www.bobhenneman.info/FrunzeHistory.htm In 1940 6-76/30-mm guns Lender, standing on the towers, were replaced by 6-76/55-mm 34K, but in the end of 1940 were installed 2-76/55 dvuhorudiynye install 81 K. the end of 1941 on the nose LC has been established, another 81 to install Discontinued L K "Marat. In 1944, the bow installation of 81K waas been rearranged for the leader of the "Minsk", and instead put 1-76/55-mm installation 39K. Torpedoes: underwater launched 45-cm TA arr. 1910 - 4, torpedoes - 12 pcs.
|Imperator Alexander II||Imperator Alexander II|
(later Saria Svobodi)
|Nov 1885||26 Jul 1887||1891||Admiralty||-||Stricken 1925.(Scrapped?)|
|Imperator Nikolai I|
(later Japanese Iki)
|27 Oct 1889||1893||Admiralty||-||Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Sunk as target October 1915 by Kongo and Hiei.|
|Gangut||Gangut||1889||Oct 1890||1893||Admiralty||-||Sank 1897|
|Navarin||Navarin||1889||20 Oct 1891||Galerny||War loss: Sunk at Tsushima, 28 May 1905|
|Sissoi Veliki||Sissoi Veliki||May 1892||Jun 1894||1897||Admiralty||-||War loss: Scuttled after Battle of Tsushima, 28 May 1905|
|Admiral Ushakov||Admiral Ushakov||Jun 1892||Nov 1893||-||War loss: Sunk at Tsushima, May 1905|
(later Japanese Mishima)
|22 Aug 1894||1895||Admiralty||-||Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Sunk as target 1936.|
(later Japanese Okinoshima)
|12 May 1896||Baltic||-||Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Scrapped 1939|
(later Japanese Tango, later Russian Tchesma)
|May 1892||6 Nov 1894||Admiralty||-||Sunk at Port Arthur, Dec 1904, captured by Japanese forces 2 Jan 1905. Returned to Russia 1916(?) Scrapped 1923|
|Dvienadst Apostlov||Dvienadst Apostlov||Feb 1888||Sept 1890||1892||Nikolayev||-|
(later Japanese Sagami)
|21 Nov 1895||19 May 1898||Admiralty||-||Sunk 6 Dec 1904 at Port Arthur. Captured 2 Jan 1905. Returned to Russia Mar 1916. War Loss: Sunk 4 Jan 1917, by German mine.|
|Osliabia||Admiralty||-||War loss: Sunk at Tsushima, May 1905|
(later Japanese Suwo)
|Baltic||-||Sunk at Port Arthur, 5 Dec 1904. Raised by Japan, as Suwo. Scrapped 1922.|
|Potemkin||Kniaz Potemkin Tavricheski|
later Boretz za Svobudu
|Feb 1898||Oct 1900||Nikolayev||Scrapped 1922|
(later Japanese Hizen)
|May 1898||23 Oct 1900||Cramp||20 Sep 1923||Sunk at Port Arthur Dec 1904. Captured by Japan, 2 Jan 1905, Sunk as target, July 1924.|
|Tessarevitch||Tessarevitch||Jun 1899||1901||?||LaSeyne||Scrapped 1924|
|Borodino||Borodino||?||Aug 1903||Admiralty||War Loss: Sunk at Tsushima 27 May 1905.|
|Slava||?||Aug 1903||War Loss: scuttled after being damaged by gunfire from German battleships Kronprinz and König at the Battle of Moon Island, 17 Oct 1917.|
(later Japanese Iwami)
|?||19 Jul 1902||Sep 1904||Franco-Russian||Surrendered to Japan 28 May 1905. Sunk as a target July 1924|
|Imperator Alexander III||?||?||?||Franco-Russian||War Loss: Sunk at Tsushima 27 May 1905.|
|Evstafi||Evstafi||?||Nov 1906||Nikolayev||-||Machinery destroyed 25 Apr 1919, scrapped 1922|
|Ioann Zlatoust||?||May 1906||Sevastopol||-||Machinery destroyed 25 Apr 1919, scrapped 1922|
|Andrei Pervozvanni||Andrei Pervozvanni||28 Apr 1903||20 Oct 1906||Sep 1910||Galerni||-||Sunk by British torpedo boats, August 1919, scrapped 1925.|
|Imperator Pavel I|
|15 Apr 1904||7 Sep 1907||Oct 1910||Baltic||-||Scrapped 1923|
|Imperitricia Maria||Imperitricia Maria||14 Jul 1912||1 Nov 1913||10 Sep 1915||Russud||-||Exploded and sank 20 October 1916|
|Imperator Alexander III|
(later German Wolga, later White Russian General Alexeiev)
|14 Jul 1912||15 Apr 1914||28 Oct 1917||Russud||-||Scrapped 1936|
(later Svbodnaya Rossia)
|14 Jul 1912||1 Nov 1913||10 Sep 1915||Russud||-||Sunk by Bolshevik destroyer Kerch April 1917|
|Imperator Nikolai I||14 Jul 1912||15 Apr 1914||-||Russud||-||Scrapped 1923|
|Ship X||"Ship X"||-||-||-||-||-|
|Sovietsky Soyuz (Project 23)||Sovietsky Soyuz||15 Jul 1938||16 Jul 1949||-||-||-||Scrapped incomplete|
|Sovietskaya Ukrania||31 Oct 1938||-||-||61 Kommunna, Nikolaev||Captured in the shipyard by German forces, Jul 1941, damaged by retreating German forces 1944. Scrapped incomplete 1946|
|Improved Sovietsky Soyuz (Project 24)||unnamed||-||-||-||-||-|
(formerly Royal Sovereign)
|15 Jan 1914||29 Apr 1915||1943||Portsmouth||Returned to UK 1949, scrapped.|
