C-802 / YJ-2 / Ying Ji-802 / CSS-C-8 / SACCADE
C-8xx / YJ-22 / YJ-82
Technological improvements to the C-801/SARDINE and the C-802/ SACCADE are providing a gradual upgrade to China's current force of antiquated, first generation, CSS-N-1/SCRUBBRUSH ASCMs. The Navy's new FB-7 bomber likely will carry C-801/C-802 ASCMs.
The Ying-Ji-802 land attack and anti-ship cruise missile [Western designation SACCADE], is an improved version of the C-801 which employs a small turbojet engine in place of the original solid rocket engine. The YJ-2 (C-802 is externally similar to the YJ-1 but it is powered by a turbojet with paraffin-based fuel. This caused the fuselage to be extended to accommodate the fuel.
The weight of the subsonic (0.9 Mach) Yingji-802 is reduced from 815 kilograms to 715 kilograms, but its range is increased from 42 kilometers to 120 kilometers. The 165 kg. (363 lb.) warhead is just as powerful as the earlier version. Since the missile has a small radar reflectivity and is only about five to seven meters above the sea surface when it attacks the target, and since its guidance equipment has strong anti-jamming capability, target ships have a very low success rate in intercepting the missile. The hit probability of the Yingji-802 is estimated to be as high as 98 percent. The Yingji-802 can be launched from airplanes, ships, submarines and land-based vehicles, and is considered along with the US "Harpoon" as among the best anti-ship missiles of the present-day world.
Following the 1991 Gulf War Iran imported the C-802 antiship cruise missile from China. China suspended exports in 1996 in response to comlaints by the the United States. In December 1996 Chairman of the US Joint Chiefs of Staff, John Shalikashivili, warned Chinese Defense Minister General Chi Haotian that arms exports would increase destabilizing factors in the region. No international agreement bans transfers of anti-ship missiles, and the C-802 is not covered by the MTCR, which controls exports of ballistic and cruise missiles that can deliver 500 kg. warheads to 300 km. Iran expected to purchase 150 C-802 missiles from China but only received a half of them because of the arms suspension. By mid-1997 Iran reportedly possessed some 60 of the missiles deployed in coastal batteries on Qeshm Island, a strategic point on the eastern side of the Arabian peninsula. In 1997, General J.H. Binford Peay, Central Command commander, said that China transferred 20 patrol boats with 15 equipped with C-802 missiles (Washington Times, January 29, 1997). [Some reports claim that China may have transferred hundreds of C-802s, although these claims are not widely attested].
In early 2000 it was reported that North Korea and Iran were jointly developing an advanced version of the C-802 cruise missile. These missiles initially acquired by Iran were not equipped with advanced systems, and the missiles acquired by Iran were rather outdated. Iran turned to North Korea for missile system technology, and the two countries are jointly developing an upgraded version with improved accuracy. ["N. Korea, Iran Jointly Develop Missile: Report" Korea Times February 17, 2000]
Hizballah seriously damaged a Saar 5-class missile ship named the "Spear" that was helping to enforce Israel's blockade of Lebanon on 14 July 2006. One Israeli sailor was killed and three were initially missing after the attack. Israel initially believed that an aerial drone armed with explosives hit the warship, but it became clear that Hizballah had used an Iranian-made C-802 cruise missile to strike the vessel. Another Hizballah radar-guided anti-ship missile hit and sank a nearby Cambodian merchant ship around the time the Spear was struck. Twelve Egyptian sailors were pulled from the water by passing ships.
The Luhu-class Type 113 destroyers represented a significant improved in weapons and electronic systems. The primary surface-to-surface weapons are 8 YJ-8/YJ-82 sea-skimming SSMs. Luhai Type 167 Shenzhen weapon systems are not much different from those onboard Luhu, including 16 YJ-82/YJ-83 SSM. The improved Jiangwei II FFG (Type 053H3) has upgraded radar and fire control systems, including datalink as well as a new fire-control radar. More powerful weapon systems include two quadruple YJ-82/83 SSM systems (compared to the original two triple). Some Jiangwei I FFGs may carry the YJ-82 as well). The development of the YJ-82 ASCM for the SONG submarines gives the Navy a submerged-launch cruise missile. In 2000 China started sea trials of a second, modified Song-class diesel-electric submarine, the first PRC submarine designed to carry the YJ-82 anti-ship cruise missile.
The precise application of the YJ-8 designation remains somewhat obscure, as it is used with reference to both C-801 and C-802 missiles, and may be the overall designator for the weapon system that fires both types of missiles. Thus, while some sources reference a YJ-8-2 and YJ-8-3 missiles, other sources reference a YJ-82 and YJ-83 missiles.
The YJ-22 is a land-attack cruise missile development of the anti-ship C-802 with a 400km range, and possible GPS/TM guidance was said to be under development with an IOC expected after 2005, though as of 2011 the status of this program was unclear. This 135-kilometer range system would be the first Chinese cruise missile to incorporate GPS-assisted navigation. GPS-aided guidance could be augmented by terrain contour matching [TERCOM] guidance. Some sources believe GPS aided navigation could result in cruise missiles like the YJ-22 to achieve accuracies of up to 10 meters.
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