The Mi-14 Haze is a shore-based, navalized version of the Mi-8 'Hip' with a float bottom and ASW equipment. There are alsa SAR and mine-sweeping versions. In addition to its multirole capability, the Mi-14 features high flight performance: a 900 to 1,000 km range and four-hour endurance on internal fuel only. Currently, the only competitor to the Mi-14GP is the Eurocopter AS 332L1 Super Puma. The Mi-14 can land on water, drop liferafts overboard and take at least 20 survivors aboard. It can be employed for search, transport and rescue (dropping 20 liferafts).
The Mi-14 is an amphibious development of the Mi-8/Mi-17, used for a variety of maritime tasks including anti submarine warfare, search and rescue and mine countermeasures. The Mi-8 was reported as the logical replacement for a number of Mi-4 variants in Soviet naval service, and so development began on a navalised variant in 1968. Under the preliminary designation V-14 the first Mi-14 prototype flew for the first time in 1968.This first prototype featured the TV2 turboshafts and right hand side tail rotor of the Mi-8, while production Mi-14s feature the more powerful TV3s and left hand side tail rotor later introduced on the Mi-17. The most notable feature of the Mi-14 (NATO name 'Haze') is the boat-like hull, sponsons, floatation equipment and retractable undercarriage.
The Mi-14 has been built in three basic variants. The Mi-14PL 'Haze-N is the ASW variant and features a large undernose radome dunking sonar, sonobuoys, an APM-60 towed MAD bird and a weapon~ bay which can house torpedoes, bombs and depth charges. It is designated Mi-14PW in Polish service. An improved model is designated Mi-14PLM.
The Mi-1413T 'Haze-B' is a dedicated mine countermeasures variant. The Mi-1413T was introduced into service in the early 1980s and can carry three towed sleds to counter magnetic, acoustic or contact mines. The Mi-1413T retains the nose radome but lacks the MAD bird of the Mi-14PL and has a searchlight.
Finally the search and rescue Mi-14PS 'Haze-C' features an enlarged sliding door, a retractable rescue hoist, a searchlight either side of the nose and carries 10 20-place life rafts. The cabin can accommodate 10 rescued survivors, while others can be towed in life rafts.
The Mi-14P and Mi-14GP are civilian conversions.
Preliminary work designing the V-8g began in 1962, soon after building the first twin-engined V-8A. L.N.Babushkin was assigned Chief Designer. Several years past for the agreement with the customer of operational requirements, the optimization of the complex of armament, modeling equipment and the like in the towing tank of TsAGI (Central Institute of Aerohydrodynamics im. N Ye Zhukovskiy) was investigated the model of helicopter on a scale 1:8. finally on April 30, 1965. The Council of Ministers of USSR published the decision about the development of the base antisubmarine of amphibian heliocopter in the search and impact versions.
This apparatus obtained the new designation V-14. In essence this was explained by substantial changes in the concept of project, which was connected with the development in the middle the 60's of OKB S.P.Izotov helicopter engine TV3-117. This engine had a takeoff power of 2225 hp, which considerably exceeded the power of its predecessor TV2-117 (of 1500 hp). By the specific weight and according to the economic indices this engine corresponded to the level of the best foreign models. The calculations of Mil showed that this engine would make it possible to create on the base Mi-8 one hunter-killer helicopter instead of the analogous complex of two machines. Furthermore, more powerful power plant made it possible to improve aerodynamics of helicopter due to the application of the retractable chassis and to increase transverse stability by an increase in the volume of lateral floats - "gills". Passage to the new engines did not require the significant alterations of the construction of the Mi-8 airframe, mastered in the series production.
In September 1966 for the command the Navy of the USSR were produced two preliminary designs for the V-14 developed in OKB M.L.Mil: one - with the engines TV2-117 in the impact and search version, another - with the engines TV3-117 in the united hunter-killer version. The second solution made possible for seamen to twice reduce the detail of helicopters required for the solution of one and the same problem, and they gave preference to version with two TV3-117. In October the preliminary design of this version was affirmed, and Mil approached working designing base antisubmarine V-14. In OKB M.L.Mil they created the intensive transmission and, with the aid of OKB S.P.Izotov, new reducer VR-14. Reducer limited the takeoff power developed by the V-14 engine TV3-117M to 1950 hp. The letter "M" it designated "sea" modification, which has the special anticorrosive coating of components. The limitation of power TV3-117 in comparison with the base engine TV3-117 was caused by the desire to use its reserve in the emergency - during the malfunction one of the engines of power plant - or with the operation of helicopter in the regions with the hot and moist climate.
