Mughal Empire - 1526-1857
The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in premodern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire. Mughal Empire [405,000], Mogul Empire [157,000], Moghul Empire [149,000] - a derivation of the word "Mongol" - were Turkic conquerors of India who established an empire that lasted from 1526 to 1857, but held only nominal power after 1803. The word Mughal formerly and properly denoted the Tatar conquerors ot both Persia and India. But in the latter country it had for centuries been applied to the naturalized descendants of Persians as well as Tatars, of Iranians as well as Turanians. The Padshah Babar's mother was a Mughal, but throughout his memoirs Babar speaks with contempt and dislike of the race, by the name of which the Indians erroneously called his dynasty. Mughal is a generic term with them for a Muhammadan who enters India from beyond Afghanistan.
|Nasireddin Muhammed Humayun Shah||1530||1540|
|Ekber Mirza Shah||1556||1605|
|Shah-i Cihan I||1627||1658|
|Aurangzeb Alemgir Shah I||1658||1707|
|Bahadir Shah I||1707||1712|
|Shah-i Cihan II||1719|
|Alemgir Shah II||1754||1759|
|Bahadir Shah II||1837||1858|
His determination was to expand eastward into Punjab, where he had made a number of forays. Then an invitation from an opportunistic Afghan chief in Punjab brought him to the very heart of the Delhi Sultanate, ruled by Ibrahim Lodi (1517-26). Babur, a seasoned military commander, entered India in 1526 with his well-trained veteran army of 12,000 to meet the sultan's huge but unwieldy and disunited force of more than 100,000 men. Babur defeated the Lodi sultan decisively at Panipat (in modern-day Haryana, about ninety kilometers north of Delhi). Employing gun carts, moveable artillery, and superior cavalry tactics, Babur achieved a resounding victory. A year later, he decisively defeated a Rajput confederacy led by Rana Sangha.
Babur became the first Mughal ruler (1526-30). Although the seat of the great Mughal Empire he founded was in India, Babur's memoirs stressed his love for Kabul--both as a commercial strategic center as well as a beautiful highland city with an "extremely delightful" climate. In 1529 Babur routed the joint forces of Afghans and the sultan of Bengal but died in 1530 before he could consolidate his military gains. He left behind as legacies his memoirs (Babur Namah ), several beautiful gardens in Kabul, Lahore, and Agra, and descendants who would fulfill his dream of establishing an empire in Hindustan.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, most of the Hindu Kush area was hotly contested between the Mughals of India and the powerful Safavids of Iran. Just as Kabul dominates the high road from Central Asia into India, Qandahar commands the only approach to India that skirts the Hindu Kush. The strategically important Kabul-Qandahar axis was the primary forces of competition between the Mughals and the Safavids, and Qandahar itself changed hands several times during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The Safavids and the Mughals were not the only contenders, however. Less powerful but closer at hand were the Uzbeks of Central Asia, who fought for control of Herat in western Afghanistan and for the northern regions as well where neither the Mughals nor the Safavids were in strength.
Although Indian Mughal rule technically lasted until the nineteenth century, its days of power extended from 1526 until the death of Babur's great-great-great-grandson, Aurangzeb in 1707. The perennial question of who was the greatest of the six "Great Mughals" receives varying answers in present-day Pakistan and India. Some favor Babur the pioneer and others his great-grandson, Shah Jahan (r. 1628-58), builder of the Taj Mahal and other magnificent buildings. The other two towering figures of the era by general consensus were Akbar (r. 1556-1605) and Aurangzeb (r. 1658-1707). Both rulers expanded the empire greatly and were able administrators. However, Akbar was known for his religious tolerance and administrative genius, while Aurangzeb was a pious Muslim and fierce protector of orthodox Islam in an alien and heterodox environment.
15. The Portuguese Power in the East at its Zenith, 1550-1600 AD
A just appreciation of the power of the Portuguese in India is only possible by considering their Indian possessions in connection with the rest of their dominions in the east, and by remembering that theirs was a maritime supremacy established to secure their trade. Their very first expedition to India under Vasco da Gama was a trading expedition. But on their arrival they found the Indian export trade entirely in the hands of Arab merchants. These "Moors," as they were called, obtained their wares from Africa, India, Malacca, China, and the Moluccas, and carried them by way of the Bed Sea and the Persian Gulf, to Egypt, Turkey, and Persia, whence they found their way to Europe.
From China and Tartary the trade routes went by way of Samarkand, and from the north of India by Bamian and Termez to Sultanieh, Tabriz (or Tauris), Aleppo and the Mediterranean, or to Brussa and to Constantinople. By sea the merchandise from China and the Spice Islands was carried by Malacca to Calicut and Cambay. Then the routes divided. The first went by Ormuz either overland to Sultanieh and then to Constantinople, or by sea to Bassorah, and then by Bagdad and Damascus to the Mediterranean, where the European merchants, notably Venetians, received the goods in the ports of Beirut, Haleb, and Tripoli. The other route went from Cambay and Calicut to Aden. Then it branched off to the south along the African coast and to the north by way of Jedda either to Mecca and Damascus, or to Tor, Suez, Alexandria and the Mediterranean.
