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FC-1 "Chao Qi" / JF-17 Thunder

The FC-1 (Fighter China 1) is an all-weather, multipurpose light fighter aircraft. The aircraft is equipped with advanced avionics and armed with medium-range missiles. It is capable of carrying out both air-to-air and air-to-groud missions. By 2004 this new multi-role fighter had been redesignated the Xialon (Fierce Dragon), and for Pakistan as JF-17 "Thunder". It might be designated J-9 if it became operational in Chinese service, but as of 2015 this did not appear to be in the works.

Both the "F-7P" and "Super 7" nomenclature are extremely ambiguous, and seem to refer as much to requirments as to actual specific pieces of hardware. The "F-7P" nomenclature seems to reference the full range of F-7 configurations for Pakistan, and antedates the development of the side inlet design. Similarly, the "Super 7" nomenclature survived this F-7 derivative configuration, and for a while decended on the essentially unrelated FC-1 "Chao Qi" / JF-17 Thunder program, which Pakistan and China embarked on in the late 1990s.

As a substitute for the Super-7, China developed the FC-1 (Fighter China 1) lightweight multipurpose fighter based on the design for the MiG-33, which was rejected by the Soviet Air Force. The FC-1 was developed with a total investment in excess of $500 million, including support from the China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation (CATIC), mainly for export to replace the 120 F-7M/P fighters in service in the Pakistani Air Force, though it was possible that the Chinese Air Force will use this aircraft as well. The deal to manufacture 150 FC-1 (Fighter China) jets was struck when General Musharraf visited China just before the Kargil war in 1998.

Chengdu Aircraft Industry Company [CAIC], based in Sichuan Province, is China's second-largest fighter production base, and the enterprise is cooperating with Pakistan's Aviation Integrated Company and Russia's Mikoyan Aero-Science Production Group [MASPG] in the development of the FC-1. Israel and several European countries are being considered as suppliers for the plane's avionics. The first flight was planned for 1997 with delivery to the Pakistani Air Force scheduled for 1999.

Initially it was anticipated that the FC-1 would be a high- performance, low-cost fighter plane to supplement the F-10 air superiority fighters developed for the Chinese Air Force. These planes will be fitted with a single Klimov Design Bureau RD-93 engines. They are a more powerful version of RD-33 engines, two of which are fitted in MIG-29. The China National Aero-Technology Import and Export Corporation (CATIC) tried to persuade the Chinese Air Force to use the FC-1 so as to increase the production run and reduce the unit cost. But the Chinese military has resisted, being of the view that equiping the Air Force with two types of fighter planes with similar performance within the same time period would both consume limited financial resources and complicate logistical support for dissimilar aircraft.

It is widely reported that the FC-1 is a continuation of the "MiG-33 [R33]" program developed in the 1980s. The Russian company Mikoyan OKB Design Bureau, which designs all MIG series of aircraft, sold the design of MIG-33 to the China and Pakistan. This report is the source of considerable confusion, and indeed some rather fanciful speculation. The so-called MiG-33 design used in conjunction with the FC-1 program was apparently a the poorly attested "Product 33" lightweight single-engine project of the mid-1980s. A decade later, the MiG-33 nomenclature was briefly associated with the much larger twin-engine Mig-29M. This confused history has led to observations that the "FC-1 features air inlets on the lateral sides of the fuselage rather than the ventral inlets of the MiG-33. ... the most apparent modifications to the MiG-33 design is the repositioning of the ventral fins from the engine compartment..." These supposed modifications to the mid-90s MiG-33 design actually reflect the fact that the FC-1 is an entirely difference airplane with no design relationship to the MiG-33 [MiG-29M].

These improvement in performance affected the program's costs, and if the final production order if fewer than 300 aircraft the unit price will rise from the original $10 million to $15 million.

