SHF SATCOM services provide the coverage, protection, and capacity required to maintain connectivity between shore-based commands, deployed units, and joint/ allied forces during all phases of operations. SHF SATCOM services supply deployed units with data (acquired from reconnaissance, surveillance, planning, and intelligence systems) that is used to accomplish intelligence assessments and develop coordinated strike plans. SHF SATCOM bandwidth is also used to support the growing requirement for services such as graphics/ imagery dissemination, warrior-pull, and weather/ oceanographic data that support mission planning functions. Additional mission readiness and support requirements that use SATCOM services include VTC, telemedicine, teletraining, remote maintenance/ technical assistance, logistics database updates, supply requisitioning, and administrative support.
Among the menu of services via DSCS SHF are the DISN, GCCS, JMCIS, Contingency Tactical Air Control System (TACS) Automated Planning System (CTAPS), Advanced Narrowband Digital Voice Terminal (ANDVT), STU-III, PC-to-PC transfer via STU-III, TADIXS, broadcast record message traffic, Manual Relay Center Modernization Program (MARCEMP), TOMAHAWK Mission Planning packages and updates, imagery support, Defense Switched Network (DSN) telephone/ Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) access, JDISS, JWICS, Unclassified But Sensitive and Secret Internet Protocol Router Network (NIPRNET and SIPRNET), VIXS/ VTC, SALTS, and TESS/ Navy Integrated Tactical Environmental Subsystem (NITES).
OPERATIONAL MANAGEMENT RESPONSIBILITIES
various organizations have responsibilities regarding the DSCS. Control responsibilities are as follows:
Operational Control. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, jointly with the ASD (C3I) provides guidance to DISA and the unified and specified commands that serves as a basis for their relationships, to include provision of service by the DSCS. The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff validates all ICDB (formerly ISDB) requirement submissions for use of the DSCS and provides guidance to Director, DISA for control procedures and allocation of DSCS resources.
Technical Management. The Commander in Chief, USCINCSPACE is responsible to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff for maintaining the health, status, and survivability aspects of the DSCS space segment. In this role, USCINCSPACE plans and executes satellite tracking, station keeping, and payload control (planned by DISA). The command is also involved in the planning and integration of satellite systems.
DSCS Control Organization
Technical Direction. DISA is the DOD-designated system manager for the DSCS. DISA plans and manages operations at the system level for the DSCS program. Other tasks include design, engineering, and development to satisfy validated requirements in support of operations by elements of DOD or other users. DISA also establishes configuration standards for the earth and communications control segments of the system.
Ground Mobile Force Satellite Control (GMFSC) System and C4I Afloat Networks. Previously these were considered subnetworks whose access to satellite resources was limited to either channel 1 or 2. However, a recent joint Service/ Navy decision will allow all users to have the "best fit" at the time of access request, rather than limiting GMF users to transponder 2 and maritime users to transponder 1. DISA will now determine the best path to fulfill the communication requirement at the time SHF SATCOM service is requested.
SURTASS Network. The control of this system in DSCS is assigned to the Naval Satellite Communications Facilities (NAVSATCOMMFAC) located at NCTAMS Pacific (PAC) and NCTAMS LANT. The Army-operated DSCS facility at Fort Buckner, Okinawa, Japan, serves as the control and monitoring facility for SURTASS units communicating via the DSCS IO transponder. Monitoring of the net is accomplished by the SURTASS Control Satellite Monitoring System (SCSMS) which measures link status and margins. SCSMS also performs the monitoring functions to provide information to the NAVSATCOMMFAC for control of the system located on DSCS III. Bandwidth and power of the system are monitored by the appropriate DSCSOCs and RCCs; violations are reported to the NAVSATCOMMFAC. The current Navy SURTASS bandwidth validated and authorized for DSCS satellites is 2 MHz on the ELANT, EPAC, WPAC, and IO satellites.
