Military

Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC)
AN/USG-2(V) Cooperative Engagement Transmission Processing Set

Cooperative Engagement Capability (CEC) brings revolutionary new capability to naval air and missile defense, not by adding new radars or weapon systems, but by distributing sensor and weapons data from existing systems in a new and significantly different manner. CEC fuses high quality tracking data from participating sensors and distributes it to all other participants in a filtered and combined state, using identical algorithms to create a single, common air defense tactical display ("air picture"). The result is a superior air picture based on all sensor data available that permits significantly earlier detection and more consistent tracking of air contacts. CEC was designed against the air threat (e.g., from cruise missiles), especially in littoral waters. Undergirding CEC is a robust communications system with several orders of magnitude in improvement to bandwidth and electronic countermeasures, as well as the systemic advantages offered by the global positioning system (GPS).

Cooperative Engagement Capability is being developed by Raytheon Systems Co., Command, Control and Communications, Data Systems, [formerly Raytheon E-Systems] St. Petersburg, FL, in conjunction with Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

CEC provides real time integration of fire control quality sensor data into a single composite data source which can be used by multiple CEC ships and airborne units for direct and remote missile engagements. CEC significantly improves battle force anti-air warfare (AAW) capability by coordinating all force AAW sensors into a single real time, fire control quality composite track picture. CEC, when integrated with Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) weapon systems in a Battle Force (BF) or Surface Action Group (SAG), results in a distributed AAW weapon system among participating Cooperating Units (CU's). Successful AAW in a BF or SAG relies on coordinating and controlling AAW assets among AAW-capable ships. As threat inventories increase and hostile counter-measures become more sophisticated, fleet AAW movements must address individual ship AAW capabilities and coordinate the sensors and weapons of individual ships into a cooperative BF or SAG distributed AAW system. Data sharing from primary AAW sensors of a BF provides timely, accurate data ensuring greater engagement decision and prosecution responsiveness in case of battle engagement. Further, coherent, high-quality sensor data and engagement status information shared among multiple ships automates engagement decisions.

With CEC, data from each unit is distributed to all other units, filtered, and combined using identical algorithms into a single, common air picture. Each CEC unit combines ownship radar measurement data with those from all other CEC units using the same CEC algorithms. The result is an air picture based on all the data available (thus superior to that of any single sensor), providing tracks with identical track numbers throughout the net.

CEC distributes radar measurement data (not tracks) from each CEC unit to all other CEC units. Units communicate in pairs during short transmit/receive periods through a narrow directional signal. Data is thus sent across the net in near real time and communication is virtually jam-proof. CEC units are able to engage on the basis of CEC composite tracks, even when the firing unit does not hold the track, because CEC provides precision gridlock and fire-control quality tracks.

CEC improves warfighting capability in amphibious operations by enabling cooperating units to allocate radar energy to different areas of the battle field, enlarging the area of radar coverage. Naval operations conducted in the littoral environment require that attacking aircraft and missiles be detected and engaged over land or over water in the face of heavy land clutter. Search sector cooperation between the defending ships using CEC can significantly increase their detection and track ranges and consequently increase battle space.

Operating indepently, without CEC, each of the ships must spread its radar energy over the entire volume, limiting the time and energy available to search in the difficult land clutter region. Operating together, with CEC, a single ship can search the entire volume while the other ships concentrate on the land clutter region. Data from each ship are distributed to all the ships and combined into an identical composite track picture on each ship. This picture, superior to that available from any single sensor, allows significantly earlier detection and more consistent track on attackers in the clutter.

Because CEC combines radar measurement data from all of the ships, the CEC picture covers a larger geographic area than that of any single sensor, providing greatly increased situational awareness and opportunities for tactical coordination. Contributions from CEC-equipped Airborne Electronic Warfare aircraft will extend this coverage even further, providing surface units both more accurate tracking and situational awareness at ranges well beyond shipboard sensor coverage. The airborne CEC also provides for relay of the CEC air picture between widely separated surface units, maintaining connectivity and situational awareness at greatly extended ranges.

Radar measurement data from CEC air units also greatly increase coverage over land, where the altitude of the airborne radar mitigates terrain masking and radar horizon limitations affecting shipboard radars. CEC provides airborne radars the same improvements in track accuracy, track continuity and ID consistency afforded shipboard radars, resulting in improved detection and tracking as well as greater situational awareness.

