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Dynamic Mix

Dynamic Mix[ DM] is a NATO exercise scheduled to occur every other year.

Dynamic Mix 97

Fourteen NATO nations ended Oct. 9, the largest exercise to be conducted during 1997 in NATO's Southern European region. Exercise Dynamic Mix 97 (DM 97) was a multi-phase, multi-force exercise in two countries and in the Mediterranean Sea.

As the NATO deployment of IFOR illustrated, it is important that Allied Forces Southern Europe (AFSOUTH) retain adequate readiness and capability to respond to crises in the vital southern region of Europe. While continuing to support the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina, AFSOUTH focused attention on promoting stability and preventing conflict, through dialogue, port visits, co-operative efforts with member nations and neighbors, as well as with exercises. The exercise helped prepare the Southern Region's forces for a wide range of missions, including peace-support operations.

The exercise included many "firsts," but of special interest was the first ever use in the Southern region of NATO's interim deployable combined air operations center (ID CAOC). The ID CAOC is a new tool which brings command and control of air assets to a new technological level. "We have exercised for NATO's strategic environment, but we must also understand that our principle objective will be to promote peace and stability throughout the Southern Region," said Lopez. DM 97 was designed to improve the Southern Region's capability to implement NATO strategy, and to deal with simultaneous crises in the region. Exercise activity took place concurrently in a number of locations, with many nations participating in different aspects of the same exercise. To further enhance training opportunities, the exercise included command post simulations as well as live activities.

Another "first" during DM97 was the participation of the Italian Air Force's mobile operations center (MOC) which manages air operations in Italy during the exercise. The MOC was located at the Italian Air Force Academy in Pozzuoli and interfaced with the ID CAOC. As in all exercises, the training focuses on the ultimate task of every military - to be prepared in the event of war.

From Sep. 23 to Oct. 9, forces from Belgium, Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Luxembourg, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States of America came together to exercise their air, land, and maritime assets and to refine their ability to operate together - a key to the success of NATO. These 14 nations worked together to accomplish a wide range of military objectives, including practicing deployment, re-deployment, integrated communications, and amphibious, land, sea and air activity. They also tested their theater joint intelligence architecture, command and control systems, and electronic warfare.

DM97 also provided an opportunity to demonstrate the capabilities of the SFOR strategic reserve forces (SRF) which would support, if needed, the NATO-led Stabilisation Forces (SFOR) in Bosnia-Herzegovina. The SRF, with combat units from NATO and non-NATO countries, are stationed outside Bosnia but are able to reinforce the troops in theater quickly, if necessary. Within the scope of DM97, part of the strategic reserve trained to improve their interoperability, practice a variety of military objectives and test their command and communication procedures. DM 97 tested a full range of NATO's capabilities and provided a forum for observation, and therefore better understanding, of NATO's power in the southern region.

About 5000 troops, 70 ships and 180 aircraft participated, as well as principal NATO headquarters in the southern region. The exercise was under the direction and co-ordination of CINCSOUTH. The appointed Staffs of Greece and Italy were responsible for co-ordination within their nation for elements of the exercise which they hosted.

Dynamic Mix 98

On 21 October 1998 the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) completed exercise Dynamic Mix 98. This is one of its largest annual training endeavors, encompassing joint activities -- for the first time since 1982 -- on the soil of the three southern region NATO nations. The exercise took place at the same time NATO was preparing to conduct an operation to help contain and resolve a real crisis in the Balkans.

Exercise DM 98 ran Oct. 1-21, in the host nations of Greece, Italy and Turkey. Forces from 11 NATO nations of Canada, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, United Kingdom and United States participated in the exercise which tested NATO's air, land, maritime and amphibious assets and set out to refine the alliance's interoperability. DM 98 was the largest NATO exercise conducted in the Southern Region during 1998, with approximately 17,000 soldiers, sailors, airmen and marines. Approximately 5,000 troops were part of DM 98, along with 62 ships and 170 aircraft, under the direction of CINCSOUTH.

NATO's Exercise Dynamic Mix (DM) 98 concluded with a post-exercise debrief being held in Izmir, Turkey with participation of all the key players. The initial assessment showed that the intended training objectives were fully met, to include verifying the capability of the command and control system to cope with two simultaneous and different crises; enhancing the interoperability of some of air, amphibious, land and maritime forces; and practicing the actual deployment of forces to a distant area of the region.

Personnel, weapons and platforms were tested and trained in a variety of military operations, including a full amphibious off-load and back-load of II MEF (U.S. Marine Expeditionary Force) at Iskenderun, Turkey, with about 2,500 troops involved, part of which -- about 400 marines and 61 vehicles -- were moved to a training area, to conduct land operations and live fire training. Additional multinational amphibious operations were conducted off the Italian shores of Sardinia and at Doganbey in Turkey.

