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Endnotes for Chapter XVIII

1 Memo, Hqs, ETOUSA, for Gen Eisenhower, sub: Strength of the U.S. Forces, 30 Apr 45, in USFET SGS 320.3/2.

2 (1) EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Troop Basis and the Disposition of Forces, 1947, in CMH file 8-3.1, CA 20, p. 3. (2) EUCOM, Hist Div, U.S. Military Government in Germany, Operations from Late March to Mid-July 1945, 1950, in CMH file 8-3.1, DF, pp. 79-93.

3 Memo, SHAEF, ACofS G-5, Public Safety, sub: Tactical Troops in Support of Military Government, 6 Jul 46, in OMGUS 177-2/3.

4 (1) Cable, Eisenhower to District CG's, 29 Jul 45, in OMGUS 3/35, dec. 320.2. (2) Memo, USFET, ACofS G-3, for CofS, sub: Distribution of Occupational Ground Forces, 14 Aug 45, in SHAEF SGS, 370.

5 Ltr, Col Joe Starnes to Gen W. B. Smith, 5 May 45, in USFET SGS 014.4.

6 Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 1 1 May 45, and Ltr, Smith to Bradley, 12 May 45, in USFET SGS 250.

7 Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 13 May 45; Cable, Eisenhower to Marshall, 14 May 45 ; and Cable, Eisenhower to CG's, 12th AGp, Third and Seventh Armies, U.S. Air Forces, 14 May, in USFET SGS 250.

8 Memo, Gen Eisenhower to Gen Clay, 22 May 45, and Memo, US Gp CC, Office of Deputy Military Government, for Gen Eisenhower, sub: Nonfraternization Policy, 23 May 45, in USFET SGS 250.

9 Rpt, Fifteenth Army, 5th Information and Historical Service, sub: Nonfraternization Policy, XXIII Corps Area, 22 Jun 45, in XXIII Corps, 223-5.0.

10 In the other two cases, the Seventh Army inspector general found that Maj. Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor, Brig. Gen. Gerald J. Higgins, and Brig. Gen. William N. Gilmore "engaged in contact with" Field Marshal Albert Kesselring but did not fraternize and that Maj. Gen. Robert T. Frederick, "being unaware of the fact that the Excelsior Hotel in Munich was fully occupied by American personnel," did not engage in fraternization when he gave orders that resulted in some American officers and enlisted men being evicted in the middle of the night during a rain storm to make room for a party of German generals. Memo, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-1, for CofS, sub: Fraternization by General Officers, 6 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 250.

11 Cable, Eisenhower, Personal, to General Marshall, for eyes only, 2 Jun 45, and Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, eyes only, 4 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-1, 250.1-6.

12 Rpt, Fifteenth Army, 5th Information and Historical Service, sub: Nonfraternization Policy, XXIII Corps Area, 22 Jun 45, in XXIII Corps, 223-5.0.

13 (1) Hist Rpt, Ninth Army, ACofS, G-5, May 45, in SHAEF G-5, 17.14, Jacket 8. (2) Hist Rpt, 6th AGp, ACofS G-5, May 45, in SHAEF G-5, 504.

14 Rpt, Fifteenth Army, 5th Information and Historical Service, sub: Nonfraternization Policy, XXIII Corps Area, 22 Jun 45, in XXIII Corps, 223-5.0.

15 Ibid.

16 Ltr, Hqs, 12th AGp, to CG's, Armies, sub: Enforcement of Nonfraternization, 15 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-1, 250.1-1.

17 New York Times, 13 Jun 45.

18 Memo, SHAEF, PWD, Int Sec, for Ch, PWD, sub: Possible Relaxation of Fraternization, 30 May 45, in SHAEF G-1, 250.1-11.

19 Staff Minute Sheet, SHAEF, JA, to G-1, 17 May 45, in SHAEF G-1, 250.1-10.

20 Memo, SHAEF, ACofS G-1, for Distribution, sub: Policy on Relations Between Allied Occupation Forces and the Inhabitants of Germany, 4 Jim 45, in SHAEF G-1, 250.1-2.

21 New York Times, 19, 23, and 25 Jun 45.

22 Ibid., 10 Jul 45.

23 Memo, SHAEF, ACofS G-1, for Director, Pbulic Relations Div, sub: Partial Relaxation of Nonfraternization Policy, 1:3 Jul 45, in SHAEF G-1, 250.1-11.