These were the commercial rivals the Portuguese had to deal with. First then only to hold their ground against these "Moors," and later on to secure the monopoly of the trade at sea, -which they gradually acquired, they built fort after fort along the seaboard which surrounds the eastern seas. These forts exacted due respect from the native rulers, served them as naval bases for their fleets, and dominated important straits where they levied toll on all passing ships.
The first Portuguese fort was erected at Cochin in 1503. In 1504 Zanzibar was made tributary, and in 1505 forts were built at Mozambique, Sofala, and Kilwa on the African coast, and at Cannanore in India. In 1507 Socotra was temporarily occupied and a fort erected. In the same year the Sultan of Muscat was made tributary. In 1510 Albuquerque took Goa and made it the capital of the Portuguese possessions, in 1511 he conquered Malacca, and in 1515 he occupied Ormuz. In 1518 Colombo was taken. In 1522 the Portuguese fortified Ternate, which became their chief station in the Moluccas. Fortifications were erected at Chaul in 1521. In 1534 Bahadur Shah of Gujerat ceded Bassein and the Bombay islands to the Portuguese, and gave permission to build a fort at Diu, which was completed in 1535.
In 1557 Macao was founded on a promontory south of the estuary of the Canton Eiver. It became the base for the ships trading with China and Japan. No fort, however, was erected before 1615. In 1559 the Portuguese occupied Daman. In 1560 Jaffna was made tributary and a fort erected on Manar Island. Towards the close of the century (1597) the King of Spain and Portugal1 was proclaimed King of Ceylon. The interior, however, remained practically independent. Forts were erected at Muscat towards the close of the 16th century, at Trincomali in 1623, and at Batticaloa in 1629.
Thus in the second half of the 16th century the Portuguese were supreme in the Indian seas. They controlled the important Straits of Malacca and Ormuz, compelled the traders of other nations to buy their passports, and their fleets cruised about to uphold their authority. But with the opening of the 17th century the English and the Dutch, Spain's enemies in Europe, began to dispute the superiority of the kingdoms of the united Peninsula. About the year 1600 the Dutch established themselves in the Moluccas, and subsequently excluded the Portuguese from the China Sea. In 1622 Ormuz surrendered to the combined forces of the English and Persians. In 1639 the Dutch conquered Batticaloa, and in the following year Trincomali and Galle.
Malacca fell into their hands in 1641. About the middle of the 17th century the Portuguese on the Coromandel Coast were supplanted by the French, the English (who settled at Madras), and the Dutch (who took Negapatam in 1658). In 1656 Colombo surrendered to the Dutch, who by the capture of Manar and Jaffna in 1658 obtained possession of the whole of Ceylon. Bombay was ceded to the English crown in 1661. In the same year Quilon was occupied by the Dutch, who took Cochin and Cannanore in 1663. The "Moors" too reasserted themselves. Muscat fell into the hands of the Arabs in 1650, and in 1699 they took Mombassa. In India the Portuguese fought without success against the Mahrattas, who overran Salsette (north of Bombay) in 1737. In 1739 Bassein, and in 1740 Chaul were surrendered to them. By this time all the Portuguese possessions in the ease were lost with the exception of Goa, Daman, and Diu in India, the greater part of the African coast, and Macao in China.
18. India in 1605 AD
In 1504 Prince Baber, a descendant of Tamerlane and Chenghis Khan, acquired the kingdom of Kabul, and in 1522 added Kandahar to his possessions. At the invitation of Daulat Lodi, a discontented governor of the Punjab, and encouraged by Sanga, the rana of Chitor, Baber invaded India and defeated and killed Ibrahim Lodi in the first battle of Panipat (1526), occupied Delhi, and took Agra. The rana of Chitor at first offered him assistance with a view of recovering for himself the ancient Eajput supremacy over Hindustan. But discovering that Baber intended to establish an empire of his own, he turned against the invader and marched against him at the head of his feudal lords, but suffered a defeat at Sikri near Agra (1527).
In the following year the important Rajput fortress of Chanderi was taken, and the opposition of the Hindus was crushed. Baber, before his death (1530), brought the whole of Hindustan under his power. Humayun, his son and successor, was, after nine year's reign, defeated at Baxar by Sher Shah, an Afghan, and Hindustan came once more under Afghan rulers from 1539 to 1555. Humayun fled to Persia, and re-established his authority in Afghanistan. In 1555 he invaded India and, with the help of Persian troops, won the battle of Sirhind.
He was succeeded by his son, the famous Akbar (1556-1605). In 1556 the second battle of Panipat was fought, in which the Afghan power in Hindustan was for ever broken and the Moghul supremacy established. In the course of his long reign Akbar conquered all Hindustan and extended his empire into the Dekkan. Gondwana, however, seems to have been only loosely connected with the Empire. Akbar gained over the Eajputs by inducing them to recognise him as their overlord. But the rana of Chitor, who had hitherto been the feudal superior of all the Eajputs, scorned the idea of acknowledging a suzerain and organised a resistance. Akbar attacked Chitor and forced it to surrender, while Udai Singh, the rana, fleeing to the Aravalli hills, founded Udaipur where he succeeded in maintaining his independence.