In order to allow the DSCS Network Manager to establish the most efficient assignment of resources to meet operational requirements, the Joint Staff is sponsoring a 1-year test to be conducted to help meet joint task force requirements for direct interaction of afloat and GMF users, as well as to ensure new procedures actually support effective DSCS utilization. The test began 1 June 1997. At the end of the 1-year test, the Joint Staff will review the pros and cons of making a permanent change to the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Instruction (CJCSI) 6630.01 Joint Maritime C4I Systems Standards and changes to the SLEP. The following rules will be in place throughout the test period:
Neither an approved ICDB number nor acquisition of satellite terminals guarantees access to any MILSATCOM system.
DSCS satellite payload and antenna configuration will remain optimized to support the maximum number of users, both tactical and strategic, with channel 2 antenna coverage optimized for land mass support. Changes in antenna coverage will only occur in response to joint operational requirements, either tactical or strategic.
Surge capacity for tactical forces is a critical component of the day-to-day management of DSCS. During day-to-day operations, channel 2 will not normally be allowed to reach 100 percent power or bandwidth utilization.
All DSCS terminals must be performance characterized to allow the DSCS network manager to properly model resource usage. All new terminals or configurations must pass DSCS certification. The purpose of certification is to ensure that terminals do not disrupt other users on the satellite and to provide the terminal characterization for DSCS modeling.
DSCS is a dynamic communications system which requires frequent interactions between the DSCS operations center and the end user, these interactions are called "positive control." In order to operate efficiently and to ensure no one user disrupts the entire transponder, this positive control must be extended to all users of DSCS. Any user without a positive control link will not normally be allowed access on DSCS.
Military satellite communications access is driven by mission priorities which are defined in MOP 37 and enforced by the Unified CINC. All users accessing DSCS will have a validated ICDB number and associated mission priority based on actual mission assigned. The Unified CINCs will validate the priorities of their missions and adjudicate any conflicts within their area of responsibility (AOR).
DSCS Network Manager will determine the optimal network configuration and provide Unified CINCs with the resource impacts if unable to support a requested mission, either completely or at required bandwidth. Unified CINCs will adjudicate conflicts among their components. If a Unified CINC is unable to adjust requirements, then the Unified CINC will address the issue to the Joint Staff J6Z. The DSCS Network Manager is not responsible for adjudication, but will provide the best technical solutions, with possible workarounds, to achieve Unified CINC objectives. User conflicts will be resolved by the Joint Staff.
The DSCS Network Manager will determine optimal diplexer frequency to support ship/ GMF terminations, when authorized, to avoid disruptions with other authorized users.
SHF SATCOM Access
Access to SHF SATCOM service is provided through full period terminations established between afloat users and gateway earth station service providers ashore. Full period terminations are dedicated circuits which provide communications between commanders afloat and ashore. These terminations require allocation of limited assets, therefore, the rules for request, approval, and establishing such circuits are stringent. Commanders and individual units may request full period termination during special operations, deployments, periods of intense training, or exercises when it is determined that normal ship-shore links will not satisfy volume, data rate, sensitivity, or effective command and control requirements. Ships will submit an SHF SATCOM termination request to the DSCS Network Manager and terminating NCTAMS.
The following guidance applies:
All DOD and non-DOD organizations needing access to MILSATCOM services are required to follow the procedures for submitting requests outlined in the DISA TMS-C Toolkit Users Manual. In accordance with CJCS MOP 37, all long-term requirements for use of MILSATCOM systems must be validated by the theater CINC and approved by the CJCS before access to a space segment is authorized.
Users with short-term, one-time, nonrecurring requirements may be authorized access without validation. This may occur if the System Operational Manager (SOM) determines the requirements satisfy CJCS MOP 37 criteria and can be supported without adversely impacting other validated user requirements.
Users with urgent requirements to support crisis, contingency, or wartime operational missions can be authorized access without validation if the requirement is supported by a CINC and approved by the JCSC.
All other requirements must be validated and approved through the CJCS MOP 37 process and assigned an ICDB number before the user is authorized access to a space segment.
