Marine Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MMPV)
M35 Self-Propelled Anti-Aircraft Vehicle
The Armed Forces of the Philippines and the Philippine National Police (previously the Philippine Constabulary, a part of the Ministry of National Defense) have a long history with improvised armored vehicles, primarily for internal security purposes, but also because of cost issues associated with purpose built designs.
Some of the first designs were built in the late 1960s around Toyota CJ-2/3 jeep chassis and equipped with locally designed armor kits in the Philippines. Some of these vehicles were still in service well into the 1980s. Other conversions were conducted using various commerical and military chassis, including further modifications by the Philippine Constabulary on World War II era White M3 Scout Cars, which were themselves essentially armored versions of civilian trucks.
Renewed interest in the early 2000s came from a need for vehicles to escort convoys and otherwise conduct internal security operations in Basilan against Abu Sayyaf rebels. The conversions were primarily carried out by the Philippine Marine Corps and the Philippine National Police and the vehicles used were M35 2 1/2 ton trucks and various types of HMMWV troop and cargo carriers. The M35 conversions involved various types of armored body sections as well as armored cab doors and armored plates in front of the windshield. These trucks were equipped with two machine gun mounts in the rear, one on each side, most commonly fitted with 7.62mm M60 or .30-06 M1919A4 machine guns. The HMMWV conversions involved armor plating for open troop areas in the rear, with the vehicles being otherwise unmodified. A machine gun mount was sometimes fitted in the rear or over the cab with either a 7.62mm M60 or .30-06 M1919A4 machine gun.
During the same time period the Philippine Marine Corps also developed a variant of the HMMWV referred to as the Marine Multi-Purpose Vehicle (MMPV), as well as 2 self-propelled anti-aircraft vehicles based on the M35 truck. The MMPV had a redesigned exhaust system allowing for a better fording capability, as well as being used as a carrier for the M40A1 106mm recoilless rifle. These weapons had previous been mounted on M151 jeeps, which were becoming increasingly difficult to maintain. The M35 SPAA trucks featured weapons and mounted taken from Philippine Navy ships that had been retired from service. One subvariant was equipped with the Mk 56 Mod 0 twin .50 caliber machine gun turret from old Philippine Navy Riverine Patrol Boats (PBRs). The other was equipped with a single Mk 4 20mm cannon on a Mk 10 series mount, a common anti-aircraft mounting on various ships of US origin.
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