The Yak-42 plane developed in the 1980s was certified by the Russian Aviation Register for operation on local and international air lines. Yak-42 was the first Russian aircraft that have undergone the complete international certification and was allowed to fly without any restriction in all European countries. The aircraft of this type are used in over 130 countries of the world.
The development of the Yak-42 began in connection with Aeroflot's need for a passenger aircraft of medium range. The Yak-42 tri-jet was developed as a replacement for Il'yushin's Il-18, Tupolev's Tu-134 twinjet and Antonov's An-24 turboprop. For purposes of saving time, the KB decided to develop the versions of aircraft Yak-40 with the larger passenger capacity. The Yak-42 is an all new design although, like the much smaller Yak-40, it features a three engine configuration for increased redundancy and good short field performance. The first of three prototypes flew on 07 March 1975. The KB prepared three prototypes: the first with the sweepback of wing 11°, and two of others with the sweepback 23°. Last version was selected for the production aircraft, which received the designation Yak-42. This version also differs from aircraft Yak-40 in terms of completely arrow-shaped tail assembly, by twin wheels on each landing gear strut, and, of course, by more high-powered engines.
Development flying revealed the need for increased wing sweep back, and the change of wing sweep angle and suspected development problems with the new three shaft turbofans delayed service entry. The first series copies produced at the Smolensk aircraft began to be used by Aeroflot at the end of 1980. They had one passenger cabin, which contained a maximum of 120 passengers. There was an alternative, calculated for 100 passengers. In NATO the aircraft obtained the designation of Clobber. At the beginning 1993 customers had obtained about 100 machines. Most production was of the initial Yak-42.
The Yak-42D was introduced in 1989 and became the standard production model. It features increased fuel capacity, taking range with 120 passengers to 2200km (1185nm). The Yak-42D version with increased flight range was put in serial production in 1988 after its certification was over. After that a number of improvements were introduced in Yak-42D aircraft design and its performances were remarkably enhanced: maximum take off weight rose up to 57,5 tons, the cruise flight height was increased up to 9 600 m, the aircraft could take off from airfields at the height of 2500 m and at ambient temperature of + 45°.
Among the subsequent versions - aircraft Yak-42D had increased fuel stock. The SARATOV AIRCRAFT PLANT was the first factory in Russia and the CIS to receive a certificate for production of the Yak-42D plane, made in compliance with the relevant international standards. Highly qualified personnel and modern plant and equipment, as well as steady links with research institutes and suppliers of parts and components from the CIS countries furnish a firm guarantee of successful cooperation between the Saratov Aircraft Plant and all its partners.
The Yak-42 aircraft are equipped now with: satellite navigation system GPS, flight collision avoidance system TCAS-II version 7, equipment for flights in RVSM conditions, early ground proximity warning system SRPBZ, radio communication satiations for 8,33 KHz frequency range. After updating the Yak-42 aircraft fully meet the Chapter 3 ICAO standard on noise level.
The passenger cabin of aircraft can be adapted to customer requirements. Several cabin's arrangements are developed for 90 to 126 passenger capacity. The aircraft could be easily converted in cargo and mixed cargo-passenger version. The special VIP cabin layouts with variable passenger capacity are developing for individual customer requirements.
The Yak-42D90 airliner is a heavily modified Yak-42D that can carry only 90 passengers, as opposed to the original version's capacity of 120 passengers. The older small and inconvenient seats of the original Yak-42D have been replaced with larger, more comfortable seats similar to those used on Tupolev Tu-204 airliner. The seating accommodations of Yak-42D90 consists of 12 seats in business class and 72 seats in economy class. All Yak-42s upgraded to D90 level feature BRNAV navigation system, TCAS collision avoidance system, and new radio communications equipment.
Bykovo Avia (Russia) became the first commercial airline to use the Yak-42D90. Bykovo Avia successfully uses its first Yak-42D90 on the Moscow-Magnitigorsk and Moscow-Anapa routes. The maximum allowed cruising altitude for Yak-42D90 is 9600m, however, the first model of this aircraft used by Bykovo Avia (registration RA42435) will be restricted to 9100m, which is still 100m above the altitude limit for basic Yak-42D models. The increase in cruising altitude from 8100m to 9600m for Yak-42D90 will allow saving 300 liters of fuel per hour. And with 90 passengers the aircraft will be able to increase its range from 1800km (for original Yak-42D with 120 passengers) to 3800km. The Yak-42D90 can also carry 1500kg more fuel than Yak-42D. The Yak-42D90 employs a new flap deflection mechanism, allowing for higher permitted take-off weight. The new aircraft will be utilized 10 hours per day and is expected to bring a yearly profit between $2-$3 million (twice the profit of original Yak-42D). The Yak-42D90 is expected to compete with older and less economical Tu-134 airliners on provincial routes in Russia. Bykovo Avia is expected to remain an exclusive operator of Yak-42D90 for some time to come.
