In 1994, NATO launched the Partnership for Peace (PfP) initiative with the objective to promote the co-operation for peace. PfP consists of 19 NATO nations and 27 non-NATO nations. All PfP nations are also members of the Euro-Atlantic Council for Partnership, which serves as forum for security policy issues. The NATO/PfP exercise "Cooperative Determination is organized on a yearly basis.
Exercise "COOPERATIVE DETERMINATION 97" (CD 97) started 10 November 1997 and ended on 14 November 1997. CD 97 involved military personnel from the following NATO and partner nations: France, Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Greece, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Turkey, United States of America and Uzbekistan. CD 97 was a Command Post Exercise sponsored by the Supreme Allied Commander Europe (SACEUR), scheduled by the Commander-in-Chief Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH), organized and conducted by the Commander Allied Land Forces Southern Europe (COMLANDSOUTH) as OCE coordinating (Officer Conducting the Exercise) and the Commander Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (COMAIRSOUTH) as OCE assistant. The exercise was based upon a peacekeeping scenario and the forces operate according to UN mandate. The fictitious setting of this exercise was designed to meet specific operational objectives using countries with fictitious borders and populations as well as historical and political scenarios without any connection to any real life situation.
The aim of the exercise was to gain experience of peacekeeping operations; to develop interoperability and NATO operating procedures and to practice and assess the logistic support required. The Command structure was as follows: a Multinational Directing Staff (DISTAFF) whose task is to activate the cells by a series of incidents and to monitor the progress of the exercise; a Multinational Joint Command whose task is to command and control the assigned forces in the conduct of a Multinational Peacekeeping Operation; 2 Multinational Brigade Headquarters supported by a Multinational Air Operations Coordination Centre and a Multinational Combined Air Operation Centre who have to react on time and appropriately to the incidents injected by the Distaff. 16 National battalion level response cells under the operational control of the 2 Multinational Brigades (4 Infantry Battalions each, provided by France, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Portugal, Romania Turkey and United States 1 Air Cell each, provided by Italy and Romania 1 Logistic Cell each provided by Italy and Slovak Republic , 1 Medical Cell each provided by Portugal and Romania and1 Engineer Cell each provided by Greece and Slovak Republic).
In 1998, this exercise took place in Bulgaria, in 1999 in Romania.
NATO and Partner nations conducted the Partnership for Peace (PfP) Exercise Co-operative Determination 99 (CD99) in Bucharest, Romania from 26 November to 5 December 1999. Personnel from seven NATO and eleven Partner nations formed the headquarters of a multinational brigade for this computer assisted command post exercise to train in peace support operations, including humanitarian assistance.
Participating NATO nations were: France, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Portugal, Turkey and the United States. The Partner nations involved with CD 99 were: Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (Turkey recognises the Republic of Macedonia with its constituional name), Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Romania, Slovakia, Switzerland, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. Also, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) participated in this exercise.
CD 99 aimed to develop a common understanding of peace support operations, including humanitarian assistance, and to enhance military interoperability by training commanders and staffs of NATO and Partner nations in the staff procedures required to conduct operations at multinational brigade level. The exercise, scheduled by Commander-in-Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe, was conducted by Commander, Joint Sub-Regional Command Southeast (COMJCSOUTHEAST) as the coordinating commander and by Commander, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe as the assisting commander.
In spring 1999, the Swiss Armed Forces applied via its representative in the Partnership Coordinatinon Cell (PCC) in Belgium for the organization of a multinational staff exercise to take place in Switzerland in 2000. In July 1999, Switzerland was assigned the role of Host Nation within the scope of the Partnership Work Program (PWP) 2000 - 2001 for the NATO/PfP exercise "Cooperative Determination 2000" (CDE 2000).
NATO and Partner nations conducted a Partnership for Peace Exercise Cooperative Determination 00 (CDE 00) in Luzern, Switzerland from 01 to 10 November 2000. Personnel from nine NATO and eleven Partner nations will form the Headquarters of a multinational Brigade for this Computer-Assisted Command Post Exercise, to train in peace support operations, including humanitarian assistance.
Participating NATO nations are: France Greece, Germany, Hungary, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Turkey, and the United States of America. Partner nations involved in CDE 00 are: Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Kyrghyz Republic, Moldova, Romania, Switzerland, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia*, and Uzbekistan. The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) also participated in this exercise
CDE 00 was the first Partnership for Peace exercise to be conducted in Switzerland. The exercise aimed to develop and improve a common understanding of peace support operations, including humanitarian assistance, and to enhance military interoperability by training commanders and staff of NATO and partner nations in the staff procedures required to conduct such operations at multinational brigade level.
The primary objective of this exercise is the training and profoundization of the capability for military collaboration in peace supporting oprations (PSO). In particular, the participating commanders and staff officers shall be trained in decision making and staff workflow, logistics, the co-operation between civil and military entities (CIMIC), standards for mapping and communication (including electronic ways of communication), the rules of engagement, and the use of English as command language.
The scenario of the exercise is a PSO with elements of humanitarian assistance in a fictitious country, based on a UN mandate (UN-mandated, NATO-led PSO). The exercising MNB is part of a PEACEFORCE, which consists of three multinational brigades, and which has received orders to secure the ceasefire agreement that was negotiated between both conflict parties, and to support civil forces carrying out humanitarian assistance to the suffering population.
The exercising brigade staff is conformed of approximately 90 officers from all participating nations. Apart from traditional entities of command, like personnel, communication, operations / planning, logistics and transmission, the multinational staff also contains response cells that are specifically designed for the purpose of PSO: "civil-military co-operation" (CIMIC), "PR", and "Engineering works". The staff is organized according to the internationally common G-structure, that is, G1 until G5 plus special staff. Switzerland will join the MNB staff with 18 officers, one of which assumes the role of the brigade commander's deputy.
A total of 9 multinational battalions and 1 MP Coy, which are represented by battalion staff (commander, S1/4, S2, and 2 x S3) are assigned to the exercising multinational brigade staff. As in the brigade staff, the officers from the Swiss Army are drawn from the instructor's corps and militia officers in order to benefit most from this exercise.
The main duty of the host nation - besides the co-organization of the environment and setting the scenario - is to provide for the conference's and exercise's infrastructure for the successful realization of the exercise.
The exercise is split into 3 parts: 6 days are dedicated to set up the exercise infastructure in the premises of the Swiss Armed Forces Training Centre (AAL), 8 days for the preparation of the participants, and 5 days for the execution of the exercise itself.
The exercise was scheduled by Admiral James O. Ellis, Jr., Commander-In-Chief, Allied Forces Southern Europe (CINCSOUTH) and was conducted by Lieutenant General Emmanouil Mantzanas, Commander Joint Sub-regional Command Southcent (COMJCSOUTHCENT) as the co-ordinating Commander and by Lieutenant General Ronald Keys, Commander, Allied Air Forces Southern Europe (COMAIRSOUTH) as Supporting Commander.
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