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US Military Operations: Casualty Breakdown

PRINCIPAL WARS IN WHICH THE UNITED STATES PARTICIPATED
U.S. MILITARY PERSONNEL SERVING AND CASUALTIES A/

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                                                                CASUALTIES
                                                         ----------------------------
                                 BRANCH OF    NUMBER      BATTLE    OTHER  WOUNDS NOT
WAR/CONFLICT                      SERVICE     SERVING     DEATHS    DEATHS  MORTAL B/
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REVOLUTIONARY WAR                TOTAL             - C/   4,435        -      6,188
   1775-1783                     ARMY              -      4,044        -      6,004
                                 NAVY              -        342        -        114
                                 MARINES           -         49        -         70
WAR OF 1812                      TOTAL       286,730 D/   2,260        -      4,505
   1812-1815                     ARMY              -      1,950        -      4,000
                                 NAVY              -        265        -        439
                                 MARINES           -         45        -         66
MEXICAN WAR                      TOTAL        78,718 D/   1,733   11,550      4,152
   1846-1848                     ARMY              -      1,721   11,550      4,102
                                 NAVY              -          1        -          3
                                 MARINES           -         11        -         47
CIVIL WAR (UNION FORCES ONLY)    TOTAL     2,213,363    140,414  224,097    281,881
   1861-1865   E/                ARMY      2,128,948 D/ 138,154  221,374    280,040
                                 NAVY              -      2,112    2,411      1,710
                                 MARINES      84,415        148      312        131
SPANISH - AMERICAN WAR           TOTAL       306,760      385      2,061      1,662
                                 ARMY  F/    280,564        369    2,061      1,594
                                 NAVY         22,875         10        -         47
                                 MARINES       3,321          6        -         21
WORLD WAR I                      TOTAL     4,734,991     53,402   63,114    204,002
   1917-1918                     ARMY  G/  4,057,101     50,510   55,868    193,663
                                 NAVY        599,051        431    6,856        819
                                 MARINES      78,839      2,461      390      9,520
WORLD WAR II                     TOTAL    16,112,566    291,557  113,842    671,846
   1941-1946   H/                ARMY  I/ 11,260,000    234,874   83,400    565,861
                                 NAVY  J/  4,183,466     36,950   25,664     37,778
                                 MARINES     669,100     19,733    4,778     68,207
KOREAN CONFLICT                  TOTAL     5,720,000     33,651    3,262    103,284
   1950-1953   K/                ARMY      2,834,000     27,709    2,452 L/  77,596
                                 NAVY      1,177,000        475      173      1,576
                                 MARINES     424,000      4,269      339     23,744
                                 AIR FORC  1,285,000      1,198      298        368
VIETNAM CONFLICT                 TOTAL     8,744,000     47,378   10,799    153,303
   1964-1973   M/                ARMY      4,368,000     30,922    7,273     96,802
                                 NAVY      1,842,000      1,631      931      4,178
                                 MARINES     794,000     13,084    1,753     51,392
                                 AIR FORCE 1,740,000      1,741      842        931

HISTORICAL BACKGROUND AND NOTES

A. Data prior to World War I are based on incomplete records in many cases. Casualty data are confined to dead and wounded and, therefore, exclude personnel captured or missing in action who were subsequently returned to military control.

B. Marine Corps data for World War II, the Spanish-American War, and prior wars represent the number of individuals wounded, whereas all other data in this column represent the total number (incidence) of wounds.

C. Not known, but estimates range from 184,000 to 250,000.

D. As reported by the Commissioner of Pensions in his annual report for fiscal year 1903.

E. Authoritative statistics for the Confederate forces are not available. Estimates of the number who served range from 600,000 to 1,500,000. The final report of the Provost Marshal General, 1863-1866, indicated 133,821 Confederate deaths (74,524 battle and 59,297 other) based upon incomplete returns. In addition, an estimated 26,000 to 31,000 Confederate personnel died in Union prisons.

F. Number serving covers the period April 21 to August 13, 1898, while dead and wounded data are for the period May 1 to August 31, 1898. Active hostilities ceased on August 13, 1898, but ratifications of the Treaty of Peace were not exchanged between the United States and Spain until April 11, 1899.

G. Includes air service. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties suffered by American forces in northern Russia to August 25, 1919, and in Siberia to April 1, 1920. Other deaths cover the period April 1, 1917, to December 31, 1918.

H. Data are for the period December 1, 1941, through December 31, 1946, when hostilities were officially terminated by Presidential Proclamation, but a few battle deaths or wounds not mortal were incurred after the Japanese acceptance of the Allied peace terms on August 14, 1945. Number serving from December 1, 1941, through August 31, 1945, were: Total - 14,903,213; Army - 10,420,000; Navy - 3,883,520; and Marine Corps - 599,693.

I. Includes Army air forces.

J. Battle deaths and wounds not mortal include casualties incurred in October 1941 due to hostile action.

K. Tentative final data based on information available as of September 30, 1954, at which time 24 persons were still carried as missing in action.

L. As reported in "Battle Casualties and Medical Statistics: U.S. Army Experience in the Korean War" by Frank Reister, published by the Surgeon General of the Department of the Army in 1973. This figure represents nonbattle admissions in Korea and includes deaths resulting from injuries, suicides, homicides, and disease.

