Guard of the Russian FSB Border Guard incorporates border patrol ships and boats , destined for duty in the seas, rivers and lakes, boundary ships and boats supply, patrol ships and boats of different classes and projects. The main ones are:
- ships project 97P, 1135.1 , 1124 , 745, 1241.2, 1208, 205P, 1248, 10410 , 22460 , 22100
- launches projects in 1496, PM376, P1415, 1400, 371U, 12200 ;
- patrol boats and boat projects 502, 13031, "Commander", "Hurricane", 22120 , 12150
- ships and boats supply projects in 1595, 16900A, 16931, 1481.
This list included the relatively large naval units, and does not include a part of small patrol boats, small boats, motor boats and rack court. Ship-katerny structure and personnel may be subject to a large reduction.
Bohr Russia 2016
|Border patrol ship||PSKR||7||14||10||33||12||24||-||100|
|Border patrol boat||PSKA||25||38||14||22||12||2||2||115|
|Edge cutter special service||PKASS||-||3||-||-||-||-||-||3|
|Border control ship||PKU||-||-||-||-||-||8||-||8|
|Border ship security||SSP||-||1||1||8||3||-||-||13|
|Border ensure boat||PKAO||2||-||6||-||-||12||4||24|
|Border patrol ship||PEP||-||-||1||4||-||-||-||5|
|Border patrol ship||PPP||1||4||2||13||2||-||-||22|
|Border patrol boat||PC||-||-||-||6||-||1||-||7|
|Raid supply vessel||RNO||-||-||-||-||-||3||-||3|
|Total ship stock units||300|
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|