By early 1946, the Western Allies--the United States and Britain in particular--had become convinced that Soviet expansionism had to be contained. The Soviet Union's seizure of Polish territory and the drawing of the Oder-Neisse border (which gave formerly German territory to Poland), its antidemocratic actions in other countries occupied by Soviet forces, and its policies toward areas such as Greece and Turkey persuaded Western leaders that the Soviet Union was aiming for communist domination of Europe. Churchill's use of the expression "Iron Curtain" to describe the Soviet cordoning off of a sphere of influence in Europe illustrated a basic change in attitude toward Soviet intentions on the part of Western leaders. As a result of this change, Germany came to be seen more as a potential ally than as a defeated enemy. The change in attitude led United States officials to take a more active role in Germany.
Soviet efforts to penetrate the western zones of Germany focused on attempts to "extend the SED [Socialist Unity Party, the Communist's stalking horse in the eastern zone] political structure to the west, while, simultaneously, efforts are made to establish Communist front organizations, such as the Freie Deutsche Jugend (FDJ), and to penetrate Western Zone labor unions." Office of Reports and Estimates [ORE] warned that if "Soviet efforts at the [November 1947] CFM fail to achieve a united Germany on Soviet terms, the USSR will attempt to blame the Western powers for failure of the conference. At the same time, the Kremlin may announce the recognition of a 'German Republic' east of the Elbe and attempt to secure the removal of the Western Allies from Berlin."
- Project ALCATRAZ involved penetration of Communist Party of Germany. Hildegard Beetz associated with Project. Herbert Von Strempel, Kuno Wirsich considered for possible use by OSS/SSU/CIG on Project.
- CALLIKAK Mail and telephone intercept program established by US Army in Germany after WWII.
- CAMPUS US Army Counterintelligence Corps operation (1949-53) to identify individuals with Nazi backgrounds in the emerging West German Government.
- CASNIDE was Gehlen Organization program (1955) to develop escape and evasion capabilities in West Germany in support of US European Command requirements.
- CASUSTAIN involved operations against the Soviet target in Northern Germany.
- CATOMIC (1970-74) superceded CATOPHAT and included access agent operations against the Soviet Embassy near Bonn and the Soviet Trade Mission near Cologne as well as operations to recruit or insert assets in West German companies which deal with the Soviet Union and Communist China.
- CATOPHAT operation (1967-70) used an access agent directed against the Soviet Embassy near Bonn, West Germany and the Soviet Trade Mission near Cologne, West Germany. CATOPHAT was superceded by CATOMIC.
- HARVARD (1951-65) was designed initially to provide safehouse and operational aid facilities for CIA activities in Germany. In 1952, the HARVARD mission was expanded to include the rehabilitation and resettlement of defectors, agents, and agent-trainees.
- KEYSTONE refers to a group of Germans with some from Foreign Armies East and headed by Herman Baun immediately after the war. The KEYSTONE group merged with the BOLERO group (headed by Reinhard Gehlen) to form the Gehlen Organization with Gehlen as Chief.
- KIBITZ was Karlsruhe Base's program to develop a staybehind net in Germany (1949-53). Walter Kopp, Hans Rues, Eduard Woellner associated with Project. Anton Dukavits worked in Walter Kopp's net.
- KMHITHER-C Project involved resistance and staybehind activities in West Germany. Viktor Ziegler associated with Project.
- KMMANLY (1951-53) was originally designed to counter the actions of pacifist and neutralist groups in West Germany who were opposed to ratification of the contractual agreements. In practice KMMANLY sought to win support for the European Defense Community (EDC) in areas of veterans' affairs and military publishing. To achieve these aims, three publications were utilized under KMMANLY -- Die Deutsche Soldaten Zeitung (The German Soldiers' Newspaper, (DSZ)), Europaische Wehrkorrespondenz (European Defense Newsletter, (EWK)), Wehr Wissenschaftliche Rundschau (Military Science Journal, (WWR)). In addition KMMANLY supported the Gesellschaft fuer Wehrkunde (GfW), a military science study group composed of former high ranking German Army officers. Wilhelm Classen (PA), Eberhard Von Nostitz, Burghard Von Preussen, Felix Steiner associated with GfW part of Project. Josef Berschneider, Hans Iglhaut, Werner Strecker considered for possible use on KMMANLY.
- LCPROWL Project (1950-53) in Germany involved anti-communist psychological warfare, accomplished by the BDJ (Bund Deutsche Jugend or League of German Youth) (KMPRUDE), and a staybehind organization that would conduct paramilitary/sabotage activities (LCPROWL BDJ Apparat) in the event of war. Alarich Bross, Friedrich Carstenn, Heinz Debrassine, Ulrich Gmelin, Karl Jobke, Franz Krombholz, Walter Menke, Hans Otto, Christian Schwarting, Eberhard Tellkamp, Helmut Vogt, Willi Weinsberg associated with Project.
- ODEUM, OFFSPRING, RUSTY, ZIPPER (cryptonyms). Immediately after the war, the KEYSTONE group of Germans with some formerly associated with Foreign Armies East and headed by Herman Baun merged with the BOLERO group of Germans from Foreign Armies East and headed by Reinhard Gehlen to form the Gehlen Organization with Gehlen as Chief. In 1956, the Gehlen Organization became the West German Intelligence Service (BND).
- SATURN (1949-61) was Gehlen Organization's (and later BND's) staybehind program for East/West Germany, and included UJLENTIL (STORCH, AFU Program, FOX, WIESEL) and NADELWALD/UJKEVEL.
- Operation SPAIN to establish NTS groups in US zone/Germany and Austria against Soviet occupation forces through propaganda, defection, resistance, and collecting FI;
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