Although each naval unit with SATCOM capability may have a valid operational requirement, other higher priority operational requirements and limited space segment capacity can restrict access. Naval units requesting a routine SATCOM termination must submit the request to the appropriate FLTCINC and NCTAMS no later than 14 days prior to the activation time. Requests that do not meet this time requirement must be justified.
If space segment assets must be used beyond the approved access period, the user will coordinate with the appropriate elements of the control segment. This coordination should take place a minimum of 24 hours prior to the end of authorized access.
Any Navy terminal transmitting to the DSCS satellite must establish and maintain positive control communications with the Satellite Network Controller (SNC) at the DSCSOC at all times. Possible vehicles to satisfy this requirement include, but are not limited to DSN, commercial phone, or International Maritime Satellite (INMARSAT). In the event that the primary method fails, the terminal operator must use an alternate means to regain control communications with the DSCSOC. Whenever the terminal is transmitting to the satellite, the terminal must be attended by at least one qualified SHF-trained Radioman or Electronics Technician operator. The terminal must be operated according to technical manuals and established DSCS procedures. Ships must respond to the direction of the DSCSOC. If there is disagreement with the DSCSOC direction, the ship will execute the instruction and seek arbitration through the Numbered Fleet Commander.
To support accurate planning for DSCS accesses, the basic block diagram of each ship's configuration must be provided via E-mail to the Navy liaison to the DSCS Network Manager. The JMCOMS home page (http:// 22.214.171.124/jmcoms) provides additional directions regarding the information required. Any future modifications must also be reported to ensure that any required parameter changes are incorporated into the DSCS planning tool.
SHF Satellite Access Request (SAR) Procedures and Format
Access request procedures for SHF SATCOM-capable ships equipped with any combination of satellite terminal, modem, and baseband equipment configurations include, but are not limited to, AN/ WSC -6( V) 1 SHF SURTASS, AN/ WSC-6( V) 2 SHF installed on Numbered-Fleet Flagships, AN/ WSC -6( V) 4 SHF installed on aircraft carriers (CV/ CVN) and large-deck amphibious (LHA/ LHD) ships. Modem types that may be employed include the OM-55( V)/ USC spread-spectrum AJ modem, the MD-1030A( V) BPSK narrowband modem, and the CQM-248A FDMA modem. Multiplexers may include equipment from the AN/ FCC-100( V), TD-1389( V), and TIMEPLEX LINK/ 2+.
Satellite Access Request (SAR) messages are classified as appropriate; the minimum message classification is CONFIDENTIAL. Termination requests are submitted at least 14 days prior to desired activation date. The activation date precedes a ship's underway time by 72 hours. SHF SATCOM termination request messages are addressed to the controlling FLTCINC and terminating NCTAMS. The message format for an SHF SAR is used by joint C4I forces afloat when requesting access to DSCS.