Abkar divided his realm into provinces or "subahs" ruled by viceroys or " subahdars," while the districts were placed in the hands of deputies or "nawabs". The list of Abkar's provinces is as follows :2—1. Kabul—2. Lahore—3. Multan—4. Delhi—5. Agra —6. Oudh—7. Allahabad—8. Ajmere—9. Gujerat —10. Malwa—11. Behar—12. Bengal—13. Khandesh—14. Berar—15. Ahmadnagar—16. Orissa— 17. Kashmir—18. Sindh.
The four Dekkani sultans had hitherto lived in constant warfare among themselves and against the princes of Gujerat, Malwa, Khandesh, and Vijayanagar; but at length they became united against the mighty Hindu supremacy of the South, and at Talikot (1565) fought a decisive battle, which was followed by the utter and ruthless destruction of Vijayanagar. The surviving princes of the Vijayanagar dynasty retired first to Penaconda and, when that security failed them, to Chandragiri. But their supremacy had passed away. They sank down to the level of merely local rajas, while one after another the chiefs of the south assumed their independence only a few of them still nominally acknowledging the Vijayanagar kings as their overlords.
Berar was annexed by Ahmednagar in 15724 and Bidar by Bijapur in 1529. Bijapur at Akbar's time was bounded on the north by the Nira river, and (before the southern conquests) extended along the coast from Bankot to Cape Eama; on the east the districts of Eaichur (Eedgeer), Mulkaid, and Bidar divided it from Golconda; Akalkot, Naldrag, and Kalyan became frontier-provinces alternately overrun by the troops of the various adjacent states. In the south the principal strongholds taken possession of were Adoni (Udni), Dharwar, and Bankapur; while many chiefs south of the Tungabhadra, as far down as Mysore (reduced in 1593) and Malabar (subdued in 1593), became tributary to the Adil Shah.
The kings of Qolconda also occupied large tracts Though Akbar had reduced Ahmadnagar and imprisoned its lawful prince, Malik Amber, an Abyssinian nobleman, set up a rival prince and governed in his name the remaining territory of the Nizam Shahi dynasty, holding his own against the imperial armies. He founded the town of Kirki (afterwards Aurangabad), but his chief stronghold was Daulatabad. The boundaries of his territories were continually shifting, but seem to have extended to the Arabian Sea.
In 1589 Ibrahim Kutb Shah founded the town of Haidarabad.
19. India in 1700 AD
In 1637 the last remnant of the Ahmadnagar kingdom was annexed by Shah Jehan (1627-1658). Aurangzib conquered Bijapur in 1686, Golconda in 1687, and all the territory south of the Kistna which had been dependent on these two kingdoms.
Still Aurangzib was unable to overcome the disorders which prevailed in his vast realm. The Rajputs and the Jats near Agra were in open hostility. The Moghul army was so demoralised that Vakinkera, a small mud-fort in the Dekkan, could only be subdued after the arrival of the emperor himself; and even then the chief who held it contrived to escape to Shorapur.
Kabul was always waiting an opportunity to throw off its allegiance. The Polygars in the south paid tribute only under compulsion. The Mahrattas were plundering and burning Malwa, Gujerat, and the Dekkan, which by incessant warfare had been reduced almost to a desert. The Moghul armies took fort after fort from the Mahrattas, but the latter were constantly retaking them, and Aurangzib with his degenerated troops was unable to subdue these stalwart warriors, who, when hard pressed, retired to their mountain fastnesses and defied generals, princes, and emperor alike.
Thus the overthrow of Bijapur and Golconda, which had so long kept down the Mahrattas (or Bergis), proved fatal to the Moghul empire, and enabled the Mahratta kingdom to rise on its ruins during the following century.
The year 1700 is a convenient time for enumerating the European possessions so far acquired in India. The Portuguese were the first on the scene. Prom the landing of Vasco da Gama in 1498 near Calicut to the appearance of the Dutch and English at the end of the 16th and the beginning of the 17th century, they had a monopoly of trade between Europe and India. They took Goa in 1510, fortified Chaul in 1521, acquired Diu, Bassein, and the Bombay islands in 1534, and Daman in 1559,4 all of which except Bombay they still possessed in 1700.
The chief settlements of the Dutch founded in the 17th century were: Negapatam, Sadras, Pulikat, Bimlipatam, and Cochin. Although the English East India Company (founded 1600) had established factories at Surat (1611), Calicut, Masulipatam, and other places, they built their first fort (St. George) at Madras only in 1639. Bombay, given in 1661 to Charles II as part of the marriage portion of Catherine of Braganza, was finally handed over to the English East India Company in 1669. Fort St. David (south of Madras) was acquired by purchase in 1691. In 1696 the villages of Chuttanatti, Calcutta, and Govindpur were purchased from Azim-u-Shan, Aurangzib's grandson.
In 1700 the French possessed Masulipatam (1669), Pondicherry (1674), and Chandarnagar. At about the same time the Danes held Tranquebar and Serampur.
