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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Field Manual
No. 3-3-1

Fleet Marine Force Manual
No. 11-18

FM 3-3-1
FMFM 11-18

HEADQUARTERS
DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
U.S. MARINE CORPS
Washington, DC, 9 September 1994

FM 3-3-1

Nuclear Contamination Avoidance

MEMORANDUM, SUBJECT: Request to Change Chemical Proponent Field Manual Distribution Restriction Statements, 6 October 2000, with 12 October 2000 e-mail endorsement.

Table of Contents


Preface

Introduction

Chapter 1 - Vulnerability Analysis

The IPB Process

Nuclear Threat Status (STANAG 2984)

Nuclear Vulnerability Analysis

Casualty and Damage Assessment

Safety Distance Assessment

Nuclear Radiation Safety

Primary Targets

Targeting Terms and Criteria

Analysis of Friendly Unit Vulnerability

Vulnerability Analysis

Visual Technique

Vulnerability Reduction

Active Measures

Passive Measures

Plan Ahead

Avoid Detection

Provide Warning

Maintain Discipline

Seek Protection

Disperse

Remain Mobile

Cover Supplies and Equipment

Limit Exposure

Prevent Spread of Contamination

Chapter 2 - NBC Warning and Reporting System

Standard NBC Reports

NBC 1 Report

NBC 2 Report

NBC 3 Report

NBC 4 Report

NBC 5 Report

Managing the NBC Warning and Reporting System

Collecting Nuclear Information

Monitoring, Survey, and Reconnaissance Data

Evaluating Nuclear Information

Unit Procedures

NBCC Procedures

Transmitting Nuclear Information

Unit Level

Battalion Level

Brigade or Task Force Level

NBCC Level

Designated Observer System

Designated Ground-Based Observers

Designated Aerial Observers

Nondesignated Observers

Friendly Nuclear Attack Warnings

Responsibility

STRIKWARN Messages

Automated Nuclear, Biological, and Chemical Information System (ANBACIS)

Chapter 3 - Introduction to Nuclear Operations

Nuclear Weapons Effects

Initial Radiation Effects

Residual Radiation Effects

Unused Fissionable Material

Fission Products

Neutron-Induced Activity

Effects of Fallout on Ships at Sea

Nuclear Clouds

Detecting the Attack

Angular Cloud Width

Stabilized Cloud-Bottom or Cloud-Top Angle

Cloud-Top or Cloud-Bottom Height

Observer Position

Location of Ground Zero/Azimuth to the Attack

Unit Level Procedures

Location of Ground Zero

Yield Estimation

On Shore

Onboard Ships

Significance of Fallout Ashore versus at Sea

Flash-to-Bang Time

Type of Burst and Time of Attack

Recording and Reporting Nuclear Burst Data

Evaluating Data

NBCC Procedures

Date and Time of Attack

Ground Zero Location

Yield Estimation

Nuclear Burst Angular Cloud Width

Stabilized Cloud-Top or Cloud-Bottom Height

Stabilized Cloud-Top or Cloud-Bottom Angle

Yield Estimation From Radar Data

Illumination Time

Resolved Yield

NBC 2 Nuclear Report

Strike Serial Number

Simplified Fallout Prediction

Wind Data

Effective Downwind Message

Preparation of a Message

Special Cases (Wind Data)

Naval Effective Downwind Message

Preparation of a Message (Constant Pressure Data)

M5A2 Fallout Predictor

Procedures for Using Simplified Method

Constructing a Simplified Predictor

Simplified Fallout Prediction (Normal Case)

Simplified Fallout Prediction (Expanded Case)

Simplified Fallout Prediction (Circular Case)