PRECEDENCE (NORMALLY ROUTINE) DATE-TIME GROUP FM (ORIGINATING STATION)// TO (NUMBERED FLEET COMMANDER)// (Note 1) DSCS NETWORK MANAGER WASHINGTON DC// (SUPPORTING NCTAMS OR NCTAMS DET)// (Note 1) INFO CNO WASHINGTON DC// N6/ N63/ N631C// COMNAVCOMTELCOM WASHINGTON DC// N3/ N6// COMSPAWARSYSCOM SAN DIEGO CA// PMW176// COMNAVSPACECOM DAHLGREN VA// N3/ N5// (FLTCINC)// (Note 1) (UNIFIED CINC)// (Note 2) JOINT STAFF WASHINGTON DC// J6Z/ J6S// DISAGOSC WASHINGTON DC// D311// DISA WASHINGTON DC// D3/ D333// DISA EUR VAIHINGEN GE// EU3/ EU7/ RCC// (Note 3) DISA PAC WHEELER AAF HI// PC321/ RCC// (ANY OTHER AS APPROPRIATE) BT (CLASSIFICATION)// N02300// MSGID/ MSG/( ORIGINATING COMMAND// SUBJ/ C4I/ SHF SATELLITE ACCESS REQUEST (SAR)// REF/ A/ RMG/ DSCS NETWORK MANAGER/ 191850ZAUG97// REF/ B/ COMNAVSPACECOM/ 971101// NARR/ REF A IS INTERIM (2) C4I/ SHF SATELLITE ACCESS REQUEST (SAR) FORMAT. REF B IS NTP 2 SECTION 1( D) NAVY SHF SATCOM.// POC/( AS APPROPRIATE)// RMKS/ 1. IAW REF A AND B, SHF SATELLITE ACCESS REQUEST. A. SHF ACCESS REQUEST; 1. TIME FRAME REQUIRED (FROM/ TO): 2. REQUIRED AGGREGATE DATA RATE: 3. MISSION PRIORITY (IAW CJCS MOP 37)/ ICDB NUMBER: 4. TERMINAL TYPES, SIZE OF ANTENNA: (Note 4) 5. REQUESTED SHORE TERMINATION POINT: 6. SHIP CURRENT LOCATION (LAT., LONG.): 7. OPERATIONAL SCHEDULE: (INCLUDE TRANSIT TRACK DATA [PIM, 12- HOUR POINT] AS WELL AS OPERATING AREA BOX [FOUR POINT REF.]. UPDATE AS REQUIRED IN DAILY QUICKLOOK REPORT.) 8. ANTICIPATED POINT OF TRANSITION: (LAT., LONG., AND DATE) USED TO IDENTIFY APPROXIMATE CUTOVER POINT TO NEW DSCS SATELLITE IN SUPPORT OF OPAREA CHANGE. (MED TO IO, ETC.) 9. DESCRIPTION OF PLANNED ACCESS: (E. G., SOVT, EXERCISE, OR JTF DEPLOYMENT) 10. PRIMARY AND ALTERNATE MEANS OF CONTACTING THE SHIP. (THIS MUST BE SHF-QUALIFIED, 24-HR POC) (ISDN, CA III NUMBER, INMARSAT, NOT TIMEPLEX O/ W) (Note 5) B. CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS (LIST BASEBAND INTERFACE REQUIREMENTS AND CHANNELIZATION FOR TYPE OF SERVICE.) (Note 6) C. STAFF EMBARKED (IF NONE SO STATE) D. INFORMATION AS APPROPRIATE RELATIVE TO ANY EQUIPMENT DIFFICULTIES OR LIMITATIONS. E. OTHER POINT OF CONTACT (INCLUDE NIPRNET AND SIPRNET ADDRESSES) (Note 7) F. OTHER INFORMATION AS APPROPRIATE. (IF NONE SO STATE)// (Note 8) DECL/ XXX// BT
Note 1: Controlling FLTCINC, controlling NCTAMS, and Numbered Fleet Commanders are keyed to the AOR and satellite requested as specified below.
