Moscow Military District
The Moscow Military District is an anomaly in the command structure because it includes the national capital. It has special significance because of its proximity to the western border with Belarus and Ukraine, traditionally the routes followed by invaders from the west. The district's official troop strength includes the 1st and 22d combined arms armies and the 20th Army Corps. However, CFE Treaty data indicated that operational control of these forces was vested in the Ministry of Defense rather than the ground forces or the district commanders. Other forces within the Moscow district include the Moscow Air Defense District, one airborne brigade, and one brigade of special forces (spetsnaz ) troops. The Moscow Air Defense District has boundaries coterminous with those of the Moscow Military District, but it is under the command of the air defense forces. The special forces brigade is directly subordinate to the Ministry of Defense.
Ensuring public order during a state of emergency is the responsibility of a wide assortment of armed troops - more than 150,000 according to one estimate -- stationed in the Moscow area. Soldiers from these units are also used elsewhere as rapid reaction units - for peacekeeping duty in Kosovo, or, more recently, in the North Caucasus. The MVD deploys the Dzerzhinskiy (ODON) Division of 10,000 troops, along with various other smaller units. The Ministry of Defence forces include the Taman Motorized Rifle Division (12,000 troops deployed near the city of Naro-Fominsk outside Moscow) and Kantemir Tank Division (8,000 troops, also based in the Moscow suburbs). These two units were frequently used in parades in Red Square -- the first public knowledge of the new Soviet T-72 tank was from a parade in Moscow, where it was driven by the Taman Guards. These two divisions were employed during the August putsch in 1991, during which a tank unit of Taman division switched sides and backed Boris Yeltsin. When the Taman' Division deployed in Moscow there was fraternization -- the soldiers let children climb onto the tanks. Paratroopers of Tula division under the command of, General Alexander Lebedwere also defended Yeltsin. Later, in 1993, troops were deployed in Moscow to suppress the October 1993 revolt -- tanks of the Taman Division opened fire at the parliament.
Vladimir Putin, who at the time was Russia's Security Council secretary, estimated on 16 June 1999 that a Russian KFOR contingent would cost at least $50 million per year. Yevgenii Savilov, who is commander of the 106th Guards Airborne Division, stated that that the soldiers would earn between $800 and $1,500 per month, which would bring the annual personnel costs of a 7,000-strong contingent to more than $100 million - not including any other expenses.
At present Moscow military district - immediate strategic territorial association of the armed forces of the Russian Federation, stationed into Moscow and in the territory of 18 regions of the European part of the country: Belgorod, Bryansk, Vladimir, Voronezh, Ivanovo, Kaluga, Kostroma, Kursk, Lipetsk, Moscow, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Orel, Ryazansk, Smolensk, Tambovo, Tver, Tula and Yaroslavl. But this - the center section of Russia with the total area is more than 700 thousand square kilometers, with one third of population of the country. In the range of region - more than 300 large are municipal with the contemporary infrastructure, a large quantity of associations, connections and parts of different destination and subordination to power ministries, about 600 military commissariats.
In the overall framework of the reformation of armed forces the reorganization also of troops of region was carry ouied. Its main purpose became the creation of this group of forces, which would possess a sufficient combat potential. With the development of the orgshtatnoy structure of connections and parts of the region, and also the relationship troops in their composition they were ancestral takeed into account the requirement of the optimum combination of personnel, different weapon systems and technology for the most effective application in combat taking into account the agreement about the conventional armaments and, naturally, the economic state of the country.
In the state of the region of peacetime there is the necessary quantity of control elements, connections and parts of a constant readiness, reduced composition and sequence, capable of the rapid scanning and conducting the effective highly maneuverable war shooting in the groups of troops in the theaters of military actions.