In December 1966 the Kazan branch of MVZ constructed a working mockup in the form of the fuselage of series Mi-8, butted with the metallic mock-up of boat. The layout of new machine was refined in this mock-up, was accomplished the coordination of search-aiming system "squid" with other systems of helicopter, questions of corrosion protection, selection of materials and sealing compounds were solved. For the estimation of effectiveness in the developed complex and determination of the prospects for its development the specialists of OKB and 30 TsNII (Central Scientific Research Institute) MO conducted the mathematical and half-scale simulation of complex helicopter - search-aiming system "squid" - weapon.
The special features of the ultimate purpose of the V-14 predetermined a number of the substantial changes, introduced in the layout and the construction Mi-8. On Mi-8 engine starting was achieved from onboard storage batteries, on the amphibian for this was provided for the auxiliary power plant AI-9V, which was located beyond the main rotor gearbox, above the service tank. Inside the cargo compartment they equipped working place for the fourth crew member - navigator-radar operator and placed the blocks of search-aiming system 7071 "squid": aiming- computational device "lily of the valley", equipment for the transmission of data "bullfinch" and other in the forward section of the cab was arranged heat-generator "[Sura]", and in the tail end - container with the being descended sonar "of eye -2". There was located lifeboat LAS-5M and cassettes for the dropping of the sonobuoys "float" or "coordinate" and the orientational bombs [OMAB]. On the fuselage, in its rear part, along the axis of symmetry was fastened that being descending of the magnetomeasures APM-60 "Orsha". For guaranteeing the fixed automatic hovering of the antisubmarine helicopter above the point with the work with the sonar into the composition of instrumentation was for the first time introduced the system of automatic administration SAU -14. As the autonomous navigation aid under the tail boom of helicopter was established the Doppler speed meter and removal DISS-15.
Airtight boat bottom was mounted below fuselage instead of cargo floor Mi-8. In its forward section in the fairing was located the radar "initiative-2M". The center section of the boat occupied the capacious torpedo section, in which could be hung up the antisubmarine torpedo AT -1 or AT-2 or the wire-controlled torpedo "martlet" either of eight 250- kgf or twelve 50- kgf of antisubmarine bombs. Furthermore, helicopter could bear some other forms of armament with overall mass to 2 T. since for many forms of armament it was required the special temperature conditions of storage, bomb bay was carried out by airtight. The hydraulically shut folds from below protected it. The sandwiches with the honeycomb filler, which not only served as the load-bearing elements of boat, became the chief characteristic of the construction of boat, but also in combination with the frames formed fuel and bomb bays. The volume of the built-in fuel reservoirs ensured the possibility of three-hour patrolling at the removal to 200 km from the base to helicopter.
Amphibian V -14 in the history of domestic helicopter construction was for the first time equipped with the retractable landing gear. The front struts of four-legged landing gear were removed forward against the flow into the niches, located along the sides of the fairing about the locator, and basic - back into the lateral "gills" - floats of stability. The niches of chassis were shut by folds. Additional tail strut was equipped with the float, inside which was placed the transmitting antenna of telemetric target indicator PK -025. The hydraulic system of landing gear retracting made it possible to change the clearance of machine at rest, which simplified the load of armament into the bomb bay and decreased the time of preparation for the combat mission. "Gills" had a form of small it was wing. Their spread had to ensure the required transverse stability during the agitation of the sea of 3-4 marks.
The working design V-14 was finished at the beginning of 1967, but the finishing of new engines TV3-117M was delayed. In order not to lose time, developers together with the customer made the decision, without waiting until new engines, to conduct the first tests on helicopters, equipped with old TV2-117. This made it possible not only to reduce the periods of building experimental machines, but also to begin flight- sea tests with the reliable finished power plant. In summer 1967 Kazan' branch of MVZ finished the production of the first boat and was accomplished its jointing with the fuselage Mi-8, and on August 1 test pilot Yu.S.Shvachko accomplished on V-14 the first lift into air. Since the track of landing gear in V -14 was considerably narrower than in other domestic helicopters, specialists began factory flight tests from the check program of the possibility of the appearance of ground resonance. Following the fact in the southern port of Moscow V-14 proved the ability to take off from the water. In the following year, in accordance with the program of stage "A" of joint official tests, the first flying model was used at the flight-test stations [MVZ] in the Moscow area and in Theodosius for determining the flying and hydrodynamic characteristics. Amphibian accomplished splashdowns and takeoffs during wave action of the sea to three marks, demonstrating a sufficient transverse and longitudinal stability and controllability on to float.