Ship's Fallout Template

Safety Distance

Fallout Plotting from NAV EDM and Observations

Fallout Plotting from NAV EDM and NAV NBC 2 Nuclear Report

Chapter 4 - Detailed Fallout Prediction--NBC 3 Report

Overview

Significance of Predicted Fallout Zones

Inside the Predicted Area

Outside the Predicted Area

Reliability

Arrival of Fallout

NBCC Procedures

Unit Procedures

Fallout Plotting From NAV NBC 3 Nuclear Report

Actual Fallout Direction

Chapter 5 - Monitoring, Survey, and Reconnaissance

Planning, Conducting, Recording, and Reporting

Monitoring

Direct Monitoring

Indirect Monitoring

Recording and Reporting Monitoring Data

Surveys

Control of Surveys

Survey Planning at the NBC Center

Personnel and Equipment Requirements

Coordination

Survey Team Briefing

Aerial Survey

Determination of Overall Correction Factors

Airborne Radioactivity

Contour Line Plotting

Aerial Survey Team Actions

Recording and Reporting

Ground Survey

Reconnaissance

Contamination Marking

Vehicle Correlation Factor

Unit Procedures

Ground Radiological Recon

Aerial Recon

NBCC Actions

Chapter 6 - Nuclear Defense

Optimum Time of Exit for Fallout Areas

Special Considerations

Sample Problem

Transmission Factors

Calculation of H-Hour

Use of ABC-M1 Radiac Calculator

Rainout and Washout

Tactical Implications

Period of Validty and Decay Rate

Determination of Decay Rate

Normalizing Readiness to H + 1

Normalizing Factor

Total Dose Procedures

Multiple Burst Procedures

Dose Rate Calculation Methods

Dose Rate Calculations for Overlapping Fallout

Crossing a Fallout Area

Application of Avoidance Principles

ANBACIS System

Chapter 7 - Neutron-Induced Radiation Areas

Plotting NIGA Areas

Decay of Induced Radiation

Dose-Rate Calculations

Total Dose Calculations for NIGA

Crossing an Induced-Radiation Area

Transmission Factors for Neutron-Induced Areas

Determination of Decay Rate for Induced Radiation

Determination of Dose Rate for an Arbitrary Time

Determination of Dose Accumulated in an NIGA Area

Determintion of Time of Exit from an NIGA Area Given a Maximum Dosage

Chapter 8 - Civilian Radiation Hazards

Appendix A - Operational Exposure Guidance

Categories of Exposure

Risk Criteria

Negligible Risk

Moderate Risk

Emergency Risk

Radiation Exposure Records

Processing Data

Individual Dosimetry

Appendix B - Shielding

Principles

Materials

Effectiveness

Transmission Factors

Determination of Transmission Factors

Sample Problems

Exercise Problems

Appendix C - Nuclear Burst Effects on Electronics

Types of EMP

Surface-Burst EMP

High-Altitude EMP

The HEMP Threat

Tactical Equipment

Personnel

Collectors and Antennas

Basic Planning

Mitigation Techniques

Administrative and Training Situations

Rules of Thumb

Training with Back-Up Systems

Preattack and During-Attack Operations

Collectors and Antennas

Cables and Grounds

Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence

Shelters and Shielding

Power Sources

Postattack Recovery and Continued Operations

Appendix D - Wind Vector Plotting

Upper-Air Wind Data

Procedures

Field Artillery Wind Data--Manual Method

Field Artillery Wind Data--Plotting Scale Method

Ballistic MET Message

Computer MET Message

Octant Codes and Locations

Air Weather Service Wind Data--Plotting Scale Method

Air Weather Service Constant Pressure Data--Plotting Scale Method

Other Wind Data--Manual Method

Appendix E - Nomograms and Tables

Appendix F - Additional Calculations

Determining Decay Rate

Pocket Calculator Method

Graphical Method

Determining Dose Rates

Normalizing Factors

Mathematical Method

Graphical Method

Multiple Burst Procedures

Calculating Fallout of One Burst

Calculator Method

Graphical Method

Calculating Overlapping Fallout

Appendix G - Nuclear Operations Checklists

Prepare for Operations in an NBC Environment

Prepare for a Nuclear Attack

Respond to a Nuclear Attack

Conduct Post Attack Operations

Respond to a Nuclear Fallout Prediction

Operate in a Nuclear-Contaminated Area

Cross a Nuclear-Contaminated Area

Conduct or Supervise a Radiological Survey

Conduct or Supervise Decontamination

Evacuate Radiologically Contaminated Casualties

Respond to a STRIKWARN Message

Respond to an Unexpected Contaminated Area

Respond to a Civilian Nuclear Accident or Incident

References

Glossary

Reproducible Forms

DA Form 1971-R, Radiological Data Sheet--Monitoring or Point Technique

DA Form 1971-1-R, Radiological Data Sheet--Route or Course Leg Technique

DA Form 1971-3-R, Effective Downwind Message Worksheet

DA Form 1971-4-R, Fallout Prediction Worksheet--Surface Burst

DA Form 1971-5-R Fallout Prediction Worksheet--ADM Subsurface Burst

Authorization Letter


DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.

U.S. MARINE CORPS PCN: 139 001194 00



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