24 New York Times, 16 Jul 45.

25 Memo, USFET, ACofS G-1, for Theater Cmdr, sub: Amendments to Directives on Nonfraternization, 19 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 250.

26 Memo, CG, Third Army, for CG, USFET, sub: Enlisted Men's Dances, German Girls, 21 Jul 45; Memo, USFET, ACofS G-5, for CofS, sub: Amendments to Directive on Nonfraternization, 23 Jul 45; Memo, USFET, ACofS G-1, for Theater Cmdr, sub: Amendments to Directives on Nonfraternization, 26 Jul 45 ; and Memo, USFET, Dep CofS, for Distribution, sub: Social Association with Germans, 1 August 45, in USFET SGS 250.

27 Memo, USFET, ACofS G-1, for CofS, sub: Nonfraternization Policy, 29 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 250.

28 Hist Rpt, Seventh Army, 8 May-30 Sep 45, in Seventh Army, 107-3.0.

29 Hqs, USFET, I&E, Research Staff, Study No. 1, The American Soldier in Germany, Nov 45, in USFET SGS 250.

30 Ltr, Somervell to Eisenhower, 4 Nov 44, in USFET SGS 370, vol. 1.

31 SHAEF, G-3, Redeployment Brief, 18 Mar 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. 1. For a discussion of evolving War Department and JCS redeployment plans in late 1944 and the spring of 1945, see Robert W. Coakley and Richard M. Leighton, Global Logistics and Strategy (Washington: United States Army in World War II, 1968), pp. 539-46, 577-79, and 584-91.

32 Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 17 Apr 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. 1.

33 Ltr, Eisenhower to Lt Gen Lewis H. Brereton, 19 Apr 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. 1.

34 ( 1 ) Cable, Marshall to Eisenhohver, 8 May 45, in USFET SGS 383.3. (2) Memo, USFET, Dep ACofS G-3, for Dep CofS, sub: Redeployment "Ups" and "Downs," 5 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. V . (3) Memo, ETOUSA, Redeployment Coordinating Group, for Dep CofS, sub: Early Return of U.S. Personnel, 13 May, in USFET SGS 370, vol. 1.

35 (1) Cable, Hqs, ETOUSA, to Distribution, 10 May 45, in USFET SG S 383.3. (2) Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-3, Outline Plan of Functions and Operation of Redeployment Assembly Area, no date, in USFET G-3, 370.

36 EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Redeployment, 1947, in CMH file 8-3.1, CA 20, pp. 82 and 83.

37 Cable, Com Zone, to USFET, 13 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 330.11.

38 EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Training, 1947, in CMH file 8-3.1, CA 23, pp. 3-9.

39 Ltr, Eisenhower to Major Commands, 17 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 353.

40 EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Education and Information, 1947, in CMH file 8-3.1, CA 21.

41 Hist Rpt, Seventh Army, 8 May-30 Sep 45, in Seventh Army, 107.3-0.

42 TSFET, Progress Report, Nov 45, in Admin Hist Collection, ETOUSA No. 448.

43 EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Recreation and Welfare, 1947, in CMH file 8.3-1, CA 22, pp. 36-60.

44 Ibid., p. 36.

45 TSFET, Progress Report, Nov 45, in Admin Hist Collection, ETOUSA No. 448.

46 Hqs, TSFET, Office of Theater Chief Surgeon, sub: Venereal Disease, Eastern Military District, 15 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 720.

47 (1) EUCOM, Recreation and Welfare, pp. 129-31. (2) Hist Rpt, Seventh Army, 8 May-30 Sep 45, in Seventh Army, 107.3-0.

48 (1) Ltr, Marshall to Eisenhower, 31 Jul 45; Ltr, Eisenhower to Marshall, 17 Aug 45 ; and 1_tr, Eisenhower to Major Commands, 18 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 330.11. (2) EUCOM, Recreation and Welfare, p. 162.

49 Memo, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-1, for CofS, sub: Policy Governing Off-Duty Associations Between Commissioned and Enlisted Personnel, 20 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 330.11.

50 Memo, Office of the Chief of Staff [U.S. Army] for the Chief of Staff, sub: MPR Section 10, 23 Aug 45, and Memo, Hqs, USFET, G-1, for CofS, 1 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 330.11.

