Military


Soviet Battleships


www.bobhenneman.info/FrunzeHistory.htm In 1940 6-76/30-mm guns Lender, standing on the towers, were replaced by 6-76/55-mm 34K, but in the end of 1940 were installed 2-76/55 dvuhorudiynye install 81 K. the end of 1941 on the nose LC has been established, another 81 to install Discontinued L K "Marat. In 1944, the bow installation of 81K waas been rearranged for the leader of the "Minsk", and instead put 1-76/55-mm installation 39K. Torpedoes: underwater launched 45-cm TA arr. 1910 - 4, torpedoes - 12 pcs.

Class Name Keel Laid Launch Commission Builder Stricken Notes
Pre-Dreadnoughts
Imperator Alexander IIImperator Alexander II
(later Saria Svobodi)
Nov 188526 Jul 18871891Admiralty-Stricken 1925.(Scrapped?)
Imperator Nikolai I
(later Japanese Iki)
27 Oct 18891893Admiralty -Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Sunk as target October 1915 by Kongo and Hiei.
GangutGangut1889Oct 18901893Admiralty -Sank 1897
NavarinNavarin188920 Oct 1891GalernyWar loss: Sunk at Tsushima, 28 May 1905
Sissoi VelikiSissoi VelikiMay 1892Jun 18941897Admiralty -War loss: Scuttled after Battle of Tsushima, 28 May 1905
Admiral UshakovAdmiral UshakovJun 1892Nov 1893-War loss: Sunk at Tsushima, May 1905
Admiral Senyavin
(later Japanese Mishima)
22 Aug 18941895Admiralty-Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Sunk as target 1936.
Admiral Apraxin
(later Japanese Okinoshima)
12 May 1896Baltic-Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Scrapped 1939
PoltavaPoltava
(later Japanese Tango, later Russian Tchesma)
May 18926 Nov 1894Admiralty-Sunk at Port Arthur, Dec 1904, captured by Japanese forces 2 Jan 1905. Returned to Russia 1916(?) Scrapped 1923
Petropavlovsk-
Sevastopol-
Dvienadst ApostlovDvienadst ApostlovFeb 1888Sept 18901892Nikolayev-
PeresvietPeresviet
(later Japanese Sagami)
21 Nov 189519 May 1898Admiralty-Sunk 6 Dec 1904 at Port Arthur. Captured 2 Jan 1905. Returned to Russia Mar 1916. War Loss: Sunk 4 Jan 1917, by German mine.
OsliabiaAdmiralty-War loss: Sunk at Tsushima, May 1905
Pobieda
(later Japanese Suwo)
Baltic-Sunk at Port Arthur, 5 Dec 1904. Raised by Japan, as Suwo. Scrapped 1922.
PotemkinKniaz Potemkin Tavricheski
later Pantlimon,
later Boretz za Svobudu
Feb 1898Oct 1900NikolayevScrapped 1922
RetvizanRetvizan
(later Japanese Hizen)
May 189823 Oct 1900Cramp20 Sep 1923Sunk at Port Arthur Dec 1904. Captured by Japan, 2 Jan 1905, Sunk as target, July 1924.
TessarevitchTessarevitchJun 18991901?LaSeyneScrapped 1924
BorodinoBorodino?Aug 1903AdmiraltyWar Loss: Sunk at Tsushima 27 May 1905.
Slava?Aug 1903War Loss: scuttled after being damaged by gunfire from German battleships Kronprinz and König at the Battle of Moon Island, 17 Oct 1917.
Orel
(later Japanese Iwami)
?19 Jul 1902Sep 1904Franco-RussianSurrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Sunk as a target July 1924
Imperator Alexander III???Franco-RussianWar Loss: Sunk at Tsushima 27 May 1905.
EvstafiEvstafi?Nov 1906Nikolayev -Machinery destroyed 25 Apr 1919, scrapped 1922
Ioann Zlatoust?May 1906Sevastopol -Machinery destroyed 25 Apr 1919, scrapped 1922
Andrei PervozvanniAndrei Pervozvanni28 Apr 190320 Oct 1906Sep 1910Galerni -Sunk by British torpedo boats, August 1919, scrapped 1925.
Imperator Pavel I
(later Republika)
15 Apr 19047 Sep 1907Oct 1910Baltic -Scrapped 1923
Dreadnoughts
Imperitricia MariaImperitricia Maria14 Jul 19121 Nov 191310 Sep 1915Russud -Exploded and sank 20 October 1916
Imperator Alexander III
(later German Wolga, later White Russian General Alexeiev)
14 Jul 191215 Apr 191428 Oct 1917Russud -Scrapped 1936
Yekaterina II
(later Svbodnaya Rossia)
14 Jul 19121 Nov 191310 Sep 1915Russud -Sunk by Bolshevik destroyer Kerch April 1917
Imperator Nikolai I14 Jul 191215 Apr 1914-Russud -Scrapped 1923
Ship X"Ship X"---- -
Sovietsky Soyuz (Project 23)Sovietsky Soyuz15 Jul 193816 Jul 1949-- -Scrapped incomplete
Sovietskaya Ukrania31 Oct 1938--61 Kommunna, NikolaevCaptured in the shipyard by German forces, Jul 1941, damaged by retreating German forces 1944. Scrapped incomplete 1946
Sovietskaya Rossiya---Molotovsk-
Sovietskaya Belorossia---Molotovsk-
Improved Sovietsky Soyuz (Project 24)unnamed---- -
Royal OakArkhangelsk
(formerly Royal Sovereign)
15 Jan 191429 Apr 19151943Portsmouth Returned to UK 1949, scrapped.
Conte di CavourNovorossisk
(formerly Giulio Cesare
24 Jun 191015 Oct 19113 Feb 1949Ansaldo Awarded to USSR at the end of WWII. Sunk 29 Oct 1955 at Sevastopol. Mine??
Battlecruisers
IzmailIzmail19 Dec 191222 Jun 1915-Baltic Work suspended 65% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1932
Kinburn19 Dec 191230 Oct 1915-Baltic Work suspended 57% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1923
Borodino19 Dec 191231 Jul 1915-Admiralty Works Work suspended 52% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1923
Navarin19 Dec 19129 Nov 1916-Admiralty Works Work suspended 22% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1923
Kronstadt
(Project 69 & 69-I)
Kronstadt---Leningrad 194
Sevastopol---Nikolayev 200
Stalingrad
(Project 82)
Stalingrad25 Nov 194916 Mar 1954-Leningrad
Moskva---Leningrad
Arkhangelsk---Leningrad
Kirov
(Project 1144)
Kirov
(later Usahkov)
26 Mar 197427 Dec 197730 Dec 1980Leningrad Presently inactive. Reported to have had major propulsion system accident c. 1990.
Kalinin
(later Admiral Nakhimov)
26 Jul 197826 May 198131 Oct 1984Leningrad
Frunze
(later Admiral Lazarev)
May 198326 Apr 198630 Dec 1988Leningrad
Petr Velikiy
(formerly Yuri Andropov)
24 Apr 198629 Apr 19891996Leningrad

