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The U.S. Navy's one-of-a-kind, nuclear-powered, deep-submergence submarine NR-1 for the final time. The submarine was inactivated in a 21 November 2008 ceremony at Submarine Base New London, Conn. For nearly 40 years, the 146-foot-long vessel, with only an 11-passenger capacity, had been used to provide underwater search and recovery, oceanographic research missions, and installation and maintenance of underwater equipment, to a depth of more than half a mile.

Naval Research Vessel (NR1), the Navy's smallest and only research submarine, performed underwater search and recovery, oceanographic research missions and installation and maintenance of underwater equipment to a depth of almost half a mile. NR-1 was a compact, nuclear powered undersea research and ocean engineering submarine capable of ocean search missions, such as locating and identifying objects or ships lost at sea, and recording of ocean topographic and geological features. NR-1 was designed for working near or on the seabed, performing sample gathering, recovery, implantation of objects on the bottom, or deep ocean repair.

NR-1, the first deep submergence vessel using nuclear power, was launched at Groton on Jan. 25, 1969, and successfully completed her initial sea trials August 19, 1969. Homeported at Naval Submarine Base New London CT, NR1 was unique. With a a top speed of 4 to 6 knots on the surface and never strayed far from its support ship. It maneuvered by four ducted thrusters, two in the front and two in the rear. The vehicle also had planes mounted on the sail, and a conventional rudder. The NR1 runs on a nuclear-powered steam-driven turbo-generator.

Its nuclear propulsion provided independence from surface support ships and essentially unlimited endurance. NR-1 was generally towed to and from remote mission locations by an accompanying surface tender, which is also capable of conducting research in conjunction with the submarine. NR1 operates and explores at depths greater than 2,300 feet. NR-1 can travel submerged at approximately four knots for long periods, limited only by its supplies. It can study and map the ocean bottom, including temperature, currents, and other information for military, commercial, and scientific uses.

Its features included three viewing ports, exterior lighting and television and still cameras for color photographic studies. The keys to its underwater research capability were three 4-inch view-ports on its bottom with nineteen 250-watt gas discharge lights, eight 1000-watt and two 500-watt incandescent lights. It also sported 16 different low light TV cameras in various locations. Surface vision is provided through the use of a television periscope permanently installed on a mast in her sail area.

NR-1 had sophisticated electronics and computers that aid in navigation, communications, and object location and identification. It can maneuver or hold a steady position on or close to the seabed or underwater ridges, detect and identify objects at a considerable distance, and lift objects off the ocean floor.

The submarine had no radar for surface navigation, but did have a very sensitive sonar system. Picking up objects from the ocean floor is an NR1 specialty. With a hydraulically-powered manipulator arm attached to its' bow it can pick up objects weighing up to a ton. The manipulator can be fitted with various gripping and cutting tools and a work basket that can be used in conjunction with the manipulator to deposit or recover items in the sea. Two retractable rubber-tired extendible bottoming wheels provide a fixed distance between the keel and the seabed, so the manipulator can be used.

Because it could remain on the sea floor without resurfacing frequently, NR-1 was a major tool for searching deep waters. NR-1 remained submerged and on station even when heavy weather and rough seas hit the area and forced all other search and recovery ships into port. NR-1's unique capability to remain at one site and completely map or search an area with a high degree of accuracy had been a valuable asset on several occasions.

While many of her military missions in support of the Submarine Force and other Navy and DOD objectives are classified, NR-1 quite often performed research and development testing of new equipment, search operations, and other tasks. These have included recovering material from the bottom, geological survey, oceanographic research, and installation and maintenance of undersea equipment. She performed long-term, large-area fishery studies for the Department of Interior and gathered significant amounts of data on marine biology and plate tectonics from the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

It was the Sense of Congress, expressied in H. R. 2647, the act to authorize appropriations for fiscal year 2010 for military activities of the Department of Defense that (1) NR1 is a unique and irreplaceable part of the Nations history and as much of the vessel as possible should be preserved for the historical and educational benefit of all Americans at the Submarine Force Museum and Library in Groton, Connecticut; and (2) the Secretary of the Navy should ensure that as much of the vessel as possible, including unique components of on-board equipment and clearly recognizable sections of the hull and superstructure, to the full extent practicable, are made available for transfer to the Submarine Force Museum and Library.

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