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Japanese Politics

74 Noboru Takeshita198702 Jun 1989 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
75 Sosuke Uno 19891989 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
76 Toshiki Kaifu 19891990 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 18 Feb 1990
77 Toshiki Kaifu 19901991 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
78 Kiichi Miyazawa 19911993 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 18 Jul 1993
79 Morihiro Hosokawa Jul 1993Apr 1994 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
80 Tsutomu Hata Apr 1994Jun 1994 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
81 Tomiichi Murayama Jun 1994Jan 1996 Japan Socialist Party (JSP)
82Ryutaro Hashimoto 11 Jan 1996 07 Nov 1996Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 20 Oct 1996
83 Ryutaro Hashimoto 07 Nov 1996 30 Jul 1998Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
84 Keizo Obuchi 30 July 1998 05 Apr 2000 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
85Yoshiro Mori 05 Apr 2000 04 Jul 2000Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 25 Jun 2000
86 Yoshiro Mori 04 Jul 2000 26 Apr 2001 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 24 April 2001
87Junichiro Koizumi 26 Apr 2001 19 Nov 2003Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 09 Nov 2003
88Junichiro Koizumi 19 Nov 200321 Sep 2005Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 11 Sep 2005
89 Junichiro Koizumi 21 Sep 2005 26 Sep 2006Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
90 Shinzo Abe 26 Sep 2006 26 Sep 2007 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
91 Yasuo Fukuda 26 Sep 2007 24 Sep 2008Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
92 Taro Aso 24 Sep 2008 16 Sep 2009 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]
Election - 30 Aug 2009
93 Yukio Hatoyama16 Sep 2009 08 Jun 2010 Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)
94 Naoto Kan08 June 2010 02 Sep 2011 Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)
95 Yoshihiko Noda 02 Sep 2011 26 Dec 2012 Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ)
Election - 16 Dec 2012
Election - 21 July 2013
Election - 18 November 2014
Election - 10 July 2016
90 Shinzo Abe 26 Dec 2012 26 Dec 2018 Liberal Democratic Party [LDP]

Japan is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary government. There is universal adult suffrage with a secret ballot for all elective offices. Sovereignty, previously embodied in the emperor, is vested in the Japanese people. The Emperor is defined as the symbol of the state, and unlike other constitutional monarchies, plays no role in government. Japan's Government is a parliamentary democracy, with a House of Representatives (also known as the Lower House, elected at least every four years, with the possibility of snap elections at shorter intervals) and a House of Councillors (sometimes called the Upper House, who serve six year terms with fixed elections every three years). Executive power is vested in a cabinet composed of a prime minister and ministers of state, all of whom must be civilians. The prime minister must be a member of the Diet and is designated by his colleagues. The prime minister has the power to appoint and remove ministers, a majority of whom must be Diet members.

Japan does not have a federal system, and its 47 prefectures are not sovereign entities in the sense that U.S. states are. Most depend on the central government for subsidies. Governors of prefectures, mayors of municipalities, and prefectural and municipal assembly members are popularly elected to 4-year terms.

Japanese politics are renowned for an absence of ideology. Leaders jostle for power, not over ideas. Few fundamental ideological differences divide parties (apart from the Communists, who oppose the US-Japan Mutual Security Treaty and want to abolish the Self Defense Forces). Japan was a one-party system prior to a coalition government in the early 1990s, and the brief interlude of DPJ government (2009-12). The DPJ government was consumed first by imposing unreasonable seiji shudo (political leadership) on the bureaucracy.

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