M. Number serving covers the period August 4, 1964, through January 27, 1973, (date of cease-fire). Wounds not mortal exclude 150,332 persons not requiring hospital care. Known status of casualties is as of September 30, 1995.

WORLDWIDE U.S. ACTIVE DUTY MILITARY DEATHS
SELECTED MILITARY OPERATIONS

    MILITARY OPERATION/INCIDENT          CASUALTY TYPE       ARMY       NAVY     AIR FORCE   MARINE CORPS   TOTAL
IRANIAN HOSTAGE RESCUE MISSION              NONHOSTILE          0          0           5           3            8
  APRIL 25, 1980                                                                                                 
LEBANON PEACEKEEPING, AUGUST 25, 1982 -     HOSTILE             3         19           0         234          256
  FEBRUARY 26, 1984 *                       NONHOSTILE          5          2           0           2            9
                                            TOTAL               8         21           0         236          265
URGENT FURY, GRENADA, 1983                  HOSTILE            11          4           0           3           18
                                            NONHOSTILE          1          0           0           0            1
                                            TOTAL              12          4           0           3           19
                                                                                                                 
JUST CAUSE, PANAMA, 1989                    HOSTILE            18          4           0           1           23
                                                                                                                 
PERSIAN GULF WAR, 1990 - 1991                                                                                    
  DESERT SHIELD                             NONHOSTILE         21         36           9          18           84
  DESERT STORM                              HOSTILE            98          6          20          24          148
                                            NONHOSTILE        105         14           6          26          151
                                            TOTAL             203         20          26          50          299
  DESERT SHIELD/STORM                       TOTAL             224         56          35          68          383
                                                                                                                 
RESTORE HOPE/UNOSOM, SOMALIA, 1992 - 1994   HOSTILE            27          0           0           2           29
                                            NONHOSTILE          4          0           8           2           14
                                            TOTAL              31          0           8           4           43
UPHOLD DEMOCRACY, HAITI, 1994 - 1996        NONHOSTILE          3          0           0           1            4
* PLACE OF CASUALTY, LEBANON                                                                                     

Total US Military Casualties by Operation

Killed in Action /
Died of Wounds
Wounded in Action Prisoner of War Total
Dominican Republic, 1965-1966 27 172 0 199
Korean DMZ, 1966-1969 43 111 3 157
Israeli Attack on Liberty, 1967 33 170 0 203
Mayaguez Rescue, 1975 18 50 0 68
El Salvador, 1979-1992 6 3 0 9
Iranian Hostage Rescue Attempt, 1980 8 5 0 13
Lebanon, 1982-1984 260 159 1 420
Grenada, 1983 19 119 0 138
Libya Bombing Mission, 1986 2 0 0 2
Persian Gulf Tanker Escorting, 1987-1988 2 10 0 12
Panama 23 320 0 343
Persian Gulf War, 1991 147 458 23 628
Somalia, 1992-1994 29 153 1 183
TOTAL 617 1,730 28 2,375

Analysis of all deaths among active duty military, including activated members of the reserve components, between 1 August 1990 and 31 July 1991 reported to the DoD Worldwide Casualty System. Worldwide there were 1769 deaths among active duty military. 372 deaths occurred among servicemembers in the Gulf region. 147 occurred as the direct result of combat, 194 resulted from injuries not incurred in battle, and 30 resulted from illness. Of the 30 illness deaths, none was from cancer, 1 was from infectious disease, 2 were from cardiovascular causes, 21were initially described as unexpected/undefined, and 6 others died from miscellaneous causes. Of the 21unexpected deaths, autopsies were performed on 18 of the deceased. Findings at autopsy were: 13 had serious heart disease; 1 had pulmonary embolism from venous thrombosis in the leg; 1 died of ethanol toxicity and aspiration pneumonia; 1 from unintentional drug overdose; 1from gangrene of the bowel due to mesenteric volvulus; and, 1from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm. There was no excess risk for unexpected /undefined death among the deployed. Deaths from unintentional injury among the deployed exceeded the number expected based upon rates that obtained for the non- deployed. Limitations of this study: The databases used are not intended for use in medical research; the accuracy of the personnel data to determine who deployed had not been validated; there was some imprecision in the dates of deployment for many of the servicemembers.

Analysis of deaths among U.S. military personnel during the period of hostilities (17 Jan - 28 Feb 91) of the Persian Gulf War is based upon information from the Department of Defense's Worldwide Casualty System. Two hundred and nineteen personnel died, including 7 women. 154 (6 women) were killed in battle and 65 died as a result of non-battle causes. The author categorizes the deaths by service, gender, race, age, geographic location, and occupational specialty. Battle deaths included 35 from friendly fire and 28 from the SCUD missile which struck Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Rates of both battle and non-battle deaths were highest among the Marine Corps but the Army accounted for the majority of deaths in both categories (58% and 71%, respectively). The causes of the 65 non-battle deaths included accidental injuries (55), illness (6), suicide (2), and homicide (1). Rates for both battle and non-battle deaths were by far the lowest of any U.S. conflict in this century.

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