51 Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 10 Aug 45; Cable, Eisenhower to Marshall, 13 Aug 45 ; Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 15 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. III

52 (1) Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 14 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. III. (2) USFET, G-3, Weekly Summary of Activities, 31 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 319.11/6, vol. 1. (3) Memo, USFET, Dep ACofS G-3, for Dep CofS, sub: Redeployment "Ups" and "'Downs," 5 Nov 45, in USFET SGS :370, vol. V.

53 (1) Draft, TSFET, ACofS G-3, Redeployment Briefing, 3 Sep 45, in USFET G-3, 370. (2) Cable, Handy to Smith, 30 Aug 45, in EUCOM, Staff Message Control, Jul-Dec 45. (3) Cable, Smith to Marshall, 24 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 400.74. (4) Cable, AGWAR, WARCOS to Smith, 5 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. IV.

54 (1) Draft, TSFET, ACofS G-3, Redeployment Briefing, 3 Sep 45, in USFET G-3, 370. (2) Cable, AGWAR, WARCOS to USFET, 23 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. IV. (3) Memo, Hqs, USFET, Redeployment Co-ordination Gp, for Dep CofS, sub: Monthly Rpt, 1 Dec 45, in USFET SGS 322.

55 EUCOM, Education and Information, pp. 31, 46, and 78.

56 EUCOM, Recreation and Welfare, pp. 60, 130, and 132.

57 Cable, USFET Rear to USFET Main, 17 Oct 45, and Cable, AGWAR, WARCOS to USFET, 23 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 370, vol. IV.

58 Cable, Smith to Hull, 17 Nov 45, in EUCOM, Staff Message Control, Jul-Dec 45.

59 Walter Rundell, Jr., Black Market Money (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964), p. 33.

60 EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Currency Control, 1947, in CMH file 8.3-1, CA 6, p. 10.

61 Memo, USFET, ACofS G-1, for CofS, sub: Currency Exchange Control, 29 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 123.5.

62 EUCOM, Currency Control, p. 10.

63 Memo, USFET, ACofS G-1, for CofS, sub: Currency Exchange Control, 29 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 123.5. G-5 also opposed the ban on the convertibility of Reichsmarks to dollars, apparently because it tended to further depress the value of the indigenous currency. See Rundell, Black Market Money, pp. 33-35.

64 (1) Cable, SHAFT Forward, Eisenhower, for CCS, 24 May 45, in SHAEF G-5, 115. (2) Memo, USFET, ACofS G-1, for CofS, sib: Currency Exchange Control, 29 Aug 45, in USFET SGS 123.5.

65 (1) Cable, CG, Berlin District, to USFET, 24 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 123.5. (2) EUCOM, Currency Control, p. 12.

66 Msg, Chanor Base Section to USFET Rear, 25 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 123.5.

67  EUCOM, Currency Control, p. 66.

68  Ibid., p. 13.

69 Memo, USFET, Hqs Comdt, for Dep CofS, sub: Transmittal of Funds, 16 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 123.5.

70 Cable, AGWAR, WARBUDIV, to CG, USFET, 24 Oct -15, in USFET SGS 123.5. The full story of the overdraft, which eventually grew to nearly a quarter billion dollars, extends well beyond the scope of this volume. It did, however, remain the responsibility of the theater and was finally liquidated there without supplemental appropriations. See Rundell, Black Market Money, p. 88f.

71 Stars and Stripes, 12 Nov 45.

72 EUCOM, Currency Control, p.34.

73 Ibid., p. 31.

74 Ibid., p. 66.

75 Cable, Handy to Smith, 30 Aug 45, in EUCOM, Staff Message Control, Ins and Outs, Jul-Dec 45.

76 (1) Cable, AGWAR, WARCOS to USFET, 17 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 371.2 (2) U.S. Constabulary, Hist Subsec, G-3, Maj James M. Snyder, The Establishment of the U.S. Constabulary, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF8-0.1, pp. 3-5 and 22-25.

77 (1) Memo, Hqs, USFET, G -2, for Major Cmdrs, sub: Organization of Security Forces, 10 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 371.2. (2) Snyder, Establishment of Constabulary, pp. 9-11.

78 Snyder, Establishment of Constabulary, pp. 14-16.

79 The U.S. Constabulary did not function in Berlin, the Bremen enclave, or Frankfurt, all of which had static security forces directly responsible to USFET.

80 (1) Hqs, USFET, to CofS, War Dept, sub: Police-Type Method of Occupation, 22 Dec 45, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF8-0.20. (2) Snyder, Establishment of Constabulary, pp. 32-36 and 52-54.


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