20. To illustrate the Early Mahratta History.
Maharashtra, the country of the Mahrattas, is bounded on the north by the Satpura mountains, and extends from Nandod on the west along those mountains to the Wainganga, east of Nagpur. The boundary follows the western bank of that river up to its confluence with the Wardha, whence it may be traced up the east bank of the Wardha to Manikgarh and then westward to Mahore. From this last place it passes in an irregular line to Goa. On the west the country is bounded by the ocean. The space about Surat, Broach, and Eajpipla, where Gujerati is spoken, may be excluded by drawing an imaginary line from Daman to the middle of Nandod district. The people of this country first rose into notice in the 17th century under Sivaji and became very powerful in the 18th century under the Peshwas.
The enama of the Bhonsle family (from which Sivaji sprang) was at Verole near Ellora caves. Shaji Bhonsle first commanded a party of horse in the service of Mortiza Nizam Shah, sultan of Ahmadnagar, then entered the service of the emperor Shah Jehan, and eventually, in 1637, that of the Bijapur king, by whom he was confirmed in the possession of his family jaghir which consisted chiefly of Puna and Sopa. Jaghirs are lands or assignments of revenue. There are two kinds. The one is military, the other personal; the former is for the purpose of maintaining a body of troops for the service of the state, the latter is for the support of an individual or family. A jaghir is never, like an enam, entirely freehold; some service can by the original tenure be required.
For eminent service rendered by him in the Carnatic, the districts of Indapur, Baramati, and several of the Mawals, i.e., mountain-valleys near Puna, were added to his jaghir in the Dekkan. In the Carnatic Shahji acquired in jaghir Kolar, Bangalore, Uscota, Balapur and Sira, and held likewise, in jaghir or otherwise, Ami, Porto Novo, and Tanjore. Shahji died in 1664.
Shahji's son Sivaji, born in 1627, was brought up at Puna. Wishing to become independent, he led forth his hardy Mawalis and occupied the fort of Torna in 1646, built Eajgarh in 1647, obtained Kondaneh (to which he gave the name Singarh) in the same year, and in 1648 took ten other forts, among which were Lohgarh and Eajmach. As the Bijapur government now made Shahji responsible for the conduct of his son and kept him for years a prisoner at large at Bijapur, Sivaji abstained for a time from further aggressions. But on his father's release in 1655 he began again to capture existing hill forts and to erect new ones.
When Aurangzib made war on Bijapur in 1657, he accepted Sivaji's services, allowed him to keep what he already possessed of Bijapur territory and at the end of the campaign even agreed to the Konkan being transferred to his management. In 1659 Panalla surrendered and Vishalgarh was taken by assault. In 1660 Sivaji took Dabul and its dependencies, and in 1662 occupied the territory of the deshmukhs of Wari.
In 1662 Sivaji held sway over the Konkan from Kalyan to Goa, and the Ghauts (or Konkan-GhautMahta) from the Bhima to tho Warna. On the death of his father in 1664 Sivaji assumed the title of raja and struck coins in his own name. He also possessed a fleet at that time.
In 1665, as a result of an unsuccessful war with Aurangzib's generals, Sivaji relinquished whatever forts or territory he had taken from the Moghuls, and of the thirty-two forts taken or built by him on Bijapur territory he was only allowed to keep twelve, with the rest of his possessions as jaghir under the Emperor. He obtained, however, permission from Aurangzib to collect the fourth and the tenth of the revenue in certain districts of Bijapur.
Sivaji soon recovered his lost possessions: Puna, Chakun, and Sopa in 1667,3 Singarh, Purandhar, Lohgarh, Karnala, Maholi, and Kalyan district in 1670. In 1668 Golconda, and in 1670 Khandesh, agreed to pay chauth to the Mahrattas. In 1670 the forts Aundha, Pattah, Salher were taken, and a Moghul force defeated near the latter place. In 1672 many polygars in the northern Konkan were forced to join Sivaji. In the same year Sivaji retook Panalla, Satara, Parli, and other forts, and sent his fleet to reduce Karwar, Ankola and other places. In 1674 he defeated the Bijapur army, assumed the insignia of royalty, and was enthroned at Eaigarh. In 1676 he again took possession of the open country between Panalla and Tattora, and protected it by a series of forts (Vardangarh, Sadashivgarh and others).
In 1677 Sivaji invaded the Carnatic, took Vellore, and recovered all his father's jaghirs (Kolar, Bangalore, Uscota, Balapur, Sira), but in 1678 restored them all to his brother Venkaji on condition of receiving a share of the revenue. In 1679 a Moghul army invaded Bijapur, but being hard pressed by Sivaji was forced to retreat. For this timely service Sivaji was given the country round Kopal and Bellari and the sovereignty over Tanjore, his father's jaghir, and all the conquered districts in the south.
On the 5th April, 1680, Sivaji died. Sivaji, at the time of his death, was in possession of the whole part of the Konkan extending from Gandavi to Ponda; with the exception of Goa, lower Chaul, Salsette, and Bassein, belonging to the Portuguese ; Janjira in possession of the Abyssinians; and the English settlement on the island of Bombay. He had thannas [military posts at which the inferior revenue officers are stationed to protect the country, aid the police, and collect the revenue] in Karwar, Ankola, and several places on the coast, where he shared the districts with the deshmukhs.
