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Military

Endnotes for Chapter XVII

1 Foreign Relations, 1945, Vol. III, pp. 132-34

2 Ibid.,  p. 135f.

3 (1) Ibid., p. 137. (2) Truman, Memoirs, Vol. I, p. 305.

4 On 20 May, SHAEF had designated the Headquarters, First Allied Airborne Army, as the combined Berlin District headquarters. In June, under Parks, the U.S. Elements of Headquarters and Headquarters Company, First Allied Airborne Army, became the U.S. Berlin District staff, (1) Memo, SHAEF, AG, for Distribution, sub: Organization of Hqs, Berlin District, 16 May 45, in SHAEF G-5, 115.05. (2) SHAEF, General Orders No. 9, 17 Jun 45, in USFET SGS 322.

5 Department of State, The Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), 1945, in "Foreign Relations of the United States," Vol. I (Washington, D.C., 1960), pp. 108-14.

6 Memo, SHAEF G-2, CI Sub Div, for Brig Gen T. J. Betts, sub: Report of Visit to Berlin, 27 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-2, GB I/CI/CS/091.1-4.

7 (1) Department of State, Conference of Berlin (Potsdam), in "Foreign Relations," pp. 127-32. (2) Cable, Military Mission Moscow, Deane to ETOUSA, 22 Jun 45, in SHAEF SGS 510/2.

8 OMG, Berlin District, Military Government Report, 4 Jul 45-3 Jan 46, in CMH files.

9 John J. Maginnis, Military Government Journal: Normandy to Berlin (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1971), pp. 257-59.

10 OMG, Berlin District, Military Government Report, 4 Jul 45-3 Jan 46, in CMH files.

11 Cable, Military Mission Moscow, Deane to Marshall for Eisenhower, 27 Jun 45, in USFET SGS 370.5/3.

12 Cable, 30 Mission to SHAEF Main, 27 Jun 45, in USFET SGS 370.5/3.

13 OMGUS, History, ch. III, p. 7.

14 (1) Foreign Relations, 1945, vol. III, pp.353-61. (2) Msg, SHAEF Main to U.S. Headquarters, Berlin District, 28 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803. (3) SHAEF G-5, Draft Notes on Meeting at Berlin on Friday, 29 June, 29 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1.

15 Clay, Decision in Germany, p. 26.

16 OMGUS, History, ch. III, p. 7.

17 Hist Rpt, OMG, Berlin District, 1 Jul 45-30 Jun 46, in CMH files, vol. I, p. 22.

18 (1) Msgs, Hqs, Berlin District, to SHAEF Main, 4 Jul 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1, jacket. 5. (2) Donnison, Civil Affairs and Military Government, Northwest Europe, p. 269.

19 OMG, Berlin District, Military Government Report, 4 Jul 45-3 Jan 46, in CMH files.

20 (1) Hist Rpt, OMG, Berlin District, vol. 1, p. 24. (2) Earl Ziemke, Battle for Berlin (New York: Ballentine Books, 1968) , p. 145.

21 Ziemke, Battle for Berlin, pp. 149-53.

22 For a description of  how the Soviet authorities had used their two months of exclusive control in Berlin to organize the municipal administration in their own interest, see Wolfgang Leonhard, Child of the Revolution (Chicago: Henry Regnery Co., 1958), pp. 287-338.

23 (1) Cable, SHAEF to War Dept, 9 Jul 45, in CAD, 014 Germany, 7-10-42 (1), sec. B. (2) Department of State, Conference o f Berlin (Potsdam), 1945, in "Foreign Relations," pp. 631-34. (3) Cable, WARCOS to CG, USFET, for Clay, 11 Jul 45, in OMGUS 3/35, dec. 322. (4) Historical Summary of the Agreement and Events Which Preceded the First Meeting of the Allied Control Council [no date], in OMGUS 358-1 /5. (5) Hist Rpt, OMG, Berlin District, vol.I, pp. 47-50. (6) OMGUS Control Office, Quadripartite Access to and Control of Berlin, vol. II [no date], in OMGUS 23-2/5, folder V205-3/2A.

24 Ibid., (6).

25 (1) Cable, 12th AGp to Ninth Army, 19 May 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1. (2) Hqs, Fifteenth Army, ACofS G-5, Military Government Summary No. 4, 18 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 17.25, Jacket 6.

26 Seventh Army, G-3 Diary, 2 and 10 Jun 45, in Seventh Army, 107-0.3.0.

27 SHAEF G-5, Draft Notes on Meeting at Berlin on Friday, 29 June, 29 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1.