|Conte di Cavour||Novorossisk|
(formerly Giulio Cesare
|24 Jun 1910||15 Oct 1911||3 Feb 1949||Ansaldo||Awarded to USSR at the end of WWII. Sunk 29 Oct 1955 at Sevastopol. Mine??|
|Izmail||Izmail||19 Dec 1912||22 Jun 1915||-||Baltic||Work suspended 65% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1932|
|Kinburn||19 Dec 1912||30 Oct 1915||-||Baltic||Work suspended 57% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1923|
|Borodino||19 Dec 1912||31 Jul 1915||-||Admiralty Works||Work suspended 52% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1923|
|Navarin||19 Dec 1912||9 Nov 1916||-||Admiralty Works||Work suspended 22% complete October 1917. Scrapped 1923|
(Project 69 & 69-I)
|Stalingrad||25 Nov 1949||16 Mar 1954||-||Leningrad||
||Moskva||-||-||-||Leningrad ||Arkhangelsk||-||-||-||Leningrad ||Kirov|
|26 Mar 1974||27 Dec 1977||30 Dec 1980||Leningrad ||Presently inactive. Reported to have had major propulsion system accident c. 1990.
(later Admiral Nakhimov)
|26 Jul 1978||26 May 1981||31 Oct 1984||Leningrad ||Frunze |
(later Admiral Lazarev)
Apr 1986||30 Dec 1988||Leningrad ||Petr Velikiy |
(formerly Yuri Andropov)
|24 Apr 1986||29 Apr 1989||1996||Leningrad |
|Key to builders:
||Galerni||Galerni Island, St. Petersburg, (Russia)
||Lenningrad||Bal'tiyske Ob'yedineniye, St. Petersburg, (Russia)
||61 Kommuna ||61 Kommunara SY 445, Nikolayev, (Ukraine)
||Nosenko||Nosenko SY 444, Nikolayev, Ukraine.
Russian and Soviet Dreadnoughts
Russian and Soviet battleships were often influenced by Italian designs. The first Italian dreadnought, Dante Aligheri was the basis for the Gangut class, and thus the Imperitricia Maria and Izmail classes as well. Later on, the Sovietsky Soyuz class was based on a set of plans by Cantieri Ansaldo of Genoa known as the UP-41 design. The UP-41 design was derived from the Littorio class. "Ship X" was designed by the American firm Gibbs and Cox.
Russian and Soviet Battlecruisers
The Izmail class were derived from the Italian-influenced Gangut and Imperitricia Maria classes. There is a strong family resemblance.
The Project 69 battlecruisers were a pure Soviet design, related to their contemporary cruiser projects. The Project 82 battlecruisers were an evolution of this design.
The Kirov class (Project 1144) battlecruisers are another pure Soviet design, and they differ substantially from earlier gun-armed designs. Their primary armament is a large array of heavy anti-ship missiles. They also have a large compliment of anti-aircraft missiles. Despite these radical differences, their size and speed still puts them in the general category of battlecruisers.
Soviet name prefixes
We've occasionally seen the prefix "USSRS" for Soviet era ships, but not in official publications. Nothing official that we've seen suggests the use of any prefix.
Russian/Soviet Battleship Chronology
Feb 1904-1905: Russo-Japanese War. A major defeat for Russia.
Oct 1904-May 1905: Baltic Fleet travels to the Far East.
5 Dec 1904: Port Arthur: Pacific fleet defeated
27-28 May 1905: Battle of Tsushima: Russian Baltic fleet defeated as it arrives.
1905: Treaty of Portsmouth
August 1914-20 Dec 1917: World War I. Defeat for Russia.
8 March 1917: First Russian Revolution. Czar Nicholas II overthrown, republic established.
17 October 1917: Battle of Moon Island. German dreadnoughts Kronprinz and König defeat Russian pre-dreadnoughts Tsessarevitch and Slava. Slava was scuttled, Tsessarevitch escaped.
November 1917: Second Russian Revolution. Lenin established USSR.
20 December 1917: Russia negotiates treaty of Brest-Litovsk with Germany and Austria Hungary, effectively ending Russia's participation in World War I.
3 March 1918: Russia ratifies treaty of Brest-Litovsk.
1918-1920: Russian Civil War
Jun 1941-May 1945: World War II. Victory for USSR, though primarily through ground action, not sea power.
5 Mar 1953: Stalin dies. Stalingrad class cancelled.
Dec 1980: Missile armed, nuclear powered battlecruiser Kirov enters service. She is the first battlecruiser built by any nation since World War II.
31 Dec 1991: USSR collapses
1992: Kirov class battlecruisers renamed
Russian/Soviet Battleship Links
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