Additionally, CEC contributes to theater ballistic missile defense by providing a continuous fire-control quality track on the missile from acquisition through splash. Although each ship is only able to maintain track for part of the missile flight, the CEC composite track, based on all the data, is continuous. Cues based on the composite track allow the downrange ships to detect the target earlier and to maintain track longer. The CEC cues and relay of composite track data will also allow defending ships maximum battle space in which to engage theater ballistic missiles when the SM-2 Block IVA missile becomes available.

The CEC provides the means for sharing assets among multiple AAW units in a hostile counter-measures environment to perform BF/SAG AAW detection, control and engagement functions. The CEC comprises three elements: the Cooperative Engagement Processor (CEP), the Data Distribution System (DDS) and the interfaces between the CEP and the ship's weapon systems.

The Cooperative Engagement Transmission Processing Set (CETPS) AN/USG-2 coordinates all task force Anti-Air Warfare (AAW) sensors into a single real time, fire control quality composite track picture which significantly improves battle force AAW defense. The CETPS distributes sensor data from each Cooperating Unit (CU) to all other CUs utilizing a real time, high data rate, line of sight (LOS), fire control quality sensor and engagement data distribution network. This CETPS is extremely jam resistant and provides very accurate gridlocking between CUs. Each CU independently combines all the distributed sensor data into a common track picture by employing high capacity, parallel processing and advanced algorithms. The resulting composite track picture is the same on all CUs. CETPS data is presented as a superset of all the best AAW sensor capabilities from each CU, all integrated into a single input to the CUs existing weapon or combat system. The CETPS consists of cooperative sensing, engagement decision, engagement execution and data distribution. The CETPS permits the total of all AAW CETPS equipped combat system elements in a battle group to function as a single distributed system integrated by the CETPS and enhances Ship Self Defense capabilities. The CETPS also allows multiple battle groups to conduct netted operations, sharing common picture and tactical capabilities. The CETPS is composed of two primary system groups and five subsystem functions. The two primary system groups are the Data Distribution System (DDS) and Cooperative Engagement Processor (CEP). The five subsystem functions are the Data Distribution, Command/Display Support, Sensor Cooperation, Engagement Decision, and Engagement Execution. The CETPS depicted in this document is the Common Equipment Suite (CES). The CES is indicative of the production CETPS.

    The Data Distribution System provides direct LOS communication with other CETPS units. The primary operating band is "C Band" with full encrypt and high anti-jam operations. DDS performs all transmit, receive, and scheduling functions.

    The Cooperative Engagement Processor provides the processing of data received from other CUs and incorporates it with own ship data to form a single "Composite" data. CEP utilizes common algorithms to form the same warfighting picture on each unit to the highest accuracy level.

    The Data Distribution Function provides jam resistant, encrypted, real time data transfer in LOS as well as over-the-horizon via airborne and ship board relay.

    The Command/Display Support Function performs doctrine management and distribution. Battle force AAW commands are generated as force doctrine/orders issued by the CETPS control (AAW or designated CU). The Command/Display Support function provides the CETPS control the capability to plan, control and implement battle group operations in defending against air threats.

    The Sensor Cooperation Function provides increased detection and track performance and improved identification by using composite track data from active sensors (position and Doppler radar data), track and engagement data, and composite, multi-unit identification of tracks.

    The Engage Decision Function provides the capability for decisions to be made by an automated process based on doctrine entered by the Net Control Unit (NCU).

    The Engagement Execution Function supports the control process for AAW weapon delivery to designated targets and responds to command directions and decisions.

CEC improves warfighting capability in amphibious operations by enabling cooperating units to allocate radar energy to different areas of the battle field, enlarging the area of radar coverage. Naval operations conducted in the littoral environment require that attacking aircraft and missiles be detected and engaged over land or over water in the face of heavy land clutter. Search sector cooperation between the defending ships using CEC can significantly increase their detection and track ranges and consequently increase battle space.

Operating indepently, without CEC, each of the ships must spread its radar energy over the entire volume, limiting the time and energy available to search in the difficult land clutter region. Operating together, with CEC, a single ship can search the entire volume while the other ships concentrate on the land clutter region. Data from each ship are distributed to all the ships and combined into an identical composite track picture on each ship. This picture, superior to that available from any single sensor, allows significantly earlier detection and more consistent track on attackers in the clutter.