· Controlling FLTCINC is determined according to the following guidelines:
-For LANT and LANT/ Mediterranean (MED) AOR terminations:
CINCLANTFLT NORFOLK VA// N6//
-For PAC and PAC/ IO terminations:
CINCPACFLT PEARL HARBOR HI// N6A//
-For MED AOR terminations:
CINCUSNAVEUR LONDON UK// N6//
-For U. S. Central Command (CENTCOM) AOR terminations:
· Controlling NCTAMS is determined according to the following guidelines:
-For DSCS WLANT and LANT terminations:
NCTAMS LANT NORFOLK VA// N3//
NAVSATCOMMFAC NORTHWEST VA// OIC/ OPS//
-For DSCS ELANT and MED terminations:
NCTAMS EURCENT NAPLES IT// N3//
-For DSCS EPAC, DSCS WPAC, DSCS IO and PAC terminations:
NCTAMS PAC HONOLULU HI// N3//
-For DSCS IO and CENTCOM terminations:
NAVCOMTELSTA BAHRAIN// N3//
· Numbered Fleet Commanders are determined according to the following guidelines:
-For DSCS WLANT, DSCS ELANT, and LANT terminations:
-For DSCS EPAC, DSCS WPAC, and PAC terminations:
-For DSCS IO, DSCS WPAC, and CENTCOM terminations:
-For DSCS WLANT, DSCS ELANT, DSCS IO, and MED terminations:
-For DSCS EPAC, DSCS WPAC, DSCS IO, and PAC terminations:
Note 2: Area CINC notification requirements are keyed to the AOR as follows:
· For all LANT satellite access requests the following information addee is required:
-USCINCACOM NORFOLK VA// J62/ CSA// · For all PAC satellite access requests the following information addees are required:
-USCINCPAC HONOLULU HI// J632//
JFMO PAC HONOLULU HI
· For all MED satellite access requests the following information addee is required:
-USCINCEUR VAIHINGEN GE// ECJ6-DH// · For all CENTCOM satellite access requests the following information addee is required:
-USCINCCENT MACDILL AFB FL// J6// Note 3: Area DISA RCCs and area DSCS operations centers are keyed to the DSCS satellite requested.
· Area DISA RCCs are determined according to the following guidelines:
-For DSCS EPAC, DSCS WPAC, and DSCS IO terminations:
DISA PAC WHEELER AAF HI// PC321/ RCC//
-For DSCS WLANT, DSCS ELANT, and DSCS IO terminations:
DISA EUR VAIHINGEN GE// EU333/ RCC//
· Area DSCS operations centers and their alternates are determined according to the following guidelines:
-For DSCS WLANT terminations:
CDRACO1STSATCONBN FT DETRICK MD// MOSC-SB-A// (Primary)
CDRCCO1STSATCONBN LANDSTUHL GE// MOSC-SB-C// (Alternate)
-For DSCS ELANT terminations:
CDRBCO1STSATCONBN FT GEORGE G MEADE MD// MOSC-SB-B//
-For DSCS IO terminations:
CDRCCO1STSATCONBN LANDSTUHL GE// MOSC-SB-C// (Primary)
CDRECO1STSATCONBN FT BUCKNER JP// MOSC-SB-E// (Alternate)
-For DSCS EPAC terminations:
CDRDCO1STSATCONBN CP ROBERTS CA// MOSC-SB-D// (Primary)
CDRACO1STSATCONBN FT DETRICK MD// MOSC-SB-A// (Alternate)
-For DSCS WPAC terminations:
CDRECO1STSATCONBN FT BUCKNER JP// MOSC-SB-E// (Primary)
CDRDCO1STSATCONBN CP ROBERTS CA// MOSC-SB-D// (Alternate)
Note 4: For satellite equipment information, use a single letter subparagraph (D) to denote the SHF configuration. Include antenna information; indicate single or dual configuration, type, and size. Include diplexer and frequency range if installed. Include terminal type, e. g., TSC-93B QUICKSAT, WSC-6( V) 1 SURTASS, WSC-6( V) 2, WSC-6( V) 4, SSCT, etc.; modem equipment by type, e. g., MD-1030, CQM-248, STeL 1105, etc., and quantity; and multiplex equipment by type, e. g., FCC-100, TD-1389, TIMEPLEX, etc., and quantity.
Note 5: These contact numbers will be published in the SHF Access Authorization (SAA) as the primary means of positive control. Ships will now contact DSCSOC directly prior to accessing the satellite. It is very important that the terminal operator comply with the SAA. The terminal operator must be responsive to the directions of the DSCSOC concerning satellite access and transmit power allocation. This close monitoring is necessary because the satellite transponder has a specific amount of power and bandwidth that must be shared by every link in the channel. Any transmit terminal that exceeds its allocated power robs power from every other link in the channel. Ships will contact the DSCSOC before making any power level changes and during trouble-shooting of the satellite link.
Include recommended alternate communications methods that can be used for coordination/ restoral of SHF communications when necessary, e. g., cellular and INMARSAT telephone numbers, guarded EHF and UHF SATCOM circuits, etc.