The chief of Sonda acknowledged his authority, and the rana of Bednor paid him an annual tribute. Exclusive of his possessions around Bellari and Kopal, his conquest in Drawed (i.e., south of India), his supremacy as well as share in Tanjore, and the jaghir districts of his father in the Carnatic, Sivaji occupied that tract of Maharashtra from the Hiranyakeshi river oh the south, to the Indrayani river on the north, between Puna and Junir.
The districts of Sopa, Baramati, and Indapur were occasionally held, and always claimed by him as his paternal jaghir; and the line of forts, built from- Tattora to Panalla, distinctly mark the boundary of his consolidated territory to the eastward. He, however, had a number of detached places. Singnapur, at the temple of Mahdeo, was his hereditary enam village; the fort of Parneira, near Daman, was rebuilt by Moro Trimmul; and his garrisons and thannas occupied a great part of Buglana, and several strong places in Khandesh and Sangamnere.
21. Mysore, the Dominions of Chick Deo Eaja Wadeyar, 1704 AD
Since the downfall of Vijayanagar (1565) the chiefs of Mysore extended their power more and more by taking towns, forts, and villages, but remained in some form of subjection, either to the viceroy of Vijayanagar who resided at Seringapatam, or to the Bijapur government, or to the Moghuls. Of the acquisitions of Chick Deo Eaja (1672-1704) no fewer than forty-eight are enumerated. Among these Bangalore is the most important, though its possession seems to have been disputed by the chief of Sira.
The southernmost part of the Moghul Empire consisted then of two subahs, Haidarabad and Bijapur. To these belonged Haidarabad Carnatic and Bijapur Carnatic, which were subdivided into Bala Ghaut and Payeen Ghaut, so as to distinguish the countries above and below the passes.
Haidarabad Carnatic Bala Ghaut comprised: Cumbum, Guti, Gandikot, Sidhaut, Gurramconda.1 Haidarabad Carnatic Payeen Ghaut consisted of the whole country from Guntur to the Coleroon along the Coromandel Coast. This is afterwards known as the province of Arcot.
Bijapur Carnatic seems to have consisted of Bala Ghaut provinces only. The more important districts were Sira, Bangalore, Harpanhalli, Conderpi, Anagundi, Bednor (Nagar), Chitaldrug, and Mysore. The chiefs of most of these districts paid tribute under compulsion only. The districts of Adoni (Udni), Ghazipur (Nandial), and Savanur Bankapur belonged to the province of Bijapur (not Carnatic). The two Carnajtics were governed by Zulfikar Khan till the death of Aurangzib, but they were in an unsettled condition.
23. India in 1751 AD
In 1751 the Moghul Empire had crumbled to pieces. At this time three powers were making their influence felt in India:—the Afghans, the French, and the Mahrattas. After Nadir Shah's assassination (1747) an Afghan chief Ahmad Shah Abdali became ruler over Afghanistan, Balkh, Sindh, and Kashmir. In 1751 the emperor ceded to him the Punjab.
Nizam ul Mulk (or Asaf Jah), whose independence in the provinces south of the Narbada had been acknowledged by the emperor, died in 1748. His death gave the French an opportunity of interfering in Indian affairs. Dupleix, who was then governor of Pondicherry (the chief French settlement in the south), managed so skilfully, that in 1751 he was acknowledged governor of all the country from the Kistna to Cape Comorin. The Nawab of Arcot was under his authority, and Bussy, with a French army, represented French interests at the Nizam's court at Aurangabad. Thus French influence was supreme in the south. At this time the English power was of but little account, being confined to the towns of Calcutta, Bombay, Madras, Fort St. David, and Devicota.
The Mahrattas had, especially under the vigorous administration of the Peshwas, extended their authority over the Konkan and the western part of the Dekkan down to the Tungabhadra. Berar, Gondwana, and Cuttack including Balasor (since 1751) were under the Mahratta chief Eaguji Bhonsle, who in 1751 occupied the territory as far south as the Godaveri. In Hindustan the territory of the Peshwa was bounded by the Ganges, while the Chambal formed the northwestern boundary of the country ceded by Nizam ul Mulk in the convention or Seronji (1738).
While the Mahrattas held the sovereignty over the countries just mentioned, they exercised another not less important influence over the whole of India. They had either obtained by imperial grant or assumed the right to collect chauth, i.e. the fourth part of the revenue, in Gujerat, the Dekkan, and the south of India, the provinces of Lucknow, Patna, and Bengal, Allahabad, Agra, and Ajmere.
Yet the Mahrattas, at this time, formed no united government. Earn Raja at Satara was a merely nominal raja, the actual power having been usurped by Balaji Baji Eao (1740-1761), his Peshwa or Prime Minister, who resided at Puna. Again the Peshwa's power was much curbed by powerful Mahratta chiefs, the principal of whom were Eaguji Bhonsle of Berar, Anand Eao Power of Dhar, Damaji Gaekwar, Mulhar Eao Holkar and Eanoji Sindia in Malwa. Thus the most that can be spoken of is only of a "Mahratta Confederacy".