Organizationally into the region enter two armies - 20 A (Voronezh) and 22 A (Nizhniy Novgorod), 2 guard Taman motorized rifle division, 27 individual guard Sevastopol powered rifle brigade, operations group of Russian troops in the Dniester region of the republic Of moldov (HAUG RV prrm), Russian military contingent into Kosovo (RVK), connections and military parts of the combat, technical and logistics. Among them - 61 guard association, connection and part, 56 parts have honorable designations and 75 - are rewarded with orders, 26 Heroes of the Soviet Union are forever enrolled in the lists of connections and parts of the region.
All this, as a whole, it makes it possible to ensure the qualitatively new level of control, combat and mobilization readiness, organization and guarantee of daily vital activity of connections and parts.
In the beginning of the second-half 19th century in Russia ripened the need for conversions in the army. Their objective sense reflected the adaptation of armed forces to the new historical conditions - to the conditions of developing capitalism. This concerned, first of all, changes in all it was sectional army and system of the Arms Forces Administration.
During May 1862 the War Ministry, headed by the General OF D.A. Milyutinym, introduced to sovereign to emperor Aleksandr THE II note, in which were presented the main bases of the assumed reconstruction of army, in particular, was provided for formation 15- TI of military districts.
By the nominal tsarist edict of 6 August, 1864, declared in the order of the Defense Minister on 10 August of the same year, for local control of the land Armed Forces and military establishments formed military- circumferential administrations in ten military districts, including in the Moscow.
Into military- circumferential control of Moscow military district the following parts or the divisions were introduced: military- circumferential council, staff, comissariat control, artillery control, engineering control, the inspector of military hospitals.
The territory of region they composed 12 provinces: Vladimir, Vologodskaya, Kaluga, Kostroma, Moscow, Nizhniy-Novgorod, Ryazansk, Smolensk, Tambovo, Tver, Tula, Yaroslavl.
Being located at significant distance from the western state border of empire, MVO was the base of the reinforcement of acting army by human resources and the main supplier of the objects of comissariat supply; as the possible theater of military actions it were examined only for the very emergencies.
For example, in the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78 g.g. from MVO to the composition of Danube army were directed 1,3,17,18 and 35-4 infantry, 1st cavalry of division; to strengthening of Caucasian housing - 1st grenadier division. On mobilization 1877 to their completion it was called, are outfitted and is armed about 30 thousand people, more than 20 thousand horses are set into the troops. Furthermore, into the spare and reserve battalions it is called from the reserve to 54 thousand lower ranks and to 30 thousand warriors of state militia. In the region were formed 24 temporary military hospitals, 13 of which are sent for the combat area, are opened 35 military field infirmaries. In the course of campaign region it accepted and placed in its territory 21 thousand Turkish prisoners of war.
In the First World War MVO the training and the sending to the front of march formations accomplished. The reserves were moved through the region, ammunition and other supplies were supplied. To the spring 1917 in its territory were stationed 77 infantry and 6 cavalry it was regimental, 2 artillery brigades, 2 opolchencheskikh housings, etc; total number - about 1 million people.
The majority of these parts, especially Moscow garrison, was located under the effect of the revolutionary propaganda and expressed the open dissatisfaction with the policy of government. Many of them participated in the October armed riot in Moscow 1917, establishment of the Soviet regime in the cities Bryansk, Vladimir, Voronezh, Kaluga, Nizhniy Novgorod, Orel, Tver, Yaroslavl' and by other resolution of Moscow military revolutionary committee from 4 (17).11.1917 g. was assigned the new command of region headed by N.I. Muralovym.
By the order of the highest military council from 31.3.1918 g., the affirmed decree SNK from 4.5.1918 g. formed Moscow military district.
In the period of Civil War and military intervention in Russia 1917 - 22 g.g. MVO prepared military personnel for all it was front, was supplied the Red Army with different forms of armament and allowance. From June to the middle of September of 1919 MVO 33 calls (called more than 500 thousand people) were conducted. In Moscow were formed by 1 Moscow rifle division, Warsaw revolutionary regiment, and 2-1 revolutionary regiment, Latvian forces were brought to the Latvian rifle division. In Voronezh are formed two cavalry divisions, in Nizhniy Novgorod - two rifle divisions, two rifle regiments, in Tambov - 16 rifle division.