In order to accelerate the finishing of antisubmarine helicopter, at the end 1967 by the resolution of Defense Ministry for the re-equipment in the amphibian were transmitted two additional series helicopters Mi-8. Them they equipped with boat bottoms and, for the first time, search- aiming complexes "squid". One of these helicopters was soon damaged because of the troubles in the fuel system, on other for several years successfully they experienced and led SAU, sonar, complex "squid" and other antisubmarine systems. Instead of the helicopter, broken with the emergency, the armed forces granted new Mi-8, which in 1969. it was re-equipped in V-14 and used for weapons testing.
The tests of the first three experiment machines revealed serious deficiency V-14. At flight speeds of more than 180 km/h it had a noted directional instability. For the improvement of piloting characteristics on "the gills" were established vertical plates those substituted to the special oblong keel endings are later. With the finishing of amphibian were conducted also the tests by chassis for the auto-oscillations of shimmy, after which this undesirable phenomenon was removed.
In 1971. entire program of stage "A" of the tests V -14 with the engines [TV]2-117 was executed. Three helicopters carried out more than 650 test flights, [naletav] almost 700 h. all aggregates of helicopters and system of the complex of armament they worked smoothly. At the end 1969 g. the first flying copy V -14, as it was provided in the project, equipped with engines [TV]3-117[M], and in the following year the second stage of tests began ("B"). On the resolution of government in 1971. Kazan' branch [MVZ] re-equipped in V -14 two more Mi-8, after equipping with their engines [TV]3-117[M], by the main rotor gearboxes [VR]-14, by auxiliary power plants and by the intensive transmission. Commission for conducting of joint official tests recommended the neglecting of V -14 (Mi-14) into a series. However, because of the insufficient resource of the main rotor gearbox [VR]-14 were required still several years of finishing works, and only in December 1974. commission recognized as those completed official tests V -14.
At the end 1973 Kazan' helicopter plant let out first series V -14, which also entered the flight tests. On it, in particular, for the first time the pilot - tester [G]. [R]. [Karapetyan] produced the unique splashdowns at night and under the conditions of autorotation. The helicopters of later series, in contrast to the first machines, had the pulling tail rotors of reverse rotation, analogous installed subsequently on Mi-8[MT], dustproof devices in the air ducts of engines, changed layout of the flight deck, niche of chassis without the folds, changed hatchway lifeboat [LAS]-5 and some other special features. Since 1974. V -14 began to enter into service into the helicopter regiments of the Soviet Navy. By decision by the CC CPSU and the Council of Ministers of USSR dated May 11, 1976. antisubmarine amphibian heliocopter was officially accepted for the armament with awarding to it of designation Mi-14[PL]. From the following year the deliveries to its export version (plant designation V -14[e]) for the boundary began. For the creation Mi-14 the number of the workers of the aircraft industry, including the colleagues " [MVZ] [im]. [M]. [L]. [Milya] " [L]. [N]. [Babushkin] and [Z]. [E]. [Shnurov], were rewarded with State Prize.
Flight tests and modification Mi-14[PL] because of the special complexity of the complex of armament continued more than seven years - is considerably longer than other helicopters [M]. [L]. [Milya]. Therefore in 1973. in the process of the finishing of base model the idea of the subsequent modernization was born. At its basis is stale the replacement of search- aiming complex "squid" those by more advanced - "octopus", and also the application of the accepted to the armament antisubmarine torpedos "sea-eagle" and "the hummingbird" and rocket- torpedo "Hawk- M". The first helicopter, equipped with complex "octopus", entered the tests in December 1975 ; and, after four years, in 1979. that modernized Mi-14[PLM] was reccomended into series production.
From 1973 until 1986. Kazan' helicopter plant released 273 helicopters Mi-14 of different modifications. About hundred of them were set in Bulgaria, Vietnam, GDR, Cuba, Libya, Poland, North Korea, Syria and Yugoslavia.
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