At Mysore Nunjeraj, a Hindu minister, was the actual ruler, the raja being a mere figure-head. Its limits had by this time been extended towards the south. There remained under the emperor's direct authority - only the upper Doab or country between the upper courses of the Ganges and Jumna, the country between the Jumna and the Sutlej, and Gujerat, which was still under a dependent Moghul viceroy. The Rajputs were virtually independent under the leadership of the rana of Udaipur and the rajas of Jodhpur and Jaipur.
Oudh had become independent under Saadat Khan in 1724, Bengal and Behar under Aliverdi Khan in 1740, and Rohilkhand, the country east of the upper Ganges, was occupied by Ali Mahomed and his Afghans in 1744.
22. To illustrate the Wars between the English and French in the Carnatic, 1746-1763 AD
Nizam ul Mulk, originally viceroy of the Dekkan and Carnatic provinces of the empire, had since 1723 become practically independent, though, even while waging war against the emperor, he professed obedienoe to him. He claimed sovereignty over the states and principalities south of the rivers Tungabhadra and Kistna, while the Mahrattas demanded tribute from the same. Many of these states were almost independent, and their chiefs assumed the title "nawab".
The territory of the nawab of Arcot consisted of Haidarabad Payeen Ghaut, and extended, after the acquisition of Trichinopoli and Madura (1732), down to Cape Comorin. The whole of Haidarabad Carnatic Bala Ghaut enlarged to the south, formed the principality of the nawab of Kurpa (Cuddapah). In 1743 Nizam ul Mulk recognised Morari Eao, the Mahratta, as chief of Guti. The Patan chiefs of Karnul and Savanur also claimed the title nawab.
The rana of Bednor seems to have been in possession of a considerable portion of the western Ghauts and the west coast. South of Bednor were the rajas of Coorg, Travancore, Cochin, and the chiefs of Malabar, all independent. In Mysore sham rajas were nominated by Hindu and Muhammadan usurpers.7 Dindigul was acquired by this state in 1745.
The boundaries of the possessions of the Patan nawab of Savanur and the raja of Sonda, cannot be clearly ascertained. The country between Bednor, Kurpa, Mysore, Savanur, and Guti was probably subject to the chief of Sira.
The Mahrattas were continually encroaching from the north and west on the dominions of the Nizam. The frontier line to the west was ill defined. Northwards the Painganga formed (in 1751) the boundary. The districts along the east coast from the Chilka lake to the Gundakamma were called the Northern Circars. From this time the province designated Arcot on the map, begins to be called "the Carnatic," and its ruler nawab of the Carnatic or of Arcot.
This was the group of states among which the English and French competed for supremacy in India. Except for two intervals of peace, each lasting three years, the contest was carried on without intermission from 1746 to 1763.
24. Haidar's Dominions in 1780 AD
In 1780 Mysore, the government of whioh had, since 1760, been usurped by Haidar, may be said to have reached its largest extent. The map also shows the principal places of note during this aggressive period of Mysore history. Haidar's territory extended northwards to the river Kistna, westwards to the Arabian Sea, southwards to Dindigul, and eastwards, for the most part, to the edge of the eastern Ghauts. His tributary chiefs were the polygars of Harpanhalli, Kanakgiri, Raiding, and Anagundi, and the raja of Cochin.
25. To illustrate the Four Mysore Wars, 1784 AD
India in AD 1785
26. The Principal Mahratta States in 1795 AD
The Peshwa then administered not only most of that part of the present Bombay Presidency which lies south of Gujerat and the Satpura Eange, but also the lands comprised in the present districts of Sagar, Damoh, Jabalpur, and Mandla in the Central Provinces and large tracts in Bundelkhand. He claimed tribute from the princes of Bundelkhand (excepting Orchha) and Baghelkhand, and shared with the Gaekwar the tribute which the chiefs of Kathiawar were forced to pay.
Sindia's possessions in 1795, besides the territories which he now has, extended over the country between the Jumna and the Ganges (Upper Doab) and north of Jodhpur and Jaipur. Broach had been granted him by the English in 1782, and Ahmadnagar fell into his hands in 1795 after Madhu Eao's death. South of the Narbada he possessed the western portion of the present district of Hoshangabad, the district of Nimar with Asirgarh and Burhanpur, and the eastern portion of Khandesh. Dholpur, Bari, and Eajakhera in Eajputana were enam-lands of his. In Gujerat he owned the Panch Mahals and in Eajputana, Ajmere. He exacted tribute from Udaipur, Jodhpur, and Kotah in Eajputana and from Rajgarh, Eatlam, Kilchipur, and Sitamau in Malwa. Of these only the two latter are still tributary to his successor.
Holkar owned, in addition to the territories he now possesses, the lands now forming the principality of Tonk, part of the present state of Kotah, and places north of the Bundi hills. He levied chauth from Udaipur, Jaipur, Jodhpur, Kotah, Bundi, and Karauli in Eajputana and from Narsinghgarh and Jhabua in Malwa.
Bersia, the northern district of Bhopal, then belonged to the Puars of Dhar, to whom the following principalities paid tribute:—Banswara and Dungarpur in Eajputana, and Ali Mohun (the present Ali Bajpur).
