Luxembourg - Lëtzebuerger Arméi
Today the Luxembourg Army has a strength of approximately 430 professional soldiers, about 340 enlisted recruits, and 110 civilians. The country has no navy or air force. A 1967 law made the army an all-volunteer force under civilian control A 2002 law allows EU citizens, under certain conditions, to join the Luxembourg Army.
The Act of 28 June 1967 ended compulsory military service and establishes a new reorganization of the army, by introducing volunteers. When in 1967 compulsory military service was abolished after the GTR and artillery battalion integrated 8 e Division of infantry stationed at BAUMHOLDER US, "1st Battalion of infantry NATO" was born. This battalion, provided by the CIM (Centre of instruction military), was composed by one command and service, two companies mounted infantry and a company of light, i.e. in all 366 executives and volunteers. It was part from the "ACE Mobile Force (LAND)" 1968 AMF (L) of NATO and participated for the first time an exercise in September 1969 in the Denmark. The AMF (L) was a strong multinational, conventional and mobile which could be sent as soon as the first symptoms of a war in the region threatened. It therefore played rather a political role to deter an attacker. This role could be summed up by a "show the flag". In 2002, AMF (L) was dissolved. Given that NATO had forces of several nations Centre-Europe, the role falling to the AMF (L) deterrence should play on the flanks (Norway - Denmark - Italy - Greece and Turkey). If the Luxembourg NATO battalion could participate in actions in the Denmark, Greece and Turkey, in the absence of winter equipment and adequate training, employment in Norway was not possible during the winter.
The law of 17 June 1987 modifies the military organisation in the sense that there is increase of staff and creation of "the Army school". Law of 02 August 1997 makes changes of the law of 27 July 1992 concerning the participation of the Grand Duchy to operations for the maintenance of peace (OMP) in the framework of international organizations. This Act provides for the creation of elite sports section, allowing high-level athletes focus outside of all professional constraints to improve their performance and better prepare for national and international competitions. The Act also reflects the political will to go in the direction of a professionalisation of the armed forces by creating the function of corporal career. This new career is along the subordinate, career as it exists at the police. To create a force reserve, as provided for by the law on abolition of compulsory military service in 1967, is erased from the military law.
The 1999 elections, the army, the police and the gendarmerie were under the authority of a joint Department of the Force Publique. On 08 August 1999, the army fell under the responsibility of the Ministry of foreign and defence while the ducal police under the Ministry of the Interior. Elections in 2004 have brought no change for the Army Department, nevertheless the Ducale Police as well as its general inspection are now part of the Department of justice. By law of 20 December 2002 amending the act as amended on 23 July 1952 concerning the military organization, candidates volunteer soldiers of the nationality of one of the Member States of the European Union may be admitted to the army on condition that reside in Luxembourg for at least 36 months.
Act of 21 December 2007 has for object the reorganization and transformation of the army in its essential purpose of the components able to participate in the best conditions possible, together with the other European and allied armies to the tactical EU (GT) and the fast of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation reaction force groupings (NATO Response Force: NRF) the core of the law is that of the constitution (UDO) operational availability of the Luxembourg army units which led to operate in a number of adjustments to the status of the voluntary. Furthermore, text proposes to reinforce the attractiveness of the volunteer training and retraining of the volunteer. New military missions also require adaptations to the level of staff as well as a number of other adaptations shall be made.
Company A is a light infantry company formed in 1987, alternately charged with territorial defense or participating in the Luxembourg infantry battalion. The NATO contribution mission became in 1987 a "lighting and support company" responsible for the military defence of the territory and received a new structure, which includes a section of mortars among others. In 1996, the company A was charged to constitute the nucleus of the Luxembourgish Contingent attached to the 1st Division Mécanisée Belgian. Luxembourg joined the Eurocorps on 09 September 1996. As such, the company was restructured along with recognition and articulated as follows: Staff of company ; Reconnaissance platoons; Anti-tank unit. The statement of the platoons sent on mission (Peace Support Operations) PSO is unwound as much of A company, whether for missions UNPROFOR (Croatia North), IFOR, SFOR (Bosnia Herzegovina), or KFOR (Kosovo). Thus since December 1999, the main mission of the company is platoons departing in KFOR mission training. Still, it should be noted that A company is paired with two Belgian units: the Lagland Camp (May 31, 1990); the 4th Squadron of hunters to horse (4th ChCh) (07 May 1998).
