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Operations Against East Germany

In the early 1950s, problems within the country were causing dissatisfaction among East German citizens. These problems included confusion within the ruling Socialist Unity Party of Germany (Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands--SED) following the death of Stalin, economic pressures resulting from collectivization, payment of reparations, an increasingly disadvantageous comparison with West Germany, and resentment of Soviet presence and influence. Eventually these factors combined to trigger a spontaneous general uprising that started in East Berlin on June 17, 1953, and rapidly spread throughout much of the country. The rebellion was quickly suppressed by Soviet troops on June 17. This short but intense episode had far-reaching effects on the evolution of the national security system.

The uprising taught the Soviets that the socialist revolution imposed from without had not been accepted by the German people. The absorption of this lesson brought fundamental changes to the status of the country. Recognizing that its economic policy of reparations was dangerous and that communism would not be a significant force in a unified neutral Germany, the Soviet Union shelved plans for German reunification and made a political and economic commitment to the survival of East Germany as a political entity.

For its part, the Ulbricht government also was forced to recognize that it lacked legitimacy in the eyes of its own people. In the short run, the most notable response was what could be called "the third purge" in the summer of 1953. This purge resulted in changes in the top ranks of the SED, including replacement of Zaisser, the minister of state security. During the remainder of the summer, 12,000 men of all ranks and grades were dismissed from the People's Police for "unreliability."

  • CADROWN (formerly TPEMBER Apparat, CADRASTIC) (1952-55) was approved in 1952 as Amendment 3 to Project TPEMBER to establish a paramilitary resistance apparat in East Germany for escape and evasion and other staybehind resistance activities in case of war with the USSR. TPEMBER (later CADROIT) (1949-55) supported a campaign to expose and to prevent where possible, illegal actions, breaches of justice, and acts of inhumanity committed and tolerated by authorities in East Germany. This was effected through the League of Free Jurists in East Germany.
  • CADROIT (formerly TPEMBER) (1949-55) subsidized and guided the Investigative Committee of Free Jurists (Untersuchungsausschuss freiheitlicher Juristen (UfJ)), which developed from one person as the head of a notional committee in West Berlin to an active organization with a West Berlin Headquarters staff of 75 and about 2,000 East German covert contacts, many from the legal profession and/or East German government. The UfJ, with CIA assistance, conducted extensive propaganda campaigns in East Germany, based mainly on information from East German informants, to expose illegal actions, breaches of justice, and acts of inhumanity committed and tolerated by authorities in East Germany. An outgrowth of the UfJ-sponsored International Congress of Jurists in Berlin (1952) was the establishment of the International Commission of Jurists in The Hague, which was supported by CIA under Project QKFEARFUL. CADROIT also included CADROWN (1952-55), a paramilitary organization established in East Germany for wartime use.
  • CADROWN (formerly TPEMBER Apparat, CADRASTIC) (1952-55) was approved in 1952 as Amendment 3 to Project TPEMBER to establish a paramilitary resistance apparat in East Germany for escape and evasion and other staybehind resistance activities in case of war with the USSR. TPEMBER (later CADROIT) (1949-55) supported a campaign to expose and to prevent where possible, illegal actions, breaches of justice, and acts of inhumanity committed and tolerated by authorities in East Germany. This was effected through the League of Free Jurists in East Germany.
  • CATRANSIT (1964-69) was launched by Berlin Operations Base (BOB) and provided for the development and maintenance of a courier pool that would sustain secure communication with agents residing in East Berlin and/or East Germany. This progam was necessary because BOB's communications with most of its agents in East Berlin were severed when the Berlin Wall was erected in Aug. 1961.
  • DTLINEN (formerly EARTHENWARE, GRAVEYARD) (1951-60) was a CIA covert propaganda, harassment, and sabotage activity subsidizing both the overt and covert the activities of the Kampgruppe gegen Unmenschlichkeit (Fighting Group against Inhumanity (KgU)) against East Germany. The KgU (CAJERSEY), an overt organization, sought to expose conditions in the USSR and Soviet Zone of Germany which were considered crimes against humanity.
  • HARVARD (1951-65) was designed initially to provide safehouse and operational aid facilities for CIA activities in Germany. In 1952, the HARVARD mission was expanded to include the rehabilitation and resettlement of defectors, agents, and agent-trainees.
  • LCCASSOCK (1954-61) was a publishing and distribution company in West Berlin that produced and covertly distributed propaganda material for East Germans, providing them with Western-oriented information and harrassing, embarrassing and exposing officials and policies of the East German regime.
The beginning of the 1960s marked a new stage in the history of East Germany. Although it certainly had not solved all its security problems, the country had made significant progress. Control over society had been stabilized, and party authority was well established. The basic governmental structures necessary to guarantee the internal and external security of the state had been created and were functioning at a surprisingly high level of efficiency. In grudging acceptance of these realities, the Soviet Union had given the republic increasing authority over its own internal affairs, and the neighboring East European states had accepted it as a full member of the Warsaw Pact.



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Page last modified: 22-11-2013 00:03:15 ZULU