The JF-17 aircraft is an all-weather and multi-role fighter that can accomplish both air-air and air-surface missions day/night. It possesses the capability of launching MRAAM and of accurate air-surface attack. The aircraft is highly efficient and reliable, with the advantages of lower price and lower cost for service and maintenance than other existing light fighters.

The aircraft is of conventional configuration with single seat, single engine, bifurcated air intakes, full span leading-edge maneuvering flap and fuselage strake. It has also taken the stealth requirement of new generation fighters into consideration.

The advanced composite materials used in Chengdu FC-1 not only reduce the body weight, but also increase the stealth performance. Aviation Industry Corporation of China (AVIC) may also use the home-made latest turbojet engine to substitute the RD-93 engine made by Russia. Such extensive upgrading can be conducted so long as there are a sufficient number of potential buyers.

The FC-1 was to make it's first flight in 1996, but the project was delayed when Pakistan sought to upgrade the performance characteristics of the FC-1 to respond to India's acquisition of Su-30MKIs. After several years of stagnation, the Pakistani Prime Minister's February 1998 trip to China resulted in an agreement to continue development of the fighter. At that time Pakistan was interested in acquiring at least 150 fighters, with the Chinese contemplating acquiring over 200.

The JF-17 Thunder project has been completed in a record period of four years. China National Aviation Corp officially signed the development contract for the FC-1 airplane in 1999. The project initially suffered a setback due to imposition of sanctions in 1999, which hindered acquisition of avionics and weaponry for the aircraft. The avionics had to be delinked from airframe development in 2001. China National Aviation Corp completes the detailed preliminary design in 2001 and in 2002 the company completed the detailed design structure and the system charts.

Formal production work began September 16, 2002, on the FC-1 aircraft in Chengdu, capital of southwest China's Sichuan Province.

The FC-1 made its formal debut at China's Fourth International Air Show scheduled November 4 to 7, 2002, in Zhuhai, the nearest mainland city to Macao. China Aviation Industry Corporation I (AVIC I ) made fresh progress in 2003, with 5 planes having passed evaluation and seven new planes completed their maiden flight. "Xiaolong / FC-1", or Fierce Dragon, produced by the corporation was applauded as one of the "Ten Major National Scientific Events in 2003".

In July 2003 it was reported that the "SUPER-7" fighter jet was ready to take its maiden flight, although a detailed timetable was not released. China's Super-7 Fighter completed its taxiing test on July 03, 2003 at a test ground of Chengdu Aircraft Industrial Corporation (CAC). As one of the eight major ground tests that must be completed before test flight, the taxiing test is aimed at trying the correctness of the design of electricity supply system, as well as signal connections between the electricity supply system and other external systems so as to provide important data to guarantee a successful first fly. Leiqiang, deputy director of the Chengdu Flight Group's trial flight department under the Chinese Air Force, said he will carry out the maiden flight task.

On 25 August 2003 the "owlet dragon" FC-1 airplane carried on the initial flight. It flews 17 minutes before it returned to the airport. The serial production of the aircraft was to begin by January 2006. The aircraft will replace the Mirage, F-16 and F-7 aircraft with the latest technology and it will meet professional requirements of the Pakistan Air Force.


An advanced version of the China-developed new-generation fighter plane, the Xiaolong/FC-4, succeeded in its first flight on 28 April 2006 in southwest China's Sichuan Province. Based on previous models, the Xiaolong/FC-1 and FC-3, the FC-4 is equipped with advanced electronics and weapons systems, which improve its combat capabilities, say experts. The FC-4 is able to carry about 200 kilograms of fuel more than its earlier models. The success of the 16-minute test flight marks a significant step in China's aviation industry, and makes mass production possible.

The Xiaolong series is a multipurpose light fighter aircraft developed by the China Aviation Industry Corporation I (CAIC-I), the Chengdu Aircraft Group Corp. and China Aero Technology Import and Export Corporation. With advanced design and manufacturing technology, this export-oriented fighter plane is small, low in cost and suitable for modern warfare and the demands of military fighters.

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