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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Raduga Kh-22 (AS-4 Kitchen)

Built by A. Berezhnyak's "Raduga" engineering group for Tu-22 and Tu-22M aircraft, the Kh-22 can also be deployed on modified Tu-95K-22 aircraft. During experimental tests conducted from the late nineteen fifties to the early nineteen sixties the Kh-22B version had reached a speed of Mach 6 and an altitude of about 70 km. Since 1974, after the death of Alexander Berezhnyak, the Raduga chief engineer became Igor Seleznyev. The Kh-22 missile comes in three variants: 1. Kh-22N with a nuclear warhead and inertial guidance; 2. Kh-22M with a conventional load for use against ships and with an active-radar operating during the final flight stage; 3. Kh-22MP for breaking through enemy air defenses (overcoming enemy radar).

X -22 - Air-Launched Cruise Missile of class "air-surface"

These missiles have different modifications (X -22M, X-22MA, X -22N, X -22NA, etc.), i.e., rocket had many versions depending on the conditions for application (purpose), with the autonomous system for administration + OF ARLGSN or FOR PRLGSN, etc; Engine - ZHRD - LIQUID PROPELLANT ROCKET ENGINE (With 5.44).

Glider - monoplane of welded construction with the average wing arrangement, controlled by the tail assembly on the course, to pitch and to bank, has lower crest and folding lower keel. Front fairing - radio-transparent material ASTT2, FN, quartz cloths, connecting K -107 and the k-th.

Basic material of the glider: Ei-'shchya (tanks), OTYA-.I, VT -5, steel Y2KH2NVFA (load-bearing elements of tail assembly), ATIMS and CASTES (heat insulation of the sections of fuselage), Ep-ey0, E0KHGSA - load-bearing elements, ML -5 - large-dimension casting (beams for the station), OT -4, VT -6, 2SHCHKHSNVFA, the thermoresistant glues: VS-ESHCH0, PU -2, VKT-2, VKT-E2-2.

X -22 - this is the first rocket, whose construction consisted of all-welded aggregates with the application of new materials (Ei-'shchya, VT -4, VT -4-1, VT -20).

With the introduction of this rocket into the production again it was necessary to master many new welding process, processes of heat working, methods of the control of welded joints, the production of large-dimension fiberglass laminate fairings, etc., and to also conduct large reconstruction it was shop and the sections of production and their technical re-equipping and rearmament. With the mastery of the production of this article it was necessary to solve much other complex questions. I will dwell only on some of them.


The characteristic property of these diaphragms was the fact that the diameter of diaphragm itself was about 300 mm, and its necks - 60 mm. Therefore even the formed diaphragm to remove from the punch neither theoretically nor in effect it was impossible. Rotation into VIAM - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS for help in the development of this technology proved to be unsuccessful. VIAM - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS gave out the conclusion: the production of diaphragms with this narrow neck is impossible, is necessary to change construction and to make diaphragm with neck not less than 1/3 its diameter. After disputes and considerations it was decided to accept the proposal of the chief of brigade KOPRIN A. S. Zazakov - to press diaphragm with the collapsible punch of casting mold. But with the first press-fittings it was explainedthat the sharp edges of the segments of punch cut the still uncongealed neck, and upper letniki with the extraction from the mold of diaphragm escape together with rubber of wall itself. It was also revealed, that the walls of diaphragm in its throat part (by thickest) shere nedovulkanizirovany. This is marriage. Sharp edges of segments cannot be rounded off: the surface finish is disrupted. Stearin spark plugs helped. They greased neck by stearin and excluded cuts. More complex it was with finalizing of the regime of vulcanization.

A number of experiments according to the temperature distribution at the different points of the body of diaphragm with the vulcanization was conducted. By the electrotechnical laboratory TSZL, which at that time led F. A. samarin, were prepared the finest thermocouples, which were embedded into damp rubber and were begun pressing at the different points of diaphragm. The measurements of temperatures in the process of extrusion and vulcanization showed that the difference of temperatures reaches 30-40 deg S. samaya low - in neck; therefore there was nedovulkanizatsiya. Then for the press they prepared the lower plate of heating with the large power of heating, and into the mold introduced three thermocouples for a constant control of the temperature in the process of molding. The difference of temperatures they brought to 10 deg Of s. dopolnitel'no were equipped press and mold of asbestos with jacket- screen, that protects mold from the chaotic cooling by air of the shop, where suction and exhaust ventilation always worked. After several modifications it was possible to ensure the difference of temperatures in the mold in entire volume of molding diaphragm S. eto's plus- minus 1,5 deg it made it possible to obtain the qualitative diaphragms, which with the cyclic tests in the composition of hydroaccumulator and hydraulic system maintained 2,5 times of more cycles, than this was provided by technical specifications.