Because CEC combines radar measurement data from all of the ships, the CEC picture covers a larger geographic area than that of any single sensor, providing greatly increased situational awareness and opportunities for tactical coordination. Contributions from CEC-equipped Airborne Electronic Warfare aircraft will extend this coverage even further, providing surface units both more accurate tracking and situational awareness at ranges well beyond shipboard sensor coverage. The airborne CEC also provides for relay of the CEC air picture between widely separated surface units, maintaining connectivity and situational awareness at greatly extended ranges.

Radar measurement data from CEC air units also greatly increase coverage over land, where the altitude of the airborne radar mitigates terrain masking and radar horizon limitations affecting shipboard radars. CEC provides airborne radars the same improvements in track accuracy, track continuity and ID consistency afforded shipboard radars, resulting in improved detection and tracking as well as greater situational awareness.

Additionally, CEC contributes to theater ballistic missile defense by providing a continuous fire-control quality track on the missile from acquisition through splash. Although each ship is only able to maintain track for part of the missile flight, the CEC composite track, based on all the data, is continuous. Cues based on the composite track allow the downrange ships to detect the target earlier and to maintain track longer. The CEC cues and relay of composite track data will also allow defending ships maximum battle space in which to engage theater ballistic missiles when the SM-2 Block IVA missile becomes available.

The concept for CEC was tested on ships of the USS Eisenhower (CVN-69) battle group in 1995. Early in 1998 Hue City, USS John F. Kennedy (CV-67) and USS Vicksburg (CG-69) received the production installation of CEC and conducted operational tests of the system. CEC Baseline 1 was installed in USS DWIGHT D. EISENHOWER (CVN-69), USS WASP (LHD-1), USS ANZIO (CG-68) and USS CAPE ST GEORGE (CG-71). CEC Baseline 2 was installed in USS JOHN F KENNEDY (CV-67), USS HUE CITY (CG-66) AND USS VICKSBURG (CG-69).

The Navy fielded the first CEC system in 1998. The Department of Defense supported the Navy's fiscal year 2001 budget submission to procure a total of 220 CEC systems by the end of fiscal year 2012. Seventy-nine of these systems are to be integrated with the Aegis combat systems of cruisers and destroyers. The remaining CEC systems will be placed on other ships and aircraft, but will not necessarily be integrated with their combat systems. In response to congressional direction, efforts are also underway to fully integrate CEC into some Navy E-2C aircraft, an Air Force E-3 aircraft, and the Army Patriot Air Defense Guided Missile System.

Because of a lack of progress in integrating CEC on Aegis ships, in the Fiscal Year 1999 Defense Authorization Conference Report 105-736, Congress directed the Navy to report at least quarterly to the Congressional Defense Committees on Cooperative Engagement Capability/combat direction system interoperability problems and planned solutions. The Navy had provided six such reports through March 2000.

The Navy has made some progress toward demonstrating a CEC capability on two Aegis cruisers in the spring of fiscal year 2001. Many of the problems standing in the way of Aegis and CEC interoperability have been identified and are being fixed. However, a single-integrated-air-picture display capability on a single console is not expected to be available until the Aegis weapons system baseline 6 Phase 3 computer programs become available, after the scheduled follow-on test and evaluation in fiscal year 2002.

Operational evaluation (OPEVAL) of the surface AN/USG-2 hardware and Baseline 2.0 software was conducted in 3QFY01. DOT&E's test and evaluation report was published on February 1, 2002. The acquisition decision memorandum of April 3, 2002, approved AN/USG-2 for full-rate production and approved low-rate initial production) for the air AN/ USG-3 hardware for FY02-03. The AN/USG-2 and AN/USG-3 hardware, with associated software, were designated as CEC Block 1. The acquisition decision memorandum further approved the Navy's plan for the next CEC upgrade, Block 2, which was to be competed for development. During FY03, the Navy reconsidered this approach and elected instead to pursue an upgrade program for CEC, with no further reference to Block 2. The OPEVAL equivalent of the air AN/USG-3 hardware and software was delayed from FY02 to FY04 when deployment of the Battle Group intended for OPEVAL was accelerated.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list