Space


Titan IV

The Titan IV is a heavy lift rocket booster that assured continued access to space for the nation's highest priority space systems, such as Defense Support Program and Milstar satellites. It is complementary to the Space Transportation System in payload volume and performance, and capable of supporting launches at both WSMC and ESMC. [(9)]

The Titan IV system evolved from the basic family of Titan systems, namely the Titan IIIB, C, D, E, and 34D, which have contributed to national space objectives for more than 25 years. The Titan IV, a derivative of the versatile Titan III family, is similar to the Titan 34D. Both the first and second stages have been stretched, and an additional one and a half segments have been added to each of the strap-on solid rocket motors. The 16.7-foot-wide payload fairing will enclose both the satellite and upper stage.

The Titan IV consists of a liquid propellant core of two stages with a pair of large solid rocket motors (SRM) attached to the core to provide the initial stage of boost from liftoff. Stage 0 currently consists of two solid-rocket motors which provide 1.5 million pounds (675,000 kilograms) per motor at liftoff. The Titan IV'S first stage consists of an LR-87 liquid-propellant rocket that features structurally independent tanks for its fuel (Aerozine 50) and oxidizer (Nitrogen Tetroxide). This minimizes the hazard of the two mixing if a leak should develop in either tank. Additionally, the engines' propellant can be stored in a launch-ready state for extended periods. The use of propellants stored at normal temperature and pressure eliminates delays and gives the Titan IV the capability to meet critical launch windows. The Stage 1 LR-87 engines have an average of 548,000 pounds (246,600 kilograms). Stage 2 uses the LR-91 liquid-propellant engine with an average of 105,000 pounds (47,250 kilograms).

While a variety of upper stages may be compatible with the booster, the two upper stages baselined for use on the Titan IV are the Boeing Aerospace Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) and the (formerly General Dynamics) Centaur Titan/Centaur-G.

Titan 401 with the Centaur-G upper stage is launched from Cape Canaveral Pad 40. Payload fairings can range in length from 66 to 86 feet. When configured with the Centaur, a single stage liquid propellant restartable upper stage, which provides 33,100 pounds (14,895 kilograms) of thrust, the Titan IV/Centaur is capable of placing a 10,000-pound payload into Geosynchronous Earth Orbit (GEO).

Titan 402 with the IUS upper stage which is launched from Cape Canaveral can put 38,784 pounds into an 80 X 95 nm low Earth orbit at a 28.5 degree inclination. The Titan IV/IUS configuration, which provides up to 41,500 pounds (18,675 kilograms) of thrust, is capable of placing a 2,360 kilograms (5,250 pounds) payload into GEO.

Titan 403 is a Titan 4 with no upper stage (NUS) launched from Vandenberg AFB. It has a 66-foot payload fairing and is be able to put 32,160 Ib. into a 100-nm circular orbit from Vandenberg. When configured without an upper stage (NUS), the Titan IV/NUS can place a 17,550 kilograms (39,000 pounds) into a 144 kilometers (90 miles) orbit when launched from Cape Canaveral; The 403 configuration launched from the West Coast is the same as the 405 version launched from Cape Canaveral.

Titan 404 is a Vandenberg configuration with no upper stage. The payload fairing size and orbital parameters are secret. Payload capacity is 29,800 pounds.

Titan 405 is a Titan 4 with no upper stage (NUS) launched from Vandenberg AFB. It has a 66-foot payload fairing and is be able to put 32,160 Ib. into a 100-nm circular orbit and up to 13,950 kilograms (31,000 pounds) 160 kilometers polar orbit when launched from Vandenberg. The 403 configuration launched from the West Coast is the same as the 405 version launched from Cape Canaveral.

Overall length is up to 204 feet (61.2 meters), with a maximum takeoff weight of approximately 1,900,000 pounds (2,855,000 kilograms).

Development of the Titan IV program was in direct response to a National Security Decision Directive. The initial contract for development, qualification, and production of 10 Titan IVs with Centaur upper stages was awarded in February 1985. This contract included the activation and operation of a single Titan IV/Centaur launch facility at Cape Canaveral AFB, FL (CCAFS).