28 (1) Draft Notes on a Meeting at Wiesbaden on 30 Jun, 2 Jul 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1. (2) Msg, SHAEF G-2 to 12th AGp, 16 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803, jacket 4. (3) Memo, US Gp CC, FIAT, for CG, USFET, 16 Jul 45, and Memo for CofS, 6 Apr 46, in OMGUS 3/35.

29 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1945, Vol. III, p. 182.

30 (1) Ibid., pp. 261, 322, 340, 344, 363, 364n, and 365. (2) CAD History, ch. VII, pp. 61-63.

31 Hist Rpt, Det H1E2, 14-31 Jul 45, in OMGUS 410-2/3.

32 Hist Rpt, Det G-23, 9 Jul 45-15 Jan 46, in OMGUS 1-10/5.

 33 History of Military Government in Land Wuerttemberg-Baden to 30 June 1946, pt. I, p. 151, in OMGUS 409-3/3.

34 Upon the transfer of the XXIII Corps area to French control, Fifteenth Army's mission in the occupation ended; and the army's headquarters, headquarters company, and special troops, under Lt. Gen. Leonard T. Gerow, became the staff of the USFET General Board charged with preparing a detailed analysis of the strategy, tactics, and administration employed by the U.S. forces in Europe during the war. (1) Opns Rpt, Hqs, XXIII Corps, 20 Jul 45, in XXIII Corps, 223-0.3. (2) Memo, Hqs, USFET, G-3, for CofS, sub: Continuation of General Board, 12 Oct 45, in USFET SGS 322 TGB.

35 Cable, Marshall to Eisenhower, 13 Jun 45; Cable, Eisenhower to Marshall, 16 Jun 45 ; and Cable, JCS to Eisenhower, 4 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 370.5/3.

36(1) Memos, G-1, 2, 3, 4, for CO, EGAD, 24 and 26 Mar 45, in USFET CAD, ECAD 322. (2) Memo, Hqs, EGAD, for G-5 SHAEF, sub: Recommendations for Static Plan (Second Phase), 4 Apr 45, in USFET CAD, MG Plans.

37 Memo, Hqs, ETOUSA, G-5, for CofS, sub:Personnel Requirements for MG Activities [no date], in USFET SGS 200.3.

38 (1) EGAD G-3, ECAD Organization and Development 1945 [no date], USFET CAD 322. (2) General Board, Study No. 32, pp. 117-22. (3) EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Organization and Administration of the European Theater and Its Headquarters, 1947, in CMH, 8-3.1, CA5, p. 144.

39 Col Henry Parkman, Jr., to ACofS G-5, USFET, sub: Notes on Military Government in Bavaria, 22 Jun 45, and Memo, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-5, for Branch Chiefs, sub: Col Parkman's Report, 10 Jul 45, in SHAEF G-5, 602.

40 Col Henry Parkman, Jr., to ACofS, USFET, sub: Notes on Military Government in Bavaria, 22 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 602.

41 Hist Rpt, Det E-232, May 45-Jun 46, in OMGUS 77-2/10.

42 In military government the opinion persisted, and was difficult to refute, that the only reason for the enclave was to provide a kind of personal fiefdom for the Headquarters Commandant, SHAEF. See Harold Zink, American Military Government in Germany (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947), p. 98.

43 (1) Memo, no source, sub: MG Procedure in the SHAEF Enclave, 9 Apr 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1. (2) Memo, SHAEF for CG, 12th AGp, sub: Directive on SHAEF Enclave, 3 Jun 45, in OMGUS 3/35.

44 (1) US Gp CC, Min of Special Meeting with Gen Haislip, 22 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/1. (2) History of Military Government in Land Greater Hesse, 1945-46, in OMGUS 42-1/5.

45 Hist Rpt, Det E 1 A2, 1 Jul-30 Sep 45, in OMGUS 9-3/5.

46 (1) Memo, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-3, for CofS, sub: SHAEF Enclave, 19 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 371.2. (2) Memo, Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-5, for CofS, sub: Organization of Western Military District, 16 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 322. (3) OMGUS, Org Br, Organization of Western Military District, 22 Mar 47, in OMGUS 21-1/5.

47 (1) Hqs, ETOUSA, Organization for Military Government of U.S. Zone, 13 May 45, in SHAEF G-2, GBI/CI/CS/322. (2) Memo, 12th AGp for SCAEF, sub: Assumption of Responsibility for Certain Functions of Military Government, 19 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-5, 803/ 1. (3) Memo, 12th AGp, Internal Affairs Br, G-5, for ACofS G-5, sub: Report of Field Inspection, 5 Jul 45, in SHAEF G-5, 17.16, jacket 14. (4) General Board, Study No. 32, pp. 120-22.

48 U.S. Senate, Special Committee Investigating the National Defense Program, Executive Session, 5 Apr 45, in OMGUS 177-1/3.