Bhonsle's territories extended over the greater part of the present Central Provinces, except such portions over which the Peshwa held sway, Berar, Cuttack, and Balasor. The chiefs of the Orissa hill tribes, of the Sarguja group of states, of Bastar, Nandgaon, Khairagarh, and Kawardha paid him tribute.
The Gaekwar's possessions were composed not only of his present dominions but also of the lands round Ahmadabad and the Gulf of Cambay, which were ceded to the English in 1805. The chiefs of Palanpur and Kankrej, of Mahi Kanta and Eewa Eanta, almost the whole of Gujerat, were tributary to him. He had a share in the Kathiawar tribute and farmed the Peshwa's share of tribute in Kathiawar and Ahmadabad.
27. India in 1795 AD
In 1752 Bhonsle of Nagpur withdrew his garrisons beyond the Painganga, thus restoring the territory between that river and the Godaveri to the Nizam.1 In 1757 Ahmadabad was finally taken by the Mahrattas, and Gujerat and Kathiawar were henceforth tributary to the Qaekwar, whilst Cutch remained independent. In 1760, after the battle of Udgir, the Mahrattas by treaty acquired from the Nizam several forts, and amongst them Daulatabad, Asirgarh, Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, and certain districts which included the provinces of Bijapur, Bidar, and Aurangabad, excepting however the last-named city. In the north the provinces of Delhi and Agra were annexed in 1789 and the Moghul Emperor was entirely in the hands of Sindia. The Eajputs were made tributary to Sindia in 1792. In the south the Mahrattas by the treaty of Seringapatam (1792). received some districts between the Kistna and the Varadha. The Nizam's dominions were considerably reduced. They were bounded on the north by the Painganga and Godaveri rivers, and on the east by the Northern Circars. In the south, however, they had been enlarged. By the treaty of Seringapatam (1792), Cumbum, Cuddapah (Kurpa), Gandikot, and districts between the lower Tungabhadra and the Kistna had been given to the Nizam.
The Afghans under Zaman Shah (1793-1800) still held the Punjab, Kashmir, and Sindh. In 1780 Bahawal Khan of Bahawalpur was forced to acknowledge the Afghan suzerainty. The nawabvizier of Oudh with the help of the British had added to his dominions the country occupied by the Rohillas.
The three Presidency towns, Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, had become growing centres of British influence, and under men like Olive, Warren Hastings, and Cornwallis, the English possessions had assumed considerable dimensions. In the south a life-and-death struggle between the English and the French had ended with a total defeat of the latter. Bankot, south of Bombay, the command of that river, and ten villages were ceded by the Peshwa to the English in 1756.
The Northern Circars — comprising Kondapalli, Ellore, Eajamahendri, and Chicacole — were taken from the French, and their acquisition was confirmed by imperial grant from Shah Alum, 1764. In 1765 the district of Chengalpat was ceded to the English by the nawab of the Carnatic. In the same year Bengal, Behar, and Orissa were granted by Shah Alum II. In 1775 the district of Benares, including Chanar and Ghazipur, were handed over by Shuja ud Daulah of Oudh. In the west Bassein had been conquered and the island of Salsette acquired. Quntur was ceded by the Nizam in 1788. In 1792 the provinces of Baramahal, Dindigul, and Malabar were acquired through the treaty of Seringapatam ;8 thus Tippu's territories were considerably reduced.
The nawabvizier of Oudh was an ally of the English, and the nawab of Arcot was under their protection.
India in AD 1804
28. India in 1805 AD
The power of Tippu had been for ever crushed in the fourth Mysore war (1798-1799), and the districts of Kanara, Coimbatore, Wainad, and the Nilgiri Hills were annexed by the English. The Nizam in 1800 ceded the districts of Bellari and Cuddapah, and all the territories to the south of the Tungabhadra and to the south of the Kistna below the junction of those two rivers, which had been part of his share in the cessions after the third and fourth Mysore wars, for the maintenance of a subsidiary force. They are henceforth known as the "Ceded Districts of Haidarabad ".
In 1800 a dispute arose as to the succession in Tanjore. Wellesley being called upon to arbitrate annexed the state. In 1801 the nawab of Oudh was forced to cede, for the maintenance of a subsidiary force, the districts of Allahabad, Fatehpur, Cawnpur, Azamgarh, Gorakhpur, Bareilly, Moradabad, Bijnaur, Budaun, and Shahjahanpur, called the "Ceded Districts of Oudh". In the same year (1801) the Carnatic was annexed to the British possessions, because the late nawab had frequently put obstructions in the way of the Marquis of Wellesley, and had held treacherous correspondence with Tippu.
From 1802-1803 the second Mahratta war was fought; the English, the Peshwa, and the Nizam being on one side, with Bhonsle of Nagpur and Sindia on the other. Bhonsle and Sindia were defeated all along the line. By the treaty of Dewalgaon, 1803, the raja of Nagpur ceded to the British and their allies the province of Cuttack, including Balasor, the territory west of the Wardha river and south of Gawilgarh. Narnala, Gawilgarh, and some districts south of these forts were, however, restored to Bhonsle.