As a result of the January 1986 Space Shuttle Challenger accident, the Department of Defense (DOD) embarked on a recovery plan which included the acquisition of 13 additional Titan IV boosters, activation and operation of an existing Titan launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, CA (VAFB), the design and development of a new Titan/Centaur launch pad at VAFB and Space Transportation System (STS)/Titan IV dual compatibility for some AF satellites launched from CCAFS. The resulting 23-vehicle Titan IV program was placed on contract in December 1987, and was-structured to account for the impacts of the April 1986 Titan 34D accident and the June 1986 NASA/Centaur cancellation.

Progress made by the core contractor allowed delivery of the first core to CCAFS ahead of schedule. However, delays in deliveries of the payload fairing and solid rocket motors caused a delay in delivery of the final vehicle components from February to April 1988.

The delay in the Titan IV/NUS WTR ILC at VAFB to December 1990 was caused by the requirement for additional electrical modifications to the Mobile Service Tower (MST) and the need to complete ground systems tests. The Titan IV/NUS WTR ILC was subsequently achieved two months early in October 1990.

The initial Centaur ILC structural test (July 1989) was completed in November 1989. Additional Centaur tests were completed in April 1991. The delayed launch of the first Titan IV caused a slip in the T-IV/Centaur ILC due to derived scheduling conflicts. A further slip occurred from August 1991 to November 1991 due to a launch delay of Titan IV-6. The delay impacted facility modifications necessary for Centaur. An additional slip from August 1991 to November 1991 due to Centaur separation ring redesign and test in preparation for the ILC and a May 1991 Atlas Centaur flight failure (AC-70). A further slip from November 1991 to February 1992 resulted from additional inspections for contaminations resulting from the Commercial Atlas/Centaur (AC-70) failure investigation. The next slip from February 1992 to December 1992 was due to an acceptance test failure of the Digital Computer Unit. The next slip from December 1992 to June 1993 was due to assessment of the August 1992 AC-71 failure and user direction.

DOD later embarked on an increased capacity plan which included the modification of an additional launch pad at CCAFS, the acquisition of 18 additional Titan IV boosters and associated facility and plant enhancements. The current 41-vehicle program was definitized in December 1989.

The first Titan IV was successfully launched in June 1989 from CCAFS. Two successful launches were conducted during 1990. Two additional successful launches were conducted during 1991 (including the first VAFB launch), and one during 1992.

A Titan IV vehicle launched from VAFB on 2 August 1993 experienced a failure. The subsequent investigation indicated that a burn through on one of the SRMs caused the failure. Corrective actions were implemented to allow launch operations to resume in February 1994.

Titan IV/Centaur ILC was successfully achieved during September 1993. This date had slipped from February 1993 to June 1993 due to implementation of the AC-71 failure fixes. The August 1992 AC-71 duplicated the April 1991 AC-70 failure, even though the cause had been thought corrected. In both cases the C-1 engine turbopump failed to rotate and allow the engine to bootstrap, though in both cases both engines ignited properly. Titan/Centaur successfully launched the first Milstar satellite from CCAFS on 7 February 1994.




TITAN RETURNS TO FLIGHT - A Titan IVB launches from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Friday, April 9, 1999.


References

9. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

10. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

11. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

12. Adapted from: Testimony by Lt. Gen. John E. Jaquish, principal deputy, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) and Maj. Gen. Donald G. Hard, director of space programs, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) to the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Defense, in Washington, DC, 6 May 1992.

13. Adapted from: Space and Missile Systems Center, "Titan IV Selected Acquisition Report," (RCS:DD-COMP(Q&A)823), 31 December 1993.

14. Adapted from: Testimony by Lt. Gen. John E. Jaquish, principal deputy, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) and Maj. Gen. Donald G. Hard, director of space programs, assistant secretary of the Air Force (acquisition) to the House Committee on Appropriations, Subcommittee on Defense, in Washington, DC, 6 May 1992.



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