In the hillsides of Northern Greece, members of the Greek 71st Infantry Brigade conducted a simulated humanitarian mission with other allied units. Meanwhile, Allied Land Forces Southern Europe conducted training in a peace support operation practicing simulated assistance to 2,000 displaced persons, to include the build up of a refugee camp.

Some exercise participants had to withdraw from DM 98 in response to NATO's deterrent strategies with Kosovo. Among those force components which withdrew from DM 98 were the ships of the NATO Standing Naval Force Mediterranean.. However, other vessels from NATO nations continued to provide exercise maritime support.

Planned over a year in advance, DM 98 was designed to improve the Southern Region's capability to implement NATO's strategy and to deal simultaneously with a crisis threatening the Alliance and humanitarian missions.

Dynamic Mix 2000

NATO's premier exercise of the year, Dynamic Mix 2000, ended 10 June 2000. With more than 30,000 ground troops, sailors, marines and airmen participating and about 65 ships, 290 aircraft, Dynamic Mix set an example for future NATO exercises. Participating countries worked together with NATO and each other to ensure the success of the exercise. Staged at 23 NATO bases, 290 aircraft flew over 2,000 sorties supporting Dynamic Mix involving over 7,500 airmen.

Forces from Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and the United States of America came together to exercise air, land, and maritime assets. NATO's ability to resupply and reinforce its southern region was tested, and MSC chartered MV Balakleya to support the movement of forces to Thessaloniki, Greece.

DM-00 was designed to improve the Southern Region's capability to implement NATO's strategy, and to deal simultaneously with a crisis and humanitarian operations. Exercise activity will therefore take place concurrently in more than one location, with many nations participating in different aspects of the same exercise. The exercise participants worked together to accomplish a wide range of military objectives, including conducting humanitarian operations and practising deployment, re-deployment, integrated communications, and amphibious, land, sea and air activity. The exercise focused on the conduct of a humanitarian operation in support of the population of an imaginary state which is going through a serious internal and financial crisis. The primary aim of the exercise is to bring together and train NATO forces to operate side by side in order to achieve a single objective. As part of the exercise scenario, structures have been set up to simulate refugee reception centres.

With NATO's restructured organization, Exercise Dynamic Mix 2000 provided many firsts for Allied forces in the Southern Region. This year marked the first exercise to include the new joint headquarters Southcentre in Larissa. It also involved the new Combined Air Operations Centres, activated September 1999, to streamline and improve command and control of NATO air assets throughout the Southern Region. Hungary and the Czech Republic participated as NATO members for the first time in a major exercise. In addition, this exercise marked the first time in almost three decades that Turkish troops and aircraft operated on Greek territory side-by-side with Greek military forces demonstrating a continuous improvement in the interoperability of NATO.

Italy, Greece and Turkey each hosted elements of the exercise. In Italy and Turkey, NATO military forces from numerous Allied nations conducted humanitarian operation exercises supporting a serious internal and financial crisis and had to construct simulated refugee reception centres. NATO also conducted an amphibious landing in Kyparissia, Greece and integrated training in Capo Teulada, Italy.

In the Askos Profitis area in Greece, the multinational battalion size task force with troops from Greece, Hungary and the US conducted operations supported by Allied air power. During this operation, live fire was conducted by aircraft attacking the targets followed by Allied artillery and all the firing systems of the multinational battalion. Operations were supported by combat engineers clearing minefields and bridging obstacles as well as support by attack and transport helicopters.

Exercise Dynamic Mix 2000 reached its peak 05 June 2000 with land operations in Northern Greece, without any problems and according to the preplanned standards. Allied Land Forces, under the operational control of Commander, Joint Command SOUTHCENT, LTG Emmanuil Mantzanas, conducted counter-attack operations to destroy the enemy. In the Askos Profitis area (near Thessaloniki) the multinational battalion size task force with troops from Greece, Hungary and the U.S. conducted a counter-attack supported by Allied air power. During the operation, live fire was conducted by aircraft softening the targets, the supporting Allied artillery and all the firing systems of the multinational battalion including anti-tank, Milan and TOW missiles. Operations were supported by combat engineers clearing minefields and bridging obstacles. Support was given by attack and transport helicopters. The Allied Air Force under the tactical control of CAOC7 conducted 24 sorties (total 2300 sorties from the start of the exercise) providing Close Air Support to the Allied Land Forces operating in Northern Greece including the Multi National Battalion counter-attack.



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