By the treaty of Sirji Arjenjaon, 1803, Sindia ceded to the British and their allies his territories between the Jumna and Ganges, all the territory situated north-east of the Eajput states, and the districts and towns of Broach and Ahmadnagar. Of these territories, the Nizam received the whole tract west of the Wardha and south of the hills on which stand Gawilgarh and Narnala down as far as the Godaveri, whilst the Peshwa received the district and fort of Ahmadnagar. Territories in Bundelkhand contiguous to the British possessions and yielding thirty-six lakhs of rupees, were ceded by the Peshwa for the maintenance of a subsidiary force in 1803.
The British supremacy had been recognised in the following states: Kuch Behar in 1772, Cochin in 1791, Haidarabad in 1798, Mysore in 1799, Barodain 1802, Rampur in 1801, the Peshwa's dominions in 1802, Sindia's dominions in 1804, Travancore in 1805, in Bhartpur, Alwar, and Dholpur between 1802 and 1806.
The Amirs of Sindh and the Sikhs had by this time acquired independence. The Sikhs on the right bank of the Sutlej were ruled by Eanjit Singh who, in 1798, had been appointed governor of Lahore by the Afghan king, but had gradually assumed independence. Bahawalpur was independent in 1805, Kashmir was still ruled by the Afghans. The Gurkhas of Nepal had been steadily extending their territory to the west. In Cutch anarchy prevailed. In 1805 the English were at war with Holkar on behalf of the Eajputs, their allies.
29. India in 1823 AD
After the period of conquests and treaties under the Marquis of Wellesley a period of reaction set in. A large section of the British nation was opposed to the aggressive policy of the late governor-general. Hence the alliance with the Eajputs was given up and Holkar and Sindia were allowed to exact chauth from them. The governor-general received strict injunctions not to enter upon any fresh war and not to interfere in the quarrels of native princes.
Under Lord Minto (1807-1813), however, the old policy began to revive. The Sikh states on the left bank of the Sutlej placed themselves under British protection, 1809, rather than become subject to Eanjit Singh.
Then followed the administration of the Marquis of Hastings (1813-1823). Under him, after a hardfought campaign against the Gurkhas (1814-1816), Nepal was reduced to its present dimensions by the treaty of Segauli. At this time the principal Mahratta states were disaffected and intriguing against the English. Bands of robbers, Pindharis, were ravaging central India and making frequent inroads on the territory of the British and their allies. They were sheltered and abetted by the Mahratta princes.
The Peshwa first rose against the English in 1817. A short campaign ended with the annexation of the territories of the Peshwa, who was sent a state prisoner to Bithur on the Ganges. After the defeat of his army at Mehidper, Holkar was forced, by the treaty of Mandeswar, to renounce his rights to Tonk Eampura, Bundi, and all other places north of the Bundi hills. Subsequently, however, Sir G. Barlow restored to him Eampura and the territory north of the Bundi hills. The principality of Sagar was likewise annexed. Sindia, who had been intriguing against the English with the Nepal ministry, was forced to cede the district of Ajmere and to renounoe his claims of tribute on the Eajputs. Apa Sahib of Nagpur was after a short campaign deposed.
The British supremacy was recognised in all the Rajput states in 1817,1818, and 1823 ; in the Malwa states: Bhopal (1817), Indore (1818), Dewas (1818), Jaora(1818), Dhar(1819); in Bundelkhand: Orchha, or Tehri (1812), Rewa (1813), Samptar (1817); in Kolhapur (1812); in Sawantwadi (1819); in Cutch (1816 and 1819); in Kapurthala (1809); in Qarhwal (1820). In Kathiawar the British acquired the Peshwa's share in the supreme authority in 1817 and the Gaekwar's rights in 1820.
30. India in 1848 AD
Under Lord Amherst, after the first Burmese war (1824-1826), the Burmese government ceded Arakan and Tenasserim, and gave up its claims to Assam, Cachar, and Jaintia (see map 32). Coorg and Karnul were annexed in 1834 and 1841, because their rulers became insane and oppressed the people. Sindh was annexed after the Sindh oampaign in 1843. In 184
5 the Sikhs made an unprovoked attack on the British possessions. Hard-fought battles took place at Mudki, Firuzshar, and Sobraon, but at last the victorious English entered Lahore, the capital of the Sikhs, and a peace was concluded in 1846. The Jalandhar Doab, i.e., the country between the Bias and Sutlej, was annexed to the British possessions, and Kashmir made over to Golab Singh, a prominent Sikh leader, who agreed to pay the cost of the war. In 1832 Cachar lapsed to the sovereign power. . The British supremacy was recognised by the following states: Bahawalpur in 1838, Mandi and Suket in 1846, Chamba in 1847, Kashmir in 1846. Agra was constituted a distinct province under a Lieutenant-Governor, by Lord W. Bentinck in 1834.
India in AD 1857
Under Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856) another period of annexation began. The power of the Sikhs was finally broken in the battle of Gujrat (1849) and the Punjab annexed. Satara lapsed to the paramount power in 1848, because the raja died leaving no natural heir. Pegu was annexed after the second Burmese war in 1853. Nagpur lapsed to the ruling power in 1853, there being no heir to the throne on the raja's death. Berar was assigned to the English as payment for the subsidiary force in 1853. Jhansi lapsed to the paramount power in 1853. Oudh was annexed in 1856.
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