Region was the fundamental base of the formation of numerous artillery units. Beginning was here established to the creation of Soviet military aviation. A large quantity of military academies, schools acted in the territory MVO, it was course and the schools, which prepared into 1918 - 19 g.g. and directed toward the fronts of approximately 11 thousand commanders. In the system of universal military training to 1.5.1919 g. not less than 130 thousand people was prepared.
After the end of Civil War in the troops of region was carry ouied the demobilization, as a result of which their number was reduced from 580 thousand people (end 1920 g.) to 85 thousands. (1.01.1923). Measures for the improvement of the organizational and manning structure of troops, passage to the mixed (cadre and territorial- martial) system of their device simultaneously were conducted.
In the region autumnal double-sided maneuvers yearly were conducted, were checked and were mastered the new organization of troops, the methods of war shooting, the tactics of group battle. In the beginning the 30's in the troops of region the tanks MS, appeared, then lungs - T -26, T -27, BT, average - T -28, heavy - T -35. In 1930 in MVO was formed the first in the Red Army mechanized brigade. In 1932 on its base the mechanized housing is formed.
During the experimental-demonstration study hearth Voronezhem on 2 August, 1930, for the first time in the world practice is realized the landing by the parachutes of landing subdivision for fulfilling the tactical mission. This date subsequently began to be noted as the day of the creation airborne troops.
Under the conditions for the growth of the military threat in the region the rifle and mechanized corps were additionally expanded, measures for an increase in the alert of connections and parts were taken. Territorial troops of region gradually were transferred into the position of cadre.
On entire elongation of existence MVO control of region find in Moscow, and with 26.10.1941 g. at 15.02.1942 g. - in on entire elongation of existence
Into troops MVO to 1941 entered 4 rifle, 2 mechanized corps, numbers of tank, artillery, engineering connections and parts, and also numerous military educational institutions. The aviation of region included 24, 78- yu destructive, 6, 23, 77- yu the mixed air divisions. For organizing the air defense system the region had the 1st housing PVO - AIR DEFENSE. The component part of the air defense system of region were eight destructive aviation it was regimental. Forces and air defense weapons were united into the Moscow air defense zone. The mobilization of reservists began since the beginning of the war in the territory of region.
In all in the years of World War II in MVO were formed 3 front, 23 army and 11 hull administrations, are formed 128 divisions, 197 brigades, 4190 march subdivisions, by total number approximately 4,5 mln. man. Only for 1944 - 45 g.g. region prepared and sent to the fronts 1 million 200 thousand soldiers and commanders.
Training officer personnel reached large scales. 29 highest and 69 secondary military educational institutions were counted in the territory MVO, it was course and the schools, in which it was trained to 60 thousand officers and cadets.
The work on the liquidation of the consequences of war and the mine clearing of locality was developed in proportion to the release of the territory of region. Only in 1944 engineers of region cleaned dangerously explosive objects from area with the size of 24,5 tys.kv. km, on which it was discovered, it is extracted and it is destroyed about 3 mln. mines, projectiles and bombs.
With the end of the World War II of 1941-45 g.g. MVO reconstructed its activity in accordance with the needs of peacetime.
This entire period and before the known events, which involved "parade of sovereignties", MVO preserved its value of the most important source of mobilization resources, were achieved accumulation and calculation of the militarily trained reserves, it was the large base of training command military personnel. However, in spite of the extensive territory of region, the composition of its troops remained relatively small.
On 22 February, 1968, for the large contribution to the cause of strengthening the defense power of state and its armed protection, for the successes in the combat and political training and in connection with the 50- anniversary of the Soviet Army and the navy Moscow military district is rewarded by the Order of Lenin.
With the formation on the post-Soviet space of the independent states changed the structure and role MVO in the defensive system of Russia. It became boundary military district with functions escaping from this and tasks.
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