49 Hist Rpt, Eastern Military District, 15 Sep-14 Oct 45, in OMGUS 76-3/10.

50 Hist Rpt, Third Army, G-5, 1 Jul-14 Aug 45, in OMGUS 76-3/10.

51 History of Military Government in Land Wuerttemberg-Baden pt. I, p. 150, in OMGUS 409-3/3.

52 (1) Hist Rpt, Eastern Military District, 15 Sep-14 Oct 45, in OMGUS 76-3/10. (2) Annual Report, Det E-236, 1 May 45-30 Jun 46, in OMGUS 77-3/10.

53 Annual Report, Det E-237, May 45-Jun 46, in OMGUS 77-3/10.

54 Even so, at the end of June 1946, only 195 men had been shipped under OVERCAST (by then renamed PAPERCLIP for security reasons). USFET admitted that it had touched off a second psychological crisis among the potential recruits by failing to give adequate housing of the families of the first men who left. (1) Memo, ASF for CofS, 17 May 45, and Cable, AACofS, OPD, to CG, USFET, 19 Jul 45, in OPD, 236, Germany, sec. V, Cases 104- . (2) Cable, AGWAR to USFET, 22 Jul 45 ; Cable, AGWAR to USFET, 6 Sep 45; and Memo, USFET, ACofS G-2, for CofS, sub: Project OVERCAST, 1 Nov 45, in USFET SGS 383.6/4. (3) Hqs, USFET, Theater Commander's Weekly Staff Conference No. 27, 26 Jun 46, in USFET, 97-USF9-0.5. (4) See also James McGovern, CROSSBOW and OVERCAST (New York: William Morrow & Co., Inc., 1964) .

55 (1) Lt Col Joseph S. Piram, Background and History of Field Information Agency, Technical, 8 Jul 44-30 Jun 46, in EUCOM, T 298-1/2. (2) OMGUS, 7771 Document Center, General History, 28 Apr 47, in OMGUS 21-1/5. (3) Memo, SHAEF, AG, for CG, 12th AGp, sub: Ministerial Collecting Center, 13 Jun 45, in SHAEF G-2, GBI/CI/CS/091.1-3. (4) Memo, SHAEF, AG, for CG, 12th AGp, sub: Special Detention Centers, 27 May 45, in SHAEF G-2, 383.6-4.

56 Memo, SHAEF, ACofS G-2, for CofS, sub: Establishment of a Field Information Agency, Technical, 2 Jun 45, in OPD, 336, sec. V, Class 104.

57 0MGUS, Control Office, Historical Br, History of Field Information Agency, Technical, 8 May 45-30 Jun 46, in OMGUS 20-3/5.

58 (1) SHAEF, CofS, to distribution, sub: Establishment of FIAT, 31 May 45, in OPD, 336, sec. V, Class 104-. (2) Memo, Hqs, US Gp CC, for Distribution, sub: Establishment of FIAT, US Gp CC, 14 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 322.

59 EO 9568, 8 Jun 45, and EO 9604, 28 Aug 45, in Federal Register, vol. 10, pp. 9568 and 10960.

60 With Department of Commerce financial support and personnel, FIAT continued investigations until 30 June 1947 and continued microfilming until 30 September of that year. (1) Piram, Background and History of Field Information Agency, Technical, 8 Jul 44-30 Jun 46, in EUCOM, T 298-1 /2. (2) Memo, Actg Ch, CAD, for Sec War, sub: Termination Date for FIAT, 11 Jun 47, in CAD, 014.

61 EUCOM, Office of the Chief Historian, Organization and Administration of the European Theater and Its Headquarters, 1947, in CMH file 8-3.1, CA 5.

62 (1) Cable, SHAEF Main to CG, 12th AGp, 6 Jul 45, in SHAEF G-5, 2772. (2) Cable, USFET to AGWAR, sub: Fifth Report on Status of UNRRA, 20 Jul 45, and Memo, USFET, ACofS G-5, for CofS, sub: Summary of UNRRA/Military DP Programs, 21 Jul 45, in USFET SGS 334.

63 (1) Memo, Asst Dep CofS, OPD, for Sec JCS, sub: Communications with CINC's, U.S. Forces of Occupation, Germany and Austria, 21 Jul 45, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 4-E. (2) Memo, James F. Byrnes for the President, sub: Termination of IPCOG, 30 Aug 45, in CAD, 014, Jul 45-14 Sep 45.

64 Memo, CG, USFET, to Army Cmdr's, sub: Co-ordinated Security Control Check and Search Operation, 1 Jul 45, and Hqs, USFET, ACofS G-2, Report on Operation TALLYHO, 18 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 333.5.16.


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