Key to builders:
GalerniGalerni Island, St. Petersburg, (Russia)
LenningradBal'tiyske Ob'yedineniye, St. Petersburg, (Russia)
61 Kommuna 61 Kommunara SY 445, Nikolayev, (Ukraine)
NosenkoNosenko SY 444, Nikolayev, Ukraine.


Russian and Soviet Dreadnoughts
Russian and Soviet battleships were often influenced by Italian designs. The first Italian dreadnought, Dante Aligheri was the basis for the Gangut class, and thus the Imperitricia Maria and Izmail classes as well. Later on, the Sovietsky Soyuz class was based on a set of plans by Cantieri Ansaldo of Genoa known as the UP-41 design. The UP-41 design was derived from the Littorio class. "Ship X" was designed by the American firm Gibbs and Cox.

Russian and Soviet Battlecruisers
The Izmail class were derived from the Italian-influenced Gangut and Imperitricia Maria classes. There is a strong family resemblance.

The Project 69 battlecruisers were a pure Soviet design, related to their contemporary cruiser projects. The Project 82 battlecruisers were an evolution of this design.

The Kirov class (Project 1144) battlecruisers are another pure Soviet design, and they differ substantially from earlier gun-armed designs. Their primary armament is a large array of heavy anti-ship missiles. They also have a large compliment of anti-aircraft missiles. Despite these radical differences, their size and speed still puts them in the general category of battlecruisers.

Soviet name prefixes
We've occasionally seen the prefix "USSRS" for Soviet era ships, but not in official publications. Nothing official that we've seen suggests the use of any prefix.

Russian/Soviet Battleship Chronology

Feb 1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War. A major defeat for Russia.
Oct 1904-May 1905: Baltic Fleet travels to the Far East.
5 Dec 1904: Port Arthur: Pacific fleet defeated
27-28 May 1905: Battle of Tsushima: Russian Baltic fleet defeated as it arrives.
1905: Treaty of Portsmouth

August 1914-20 Dec 1917: World War I. Defeat for Russia.
8 March 1917: First Russian Revolution. Czar Nicholas II overthrown, republic established.
17 October 1917: Battle of Moon Island. German dreadnoughts Kronprinz and König defeat Russian pre-dreadnoughts Tsessarevitch and Slava. Slava was scuttled, Tsessarevitch escaped.
November 1917: Second Russian Revolution. Lenin established USSR.
20 December 1917: Russia negotiates treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and Austria Hungary, effectively ending Russia's participation in World War I.
3 March 1918: Russia ratifies treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

1918-1920: Russian Civil War

Jun 1941-May 1945: World War II. Victory for USSR, though primarily through ground action, not sea power.

5 Mar 1953: Stalin dies. Stalingrad class cancelled.

Dec 1980: Missile armed, nuclear powered battlecruiser Kirov enters service. She is the first battlecruiser built by any nation since World War II.

31 Dec 1991: USSR collapses
1992: Kirov class battlecruisers renamed

Russian/Soviet Battleship Links



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