Note 6: For circuit requirements use a single letter subparagraph (E) to denote SHF requirements. Termination configurations vary depending on the FLTCINC allocation and the type of shipboard equipment installed. Requesting units should coordinate with the appropriate FLTCINC and task force commander for guidance on probable baseband capacity prior to submitting the access request. List circuits by noun name, data rate, crypto used, and KEYMAT. Orderwire, ANDVT, and STeL/ STU-III will be standardized as the first, second, and third circuits respectively in all ocean areas. All others will be aligned by the assignment command based upon the type of termination equipment used.
Note 7: In addition to the information listed in the POC line of the SAR, include all key personnel by name and their respective shipboard and ashore telephone numbers (commercial and DSN). At a minimum, list the ship's communications officer and technical control facility supervisor. If applicable, include the staff communications officer and a number for the staff tactical flag command center watch officer.
Note 8: Other information may include a request for guidance pertaining to terminal, modem, crypto, or multiplex equipment configuration/ alignment. The assignment command will respond to each request for information in the access request message.
The guidelines for prioritization and allocation of MILSATCOM system resources are contained in CJCS MOP 37. Table 4-1 (extracted from MOP 37) provides SATCOM priorities. DISA, as the system manager for DSCS, allocates the capacity based on priority of need and the current operational situation. Potential DSCS users have been assigned a relative priority for each network based on CJCS guidelines. The type of service is listed in descending order of precedence within each of the seven priority categories. The priority assigned to a requirement is to be based on:
- Importance to national security of the information to be transmitted;
- Time sensitivity of the information to be transmitted;
- Availability of alternate means of communication;
- Impact on other users; and
- Technical and operational employment considerations, including satellite loading and survivability.
During crises or contingencies, CINCs will command warfighting forces allocated to them by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Prioritized communications requirements submitted by those CINCs in support of CJCS-assigned missions include component commander requirements. The FLTCINCs, as component commanders, are responsible for submitting network requirements to the CINCs either for validation or for changes to approved SATCOM support. FLTCINC COMMPLANs identify crisis and contingency circuits to be implemented (generally additional telephone circuits), circuit parameters, and provide NCTAMS NOCs with guidance that details network management (e. g., trunk activation/ deactivation priorities, transponder shift management responsibilities, etc.). JTF/ JTG commanders are responsible for implementation of circuits required to execute assigned missions. JTF and JTG commanders promulgate detailed COMMPLANs which specifically assign subordinate units to networks or circuits and describe the network management actions required to support the provision of SATCOM services.
MOP 37 Priority Structure
PRIORITY USER CATEGORY Priority I STRATEGIC ORDER (Essential to National Survival) A. System Control/ Orderwire B. NCA -Presidential Support -Secretary of Defense Support C. Strategic Warning/ Intelligence D. SIOP Requirements
Priority II WARFIGHTING REQUIREMENTS A. Department of State Diplomatic Negotiations B. CJCS C. CINC D. JTF/ CJTF E. Component Support (i. e., Theater Forces) F. Tactical Warning (Intelligence) G. CJCS-sponsored and Other Selected Exercises H. Counternarcotics Operations
Priority III ESSENTIAL SUPPORT A. Other Intelligence (e. g., Technical, Economic) B. Weather C. Logistics D. MIJI Support (for efforts supporting a specific user problem, effort will have priority of user affected) E. Diplomatic Post Support F. Minimum Circuits for TT& C From Space Vehicles and Primary Circuits for Manned Space Flights G. Other Service Support
Priority IV TRAINING Priority V VIP SUPPORT A. Service Secretaries B. Chiefs of the Services and Commanders of Unified and Specified Commands C. Other
Priority VI RDT& E A. DOD Test and Demonstration
Priority VII MISCELLANEOUS A. DOD Support to Law Enforcement Agencies B. Non-DOD Support C. Non-US Support D. Other
Sources and Resources
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