The new supplied aircraft Yak-42D in the standard (base) version of layout and assembly are equipped for the flights on the international and domestic airlines and are calculated for the transportation of 120 passengers in the version of economic class. Passenger cabin is equipped by closed type luggage regiments, passenger armchairs of the type of 3[K]3 with the adjustable backs. Aircraft are equipped with the sound absorbers ([ZPK]), which decrease the level of noise by the locality to correspondence to the requirements of chapter of 3 applications of 16 Norma ICAO. Engines D-36 correspond to the requirements of chapter of 3 applications of 16 Norma ICAO on the emission of harmful substances.
The domestic competitors of the Yak-42 are the main project of the United Aircraft-construction Corporation ([OAK]) - the Sukhoi Super Jet (SSJ), and Tu-334. The project of the modernized Yak-42 (modification yak-42D) remains unrealized. It was included in the development program of civil aviation until 2010, but now its financing is ended, and it was not included in the OAK program.
Version Yak-42LL, test bench for the engines, was demonstrated in 1991 at the Paris airshow, equipped with propfan engine ZMKB Progress D-236 on the starboard. Version for the aerial photography Yak-42F is equipped with two large underwing containers, in which, obviously, are placed electro-optical sensors.
Future Project Proposals
The Yak-42M airliner is the profound modification of the short-haul Yak-42 airliner. The engines are furnished with the reverse thrust, and their noise level is reduced. An on-board avionics facility with the built-in testing system provides safe flights by a crew of two pilots. Fuel effectiveness of Yak-42M is comparable with the best foreign analogues, what is caused by application of highly economical engines. At present time the efforts are taken for installation of three 7500 kg reversal thrust D-436 engines on aircraft with simultaneous increase of take-off weight, cruise speed and flight level. This will decrease the specific fuel consumption, build up range of flight and enhance the flight performance in mountain, high temperature environments.
An objective of the Yak-42a, Yak-42BK, Yak-42AK project is the creation of a park of modern high effective short-haul airliners and freighters based on the Yak-42 - short-haul airliner Yak-42a with up to 120 seats. - short-haul airliner Yak-42BK with up to 120 seats. Equipped with avionics by Bendix King company. - short-haul freighter Yak-42AK with up to 120 seats or payload capacity up to 13.5 tonnes. According to the project the products are planned to be exported to South-East Asia and Middle East. At production of Yak-42A and Yak-42BK the materials and components will be used, mainly of CIS origin, avionics for Yak-42BK will be made abroad. Other materials and components will be made in CIS. Saratov Aviation Plant sought investment for this project as early as 1997, but no funding was forthcoming.
The Yak-42D-100 plane is a modification of Yak-42D plane. The modification purposes are as follows: increasing of the flight speed to 850 km/k; increasing of the aerodynamic quality to K=16; reduction of fuel consumption by 25-30%; increasing of the flight range to 4000 km with Gcom=10 tn. The Yak-42D-150 assumes common load of up to 16 t for the range of up to 2500 km and common load of 12 t for the range of up to 3500 km. As far as the fulfilled functions are concerned, Yak-42D-150 is intended to replace old and morally outdated planes An-74, Yak-42D, Tu-134, Tu-154B and partially Tu-154M. The Yak-42D-200 plane assumes a common load of 8-9 t for the range of up to 4000 km. Saratov Aviation Plant sought investment for this project as early as 1997, but no funding was forthcoming.
The latest models, Yak-142 and Yak-142-100, conform to all relevant international standards. Yak-142 can be operated on any lines, landing at meteorological conditions specified by category II ICAO, flights at altitudes up to 9600m. Due to three-engine scheme and enhanced thrust, Yak-142 is able to lift off at nominal mode of operation of the engines, continue flight at failure of one of the engines and land at only one operating engine. All this provides high level of safety of Yak-142. Saratov Aviation Plant sought investment for this project as early as 1997, but no funding was forthcoming.
The airliner Yak-242 is a representative of a Yak family. Its specifications position it in the middle between short- and medium-haul airliners. One of the features of Yak-42 is remote electric control system (ESDU) with separate rudder drivers providing high safety and reliability. Digital radio navigation equipment with a system of color electronic indicators and the latest radio communication equipment facilitate flights in simple and complicated meteorological conditions both on domestic and international lines with matching to existing and future standards of altitude separation. Yak-42 is the first Russian aircraft with parameters complying with the best foreign aircraft technologies and some parameters surpass prospective airliners of the same class. Saratov Aviation Plant sought investment for this project as early as 1997, but no funding was forthcoming.
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