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Soviet and Russian Submarines

The Russians cliam that a native of the Pokrovskoye village near Moscow Yefim Nikonov was the first to create of a submarine vessel of the Russian fleet to attack enemy ships. In 1718 he filed in the name of Peter I a petition with the proposal to build a "secret vessel" that "will defeat ships with fire in a quiet sea". In 1721 the ship was tested in the presence of Peter I, after which the author was proposed to start construction of "a large secret vessel". But with the death of Peter I work on the Russian submarine stopped.

In 1834, at Alexander's foundry in St. Petersburg, according to a draft of a military engineer Schilder was built a submarine, which was for the first time equipped with optical and vent pipes. In 1866, designed by J. F. Alexandrovsky, was built a boat with a mechanical engine, that ran on compressed air. In 1880, S. K. Dzhewetski designed a construction of the first submarine with an electric motor.

In 1901, a scientist and a shipwright I. G. Bubnov, in collaboration with the captain of the first rank, M. N. Beklemishev and mechanical engineer I. S. Goryunov, drafted the first Russian military submarine "Dolphin", built in 1904 , at the Baltic Shipyard in St. Petersburg. Fighting submarines were used for the first time in world history during the Russian-Japanese War. By the end of 1904 only in Vladivostok there were seven submarines of various designs which regularly went on duty and exploration of the Pacific Ocean. January 1 (14), 1905 they formed "a separate squad of destroyers" led by the commander of Kasatka submarine Lieutenant A. V. Plotto.

On 6 (19) March, 1906 the official classification of ships of the Imperial Russian Navy included a new class of ships submarines, which were previously assigned to the destroyers. In 1912 the Baltic Shipyard laid down the first diesel submarine type "Bars". In 1915-1916 seven boats of this type made part of the Baltic Fleet.

Creation of the submarine fleet during the Soviet era began with the construction of six submarines type "Decembrist", included in the first program of military shipbuilding of 1926/27-1931/32. From 1933 to the fleets armory also started to add the submarines type "Sch" ("Shuka" (pike)), type "M" ("Malyutka" (baby)), type "C" and type "K" ("Kreiserskaya (cruise)). During the period of 1930 to 1939 there were built more than 20 large, 80 medium, 60 small submarines and 20 submarine mine-layers for the USSR navy. By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War the Russian Navy possessed 212 submarines.

For two decades from the late 1940s the U.S. Navy contemplated a submarine threat in which, in wartime, Soviet submarines would transit through Western ASW barriers" en route to attack Allied convoys in the North Atlantic, and then return through those same barriers to rearm and refuel at their Arctic bases. These barriers - composed of maritime patrol aircraft and hunter-killer submarines guided or cued by the seafloor Sound Surveillance System (SOSUS) - would sink Soviet submarines as they transited, both going to sea and returning to their bases.2 Also, when attacking Allied convoys, the Soviet submarines would be subjected to the ASW efforts of the convoy escorts.

In reality, by the mid-1950s the Soviets had discarded any intention of waging an anti-shipping campaign in a new Battle of the Atlantic. The U.S. Navy's development of a carrier-based nuclear strike capability in the early 1950s and the deployment of Polaris missile submarines in the early 1960s had led to defense against nuclear strikes from the sea becoming the Soviet Navy's highest priority mission.

The whole history of submarine building is first and foremost, the problem of power supply in a submerged position. After muscle power an electric motor was a revolutionary step, but the submarine is still diving remained rather than underwater. Single engine in the form of diesel for several reasons and could not be an alternative to traditional elektrodvizheniyu, and only buildng a nuclear power plant finally allowed the submarine to be truly underwater.

Nuclear submarines were the determinant factor of the Soviet and then Russian Navy marine power. Their design and construction are unique pages in the history of the world's shipbuilding. Starting 1955, when the construction of the first Soviet nuclear submarine started, over 250 nuclear submarines were built, more than in the rest of the world combined.

In contrast to other countries, the USSR and Russia built three and not two classes of nuclear submarines - strategic armed with ballistic missiles, multipurpose submarines armed with short range missiles and torpedoes, and attack submarines armed with long and middle range cruise missiles. The later were intended to be deployed againsted aircraft carrier groups of the potential enemy and did not have analogs in foreign navies.

Submarine Shipbuilding and Modernization

CKBMT "Rubin", SPMBM "Malakhit" in Leningrad and CKB "Lazurit" in Gorkiy designed Soviet nuclear submarines. Building of the ships was undertaken at shipyards in Severodvinsk, Komsomolsk-upon-Amur, Leningrad and Gorkiy. At present, the building of nucear submarines is done only at "Seveniy Mashinostroitelniy Zavod" (Northern Machine Building Plant) in Severodvinsk.

Russia is modernizing 12 nuclear-powered submarines as part of an ambitious project to extend the life of the vessels by another 20 years, according to Russian Defense Minister Sergei Shoigu 02 October 2015. Six of the submarines are undergoing repairs and upgrades at Zvezda shipyard at Bolshoy Kamen on Russia's Pacific coast. The modernization program left current force levels as low as nine active submarines across the fleet.

According to navy and shipyard representatives, the upgrades include new missiles and other weapons. The work aims to put the submarines on the same technological level as Russia's next-generation nuclear-powered boats, such as the new Project 885M Yasen-class submarines. The six boats reportedly include Schuka-B/Project 971 Akula-class nuclear-powered attack submarines and Antyey/Project 949A Oscar II-class guided-missile submarines that were built in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Three of the six subs reportedly were receiving new anti-ship cruise missiles.

Russia has launched the production of advanced noise absorbing materials for its fourth-generation nuclear submarines, Rossiiskaya Gazeta reported 16 September 2016, citing Techmash Concerns press service in Moscow. The lightweight and better quality tiles we are now making in Cheboksary boast better noise absorbing qualities than their Western analogues. Moreover, the use of high technology will make their production less labor consuming and, therefore, cheaper, Techmashs CEO Sergei Rusakov said.

The noise adsorbing tiles attached to a nuclear submarines hull make it less detectable by enemy sonar and other detection systems. The new material will be primarily used on Borei and Yasen-class fourth generation nuclear missile submarines and Russias latest diesel-powered Lada-class subs.

Meanwhile, Russias fifth-generation submarines will use anti-sonar composite materials to hide them from enemy detection systems. The structure and composition of these new multilayer composite materials will significantly reduce the sonar signals reflected from submarine, isolate working mechanisms from vibrations, and so on, Valery Polovinkin, an adviser to the general director of the Krylov State Research Center, told Izvestia. He also said that, due to the composite materials high internal loss factor, enemy sonar would simply be unable to pick up the required level of signal while the materials sound absorption characteristics would minimize the spread of vibrational energy. The use of composite materials would reduce the weight of the submarines structures, increase its reliability and reduce operating costs since composites dont corrode and need no paint.

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