Company B [Cie B] is subdivided into a military component (command) and a school pane. Command consists theoretically chiefs, 6 non-commissioned officers whose 4 instructors, 2 and 6 volunteers. He is essentially administrative part and management staff of the CIE as well as the continuation of the military statement. Army school consists of Director, 7 special teachers and lecturers currently. Its role is to provide volunteers a statement like equivalent at least to a 9 ° theoretical and higher. Before the creation of the Swiss Army, soldiers-volunteers attended mandatory courses general statement and civic training after their 6th month of incorporation. With the institutionalization of the army in 1987, school attendance was compulsory for one semester. From September 1994, attendance at courses of the EA from 18 ° month of service is done based on voluntary activity, since the EA is more a constraint but a bid. From September 2002 the Swiss Army work in the current form. September 2005, COPREX courses take place at the same time courses school complementarity. From September 2011, the Swiss Army will become mandatory for all soldiers incorporated in September 2008. It will fit in the conversion of 12-month cycle.
Company C The Cie CI command section includes officers, non-commissioned officers and soldiers who are responsible for monitoring, management and administration of the different sections of the CIE. Most of the soldiers are engaged in as a Secretary or as aid-fourrier offices in the food section of the CIE. missions include: Administrative personnel command the CM and the company management; Administrative management of volunteer soldiers in vocational training through: the deputies in DINANT (NCOs and corporals career) Royal School and school of infantry at ARLON (officers and NCOs) and school of logistics in TOURNAI (NCOs and corporals career); the school's application for officers to ARLON / MONTPELLIER; Logistical support of the commandment of the CM; Statement of basis of recruits; Instruction and training of military drivers; Organization of leisure of soldiers-volunteers; Management of materials of the CM and the management of archives of the CM; PES all personnel of the CM; Administrative management of the army elite athletes; Administrative and logistical guarding army unit management.
Company D [Cie D] LU RECCE COY (LUXEMBOURG RECONNAISSSANCE COMPANY) constitutes the core of the Luxembourg contribution to NATO's, forming part of the terrestrial component "Mobile force" command, allied Europe better known as the French AMF (L), multinational force immediate reaction directly dependent SACEUR (SUPREME ALLIED order EUROPE). During the cold war, while NATO had strong troops in Central Europe on the iron curtain, for Defense-oriented towards the East, the North flank and southern were relatively fairly dégarnis and lack of multinational presence. In 1960, the Allied Command Europe Mobile Force was created, a small multinational unit the size of a brigade equipped with small arms in response to crises which could occur in these areas. That can be deployed in the short term and in peacetime it serves to demonstrate the commitment of NATO member countries resist political and military pressures. For purposes of deterrence AMF is the visible sign that any attack on a member of the Alliance would be regarded as attack on all NATO (V Article of the Treaty of NATO) countries. The initial force was composed of a component land (AMF (L)) and forces air (AMF (A)). The Earth, with five battalions, component was provided by 8 participating Nations: Belgium, Canada, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, UK and USA.
In 1960, Luxembourg was one of the 8 founding countries of the AMF (L) and put a battalion of artillery available AMF (L). From 1967, with the abolition of military service and contribution Luxembourg army reorganization is first reduced to a company of infantry consisting of 3 platoons fusiliers and a bunch of Scouts. In addition to participation in missions of the AMF (L) it could be called upon to ensure, with the territorial units of protection on the national territory and defence missions. She also formed school preparation for careers and jobs that had access soldiers-volunteers. In 1968 the Luxembourg contribution was in force of a battalion of infantry consisting next to a command element and the 1 company of infantry Alliance (to four platoons of fusiliers) service and company of infantry NATO 2 (on a peloton Anti char (ATk) and two platoons Scouts). They were able to protect and defend points or sensitive areas and carry out attacks and limited attacks respectively perform some recognitions and ATk defence. In 1970 1 Bn INF. NATO is composed one of the two companies infantry (Cie A and B) and the Lourdes firearms company a.o. (Cie AL, called co. C) of the Centre's statement of the Army (CIA) respectively (CIM) military in 1976 Instruction Center. Without decrease of 106 mm cannon constituai heavy armament co. c in 1973 year in which the weapon TOW system was acquired. From 1978 1 Bn INF. NATO has completed to a second company of infantry (there are then three to the CIM: Cie A, B, C). La Cie AL becomes company d'appui (Cie Ap) named Cie D. After approval by SACEUR workforce Luxembourg quota within the AMF (L) shall be reduced in 1987 the importance of a light infantry battalion of hardened infantry company (Cie D).
In 1995 the AMF (A) has been dissolved and nations reassign these means air in the Reaction Force Air (RF (A)). Similarly in 1995 the AMF (L) has been reported immediate reaction - force land (RFID (L)) that can be used across the full spectrum of humanitarian assistance to combat operations anywhere inside or outside of ACE SACEUR.
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