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South Sudan - Tribal Warfare 2013-2015

At least ten thousand people were killed in the first month of fighting between forces loyal to President Salva Kiir and soldiers backing former deputy, Riek Machar, who was dismissed in July 2013. By New Year 2014 thousands had been killed in tribal warfare that pitted Dinka troops against Nuer combatants. Some 250,000 people had been displaced by the fighting as of 09 January 2014, and while no official death toll has been released, a top U.N. official saidit is likely to be "very substantially in excess of the figure of 1,000 that we know for sure about.”

Tensions within South Sudan, the world’s youngest country which only gained independence in July 2011 after seceding from Sudan, burst out into open conflict on 15 December when President Salva Kiir's Government said soldiers loyal to former deputy president Riek Machar, dismissed in July 2013, launched an attempted coup. Kiir belongs to the Dinka ethnic group and Machar to the Lou Nuer.

After decades of struggle, by 2005 the Sudan People's Liberation Movement (SPLM) wase the dominant single political movement in Southern Sudan, and the genesis of a one-party state. On July 30, 2005, long-time SPLM leader John Garang died in a helicopter crash. The SPLM/A named Salva Kiir, Garang’s deputy, as President of the Government of South Sudan (GoSS). The July 2005 death of Garang and the formation of the Government of South Sudan gave the SPLM opportunities to bring rivals and former adversaries into the fold. The enlargement process intensified factionalism within the SPLM. While the SPLM has no serious political rival in the South, there are internal strains.

South Sudan President Salva Kiir Mayardit dismissed his entire government, including Vice President Riek Machar, in a decree issued late July 24, 2013. Kiir also removed all deputy ministers. Barnaba Marial Benjamin, South Sudan’s Minister of Information and government spokesman before the restructuring announcement said a government makeover was overdue and that Kiir acted within the constitution. He rejected any suggestion that the reshuffle, as he called it, might cause instability in the world’s youngest country.

Alarmed by the increased conflict and violence in South Sudan, particularly the eastern state of Jonglei, the Security Council on 23 August 2013 strongly condemned attacks on civilians and the looting of UN and other international aid organizations’ facilities, and called on the Government to expedite safe and unhindered humanitarian access to the people cut off from aid. In a statement to the press, the Council “called on all parties, including armed militias, to exercise restraint, refrain from any acts of violence against civilians” and to “fully respect their obligations under applicable international law, including human rights law and international humanitarian law.” An estimated 100,000 civilians in Jonglei alone have been cut off from life-saving assistance as a result of fighting between State and non-state armed actors, and the recent resurgence of inter-communal clashes.

On November 26, 2013 South Sudan’s former Vice President Riek Machar said he was putting structures in place to challenge President Salva Kiir for the leadership of the ruling Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM) ahead of the 2015 general election. Some supporters of the ruling party said he was one of a group of visionless and directionless people in the party who were power hungry and intent on enriching themselves.

In December 2013, the political dispute between President Salva Kiir and his former deputy Riek Machar descended into violence, which by the end of 2014 left at least 10,000 people dead and more than 1.8 million displaced.

South Sudan’s President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar agreed 07 November 2014 on a power sharing formula in a deal to establish a national transitional government that would help steer the world’s newest nation to elections. The two warring leaders also called on their troops for an immediate cease-fire during the ongoing peace talks in Ethiopia’s capital, Addis Ababa.

One year after South Sudan's political infighting deteriorated into a deadly conflict, the parties appeared no closer to silencing their guns and getting back to the business of building the world’s youngest nation. Since its 2011 move to independence, the country spiraled into a humanitarian crisis that the UN said left half the population hungry and nearly two million displaced. Politically motivated fighting over the past year alone killed tens of thousands South Sudanese.

On 02 January 2015 South Sudan's National Election Commission (NEC) set June 30 as the date for this year's general elections. In December 2014 the government announced that it has approved a budget of 1.5 billion South Sudanese Pounds ($517 million) for the elections, in which the presidency and all of the seats in the National Assembly will be decided. A prominent think-tank wondered where the government will get the money. The rebels said insecurity around the country would make it impossible to organize a free and fair vote.

An agreement signed 01 February 2015 by South Sudan's warring parties called for a final peace deal by early March 2015 and creation of a transitional national government by July 2015. South Sudan's president, Salva Kiir, and rebel commander Riek Machar signed it in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The text said government and rebel forces recommit to a cessation of hostilities deal signed January 23, 2014. It says negotiations will resume to work out the final peace deal, due by 05 March 2015.

More than a year of fighting in South Sudan left more than 10,000 people dead and driven about 1.5 million from their homes.

On 04 August 2015 President Barack Obama said said President Salva Kiir and his vice president-turned-rebel leader Riek Machar had squandered the hope South Sudan had and the progress it had made when the nation became independent in 2011. Fighting between forces backing the rivals for power had killed thousands and forced more than 2 million to flee their homes. It also had hurt oil production, squelching economic development.

South Sudan's warring rivals failed to strike a full peace deal 17 August 2015 despite the threat of international sanctions, but the government was to return to finalize an agreement within 15 days, the chief mediator said. At least seven cease-fires have already been agreed and then shattered within days, if not hours in Africa's newest country.

Uganda said October 12, 2015 it was pulling its soldiers out of South Sudan, where they had supported President Salva Kiir in the country's civil war. The Ugandan army said that the troops should be out of South Sudan by the first week in November. Uganda deployed the troops soon after fighting erupted.

In South Sudan, by early 2016 tens of thousands had been killed and more than 2 million had fled their homes since civil war flared up two years earlier. Supporters of both President Salva Kiir and rebel leader Riek Machar accused each other of violating a cease-fire agreement.

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