After the war, Oleg Antonov developed a new aircraft whose motto could be: "do everything flying everywhere. An-2 was initially developed as an agricultural aircraft. Hence, the initial project name was SKh-1 (Selskoe Khozaistvo - Agriculture). The first prototype flew on August 31, 1947, and the aircraft went in production in 1949. Originally mocked as "obsolete at birth" because of its biplane construction, the aircaft surpassed all others in durability and reliablity, and served with more than forty nations. Regional and shorthaul Aeroflot routes received the new Antonov An-2 biplane, which contributed so much to linking and developing the rural communities across the Soviet Union. The ubiquitous biplane operated in every Aeroflot Directorate in every role a multi-purpose aircraft could possibly be designed for, and it stayed that way into the 21st century.
The world's largest single engine biplane, the 1000 hp radial engine and 60 foot wingspan allow short field take offs and landings. The AN-2 Colt provides combat support and combat service support to include reconnaissance, airborne or airland resupply as well as airborne insertion of detachments. The crew consists of two pilots and can accomodate eight passengers. The AN-2 is night capable but the cockpit is not adapted for NVG use.
Over 5000 were built. Production in the Soviet Union of the piston aircraft biplane An-2 was terminated in 1962 (their further production has been on the Soviet license in Poland)
The Y-5 is Chinese copy of the Antonov An-2. China began producing the AN-2 aircraft in the early 70s and it is still used by the North Korean military for troop transport.
In 1971, Antonov drafted a modernized agricultural aircraft, named Al-3. The machine was to be equipped with turboprop engines TV2-117S power of 1500 hp wing enlarged scope, air conditioning and more productive agricultural equipment. In 1974 under joint Decision of Ministry of Aviation Industry (MAI) - Ministry of Civil Aviation (MCA), modernization of the An-2 series airplane in the An-3 has been made by Perm Design Bureau (EDB-19) through the replacement of the ASh-62IR reciprocating engine on the TVD-20 turboprop engine. For several reasons the project was not implemented.
The issue of modernization returned in 1979, when under the same title An-3 aircraft was released a draft of gas turbine engines TVD-20 output of 1430 hp In developing this option, keep in mind that turboprop engines will equip the aircraft had already finished, so finalizing the design should be minimal. The engine TVD-20 from three-reverse propeller mounted on the An-3 in the bow of the fuselage at the scene AL-piston 62IR. In addition to replacing the power plant on the plane to install new electrical, flight control and navigation and fire-fighting equipment, introduced a system of heating and ventilation of the cockpit, provides a more efficient crop equipment. The first flight of experienced An-3 held on 13 May 1980, in 1981, it was presented on state tests, which successfully passed.
The An-3 is modification of the An-2 airplane, powered by a TVD-20 turboprop engine with the AV-17 three-blade propeller. The An-3 has new crew cabin design, heating and ventilation equipment, electrical engineering, flight/navigation equipment, alarm system, anti-fire equipment, and be used in the following versions: cargo, cargo/passenger, agricaltural, extinguishing forest fire, ambulance.
The biplane are rectangular-shaped with curved tips, with one high-mounted and one low-mounted (shorter), connected and braced by two struts. A single radial piston engine (some versions are turboprop) is mounted in the nose. The fuselage is Short and thick with solid, blunt nose, a stepped cockpit, and fixed landing gear. The tail fin is tapered with a large, round tip. The flats are low-mounted on the tail fin and rectangular-shaped with curved tips.
The modification AN-2 into AN-3 allowed:
- to increase reliability of the airplane;
- to ensure comfort for the crew and the passengers by reducing noise and vibration, ventilation and heat systems;
- to make fuselage longer and to install an additional door for the crew;
- to increase take-off weight of the airplane and payload by 300 kg respectively (for forest fire-fighting variant - by 600 kg);
- to increase safety of the crew (during hard landing) by means of installation of additional partition (barrier) between a cockpit and a cargo cabin.
- to raise air chemical work productivity by 1,6 times, thanks to new agricultural equipment, improved flight performance, loading of chemicals without stopping an engine (due to propeller braking and stopping).
The airplane can be modified into transport variant, if there are no Air chemical works.
Main differences of the AN-3 airplane. - there is a pilot door between the 5-th and the 6-th fuselage frame on the left board; - horizontal tail is at +1 angle. Stabilisator and elevator are updated
- horn balance is equipped, vertical tail is modified. New rudder with decompensator is installed;
- TBD-20 turboprop engine (running on any type of kerosene) is installed;
Specific fuel consumption - 0,225 kg. Engine air-intake gauze filter is located on the top of the cowling. Oil system includes a tank for 40 litres (instead of 125 litres on AN-2) as oil consumption is greatly reduced (0,2 kg per hour). Engine mass is 285 kg, that is twice less than ASH-62 engine. Engine starts without preheating at the temperature - 25'C (using synthetic oil - 40'C). Start -up time is about 40 seconds. Engine response time (from idling conditions to take-off regime) is 2,5 seconds.
- new engine instruments and control system;
- more powerful GSP-6000 generator, 20 NK MBN accumulators, PT-200 transducers;
- new fire-protection system with SPS-3 fire warnings and fire suppression system with two extinguishers;
- instrument panel is completed in accordance with the air - worthiness standards;
- slight-control and navigational equipment includes AGK-17US
- aero horizon DA-3OP combined instrument ARK-25 compass system;
- at customer's request A-137 radio altimeter, A-611 marker receiver, radio compass can be installed;
- flight recorder of power plant and aircraft (BUR-4) is installed.
the additional fuel tanks for 400 litres are available for installation by customer's request.
The modernization allowed:
- to use as a fuel any aviational kerosene;
- to increase: into 1,2 times the payload
- into 1,2 times the flight speed;
- into 1,85 times the climbing ability;
- to increase flight reliability and safety;
- to ensure comfort for the crew, to lower noise and vibration in the cockpit and to make convenient entrance into it;
- to preserve ability of carrying out the flights from ground sites with length of 500 m;
- to improve economical figures: airplane productivity increased into 1,5 times.
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