The all-round team was formed with this search operation: brigade leader - V. n. lezhenin (general foreman "- 17), A. S. Zazakov - the chief of brigade KOPRIN, N. p. Golubyov - the deputy general foreman, V. p. kuzmichev - technologist of shop, M. V. mirovich - shop foreman, V. n. marenich - mechanics of shop and the most experienced, highly skilled molders A. S. mayorova and A. i. kartashova.

The production of mold carried out the best turner of shop "- 20, the professional of upper class - K. f. mukhin.

After the new technological process of molding diaphragms was mastered, general foreman "- 17 V. n. lezhenin made a report in the laboratory "- 9 VIAM - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS. Specialists there was assembled much, since problems in them were analogous, but they did not yield to the solution. At first many did not believe that such is possible, but, after becoming acquainted with the drawings and diaphragms themselves, arrived into the surprise and required the trips to Dubna for the acquaintance on the spot with the technological process of manufacture of diaphragms.

The new technological process, proposed by plant, became the basis of the instructional technological materials of branch (RTM).


The fiberglass laminate fairings about the rocket X -22 the length of 2,5 m, the diameter of 920 mm and with a thickness of wall on the order 7,5 mm of the variable section (the nose has to poton'she, in base thicker) had to be: by durable, airtight, by vapor- and moisture-proof, radio-transparent, thermoresistant and not to be divided into layers with the heating in the flow to 350-400 degs; the circumscriptions of fairing must correspond to drawing (ogival form) and have the high surface finish. To calculate the accurately necessary wall thickness from the ogive was theoretically impossible, since not there was theory of calculation. Calculations were produced according to the approximate empirical formula depending on the dielectric constant of material. Therefore the thicknesses of the walls of fairing in the drawings were given approximately, they had to ensure the transmission coefficient of radio signal in the limits of 70-75 percent.

The first fairings were made in Khimkakh at the plant "- of 301 on their equipment by our workers under the management of their specialists and specialist from VIAM - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS. Fairings were formed with vacuum method and on the hydro-master form they performed mechanical processing of their external surface to the necessary thickness, but in this case unavoidably occurred shearing it was layer fiberglass fabric. Local scalings occurred with further working, puttying and drying, transport in these places. Marriage. The fairings, prepared in Khimkakh, ensured the transmission coefficient of radio signal not more than 50-55 %. Their conducted tests for the heat resistance showed that the walls of fairing are divided into layers and swell with the heating.

Therefore they refused from the vacuum method, and according to chief designer grushin's experience it was decided to test impregnation operation under the pressure (hydro-vacuum method). Prepared steel matrices and punch (with height of 2,5 meters) and by the surface finish (6. Casting for this bulky and complex mold was made at the firm Of s. p. Korolev. Working on the outline of matrix and punch was produced shop "- 20 on the lathe, specially equipped with hydro-master form, with the subsequent checking of clearance "lead soldiers". Steel mold was supplied with impregnating ring in base and carbine in the nose section (for the evacuation). With reaching of clearance between the matrix and the punch 7(0,4 mm they made experimental press-fitting. Sewed on fiberglass laminate packet into 38 it was layer fiberglass fabrics and with great difficulty they put on matrix to the punch. They rolled into the furnace, connected to the impregnating system, into the impregnating tank they flooded resin FN, otvakuumirovali form and gave pressure on resin. Resin into the form went, but not to the end: form is nonhermetic. They rolled it from the furnace, with difficulty they removed matrix, then the polupropitannyy packet from the punch. They cleaned everything, and on the night they sewed on new packet and again repeated impregnation. And so three times, with the sequential molding the airtightness of form rose. And only after four experiment press-fittings it was possible to hermetically seal form and to obtain the normally formed packet of fairing.

For guaranteeing of hydrostability, retention of radiotransparency and airtightness of fairing in the shop "- 17 was developed the integrated system with the aid of the paint and varnish coats. According to the recommendations VIAM - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS and OKB to the internal surface of fairing were brought on 12 it was layer varnish 9-32 with the drying of each layer in the furnace at a temperature of y20(S during three it was hour. Tests showed that this it is insufficient: fairings flowed, swelling external paint and varnish coat.

Way out found very workers of shop "- 17: they proposed the internal surface of fairing to drench by varnish 9-32. The fairings about the leakage test were maintained after three such glazings and their drying.

There was provided for fulfilling requirements on the radiotransparency with the aid of the puttying of the external surface of fairing. So after conducting of a whole series of experimental works, alterations of rigging and equipment the technology of the production of the fairings about the rocket X -22 was created, fixed and mastered. On the base of our technology in VIAM - All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Aviation Materials they protected six candidate and one doctoral of thesis.

Active participants in the creation of the new technology of the production of the fairings about the rocket X -22 they were L. ye. Kurilov - senior technologist of shop "- 17, G. A. osykin - senior shop foreman "- 17, N. p. Golubyov - deputy general foreman "- 17, k. A. Shcherbakov - colleague VIAM - ALL-UNION SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF AVIATION MATERIALS, V. i. lagutin and G. p. nasonova (BAR).

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