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Endnotes for Chapter IX

1 WS 10A, Provisions for Imposition on Germany at the Time of Surrender, 6 Jan 44, and JCS 623/2, Provisions for Imposition Upon Germany at the Time of Surrender, 18 Jan 44, in CCS 387 (12-17-43), sec. 1.

2 (1) Ltr, JCS to Sec of State, 18 Dec 43, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 1-A. (2) JCS 623/3, Instrument and Acknowledgement of Unconditional Surrender of Germany, 29 Jan 44, in CCS 387 (12-17-43) , sec. 1. (3) Ltr, Adm William D. Leahy, Chm, JCS, to Sec of State, sub: Support of U.S. Views [on Unconditional Surrender Instrument], 5 Feb 44, in OPD, ABC 336, sec. 1, cases 1-5.

3 History of the CAD, bk. III, ch. I, p. 60.

4 JCS 623/3, sub : Instrument and Acknowledgment of Unconditional Surrender, 29 Jan 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. I-A.

5 JIC M/ 133, sub : Effect of Unconditional Surrender Policy on German Morale, 31 Jan 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. I-A.

6 Memo, JCS for the President, 25 Mar 44, and Memo, FDR for the Joint Chiefs of Staff, 1 Apr 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 3.

7 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. II, p. 40.

8 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 167-72.

9 Ibid., p. 101.

10 Ibid., pp. 173-79.

11 Ibid., pp. 188 and 190.

12 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. II, p. 77.

l3 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 197-99.

14 JCS 623/6, Instrument and Acknowledgement of Unconditional Surrender by Germany, 20 Mar 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 1-A.

15 (1) JCS 623/7, Instrument and Acknowledgement of Unconditional Surrender by Germany, 4 Apr 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 1-A. (2) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I p. 210.

16 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 174 and 176.

17 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. II, pp. 100-102.

18 Memo, Lt Col Henry Carter for Col Lewis, sub : Trip to London 10-12 May, 13 May 44, in OMGUS 3/35, 319.1.

19 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 233.

20 Ibid., p. 257.

21 Ibid., pp. 256-61.

22 Ibid., pp. 254-55.

23 Memo, Lt Col Edgar P. Allen for Director, CAD, sub : Unconditional Surrender of Germany, 20 Jun 44, in CAD, 014 (7-10-42 ), sec. 7.

24 Historical Subsec, SGS, SHAEF, History of COSSAC, May 44, in USFET SGS 314.8.

25 Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, p. 226.

26 William M. Franklin, "Zonal Boundaries and Access to Berlin," World Politics, 16:1, October 1963, p. 6.

27 (1) History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. I, pp. 6-8. (2) COSSAC/CA/Plan 26/4, Outline of Operations for Civil Affairs Planning-RANKIN Case "C", 15 Nov 43, in SHAEF G-5, 115.25c, jacket 1.

28 Department of State, Cairo and Tehran, in "Foreign Relations," pp. 253-55.

29 (1) Ibid., p. 688. (2) Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, p. 378.

30 (1) Department of State, Cairo and Tehran, in "Foreign Relations," pp. 254 and 699. (2) CCS Precis and Action Sheet, SHAEF, sub RANKIN C., Spheres of Occupation on the Continent, 4 Feb 44, in SHAEF SGS 371.

31 Franklin, "Zonal Boundaries and Access to Berlin," p. 14.

32 The U. S. and British figures, compiled at the same time, vary somewhat as is shown by the following table

  British U.S.-WSC
  Population millions Area sq. mi. Population millions Area sq. mi.
Northwestern Zone    22.5    57,450    24.8    50 ,500
Southwestern Zone    15.7    47,100    15.6    45,600
Eastern Zone    22.3    76,600    22.2    71,000
East Prussia          2.2    14,300

33 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 150-53. See also Philip E. Mosely, "The Occupation of Germany : New Light on How the Zones Were Drawn," Foreign Affairs, 28:4, July 1950, pp. 580-604.

34 CCS Precis and Action Sheet, SHAEF, sub RANKIN C., Spheres of Occupation on the Continent, 4 Feb 44, in SHAEF SGS 371.

35 (1) War Cabinet, Chiefs of Staff' Committee, Annex, Copy of a Telegram (No. 457) dated 7 Feb 1944 from President Roosevelt to the Prime Minister, 8 Feb 44, in SHAEF SGS 371. (2) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 166.

36 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 181-82 and 189.

37 (1) JCS 723, Administration of Germany Occupation Period, 22 Feb 44, in OPD, ABC, 387, sec. 4-A. (2) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 186.

38 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 177.

39 See also Mosely, "New Light on How the Zones Were Drawn," pp. 580-604.

40 Map reproduced in Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, facing p. 196.

41 (1) Mosely, "New Light on How the Zones Were Drawn," pp. 580-604. (2) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 179, 184, 195, and 207.

42 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 207-11.

43 The boundary between the western zones was fixed at the Quebec Conference in September 1944. At that time it was drawn farther north east of the Rhine and farther south west of the Rhine than in the original British and Soviet proposals. The shifts entailed a small increase in the area of the southwestern zone. (1) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 231. (2) Franklin, "Zonal Boundaries and Access to Berlin," p. 19. (3) Strang, Home and Abroad, p. 213.

44 Ltr, Eisenhower to Marshall, 13 Feb 44; Ltr, E. R. Stettinius to Hon Wm. Phillips, 11 May 44; and Ltr, Eisenhower to Marshall, 27 May 44, in USFET SGS 371.

45 Dwight D. Eisenhower, Crusade in Europe (New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1948) , p. 431.

46 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. V, p. 39.

47 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 224 and 232.

48 Ibid., pp. 187, 237, and 240.

49 Ibid., p. 262.

50 Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, p. 568.

51 History of CAD, bk. VI, ch. V, p. 45f.

52 Stimson and Bundy, On Active Service, p. 569.

53 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, pp. 714-16.

54 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. V, p. 49f.

55 Matloff, Strategic Planning for Coalition Warfare, p. 511n.

56 Department of State, Malta and Yalta, in "Foreign Relations," p. 136.

57 Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, Documents on Germany, 1944-1959 (Washington, 1959) , p. 3-5.

58 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 354f and 369f.

59 Summary Sheet, ACofS OPD for CofS, sub: Allocation of Zones of Occupation in Germany, 23 Jan 44, in OPD 336 (sec. III) (case 51- ).

60 Governing the Bremen enclave, cut off from its normal economic and administrative ties with the surrounding territory of the British zone and several hundred miles removed from the U.S. zone, later proved both unwieldy and unnecessary; and on 10 December 1945, the area outside the cities of Bremen, Wesermuende, and Bremerhaven was transferred to British control. U.S. military government teams stayed in the cities, but they operated under British supervision thereafter.

61 Memo, SHAEF G-3 for Staff Divisions, sub Organization and Administration of International Zone, Berlin, 1 Jun 44; Memo, SHAEF G-3, Future Plans Sub-Section, for SHAEF G-3, sub Organization and Administration of International Zones, Berlin, 14 Jun 44; Ltr, SHAEF Political Officers to Col Grazebrook, sub : Organization and Administration of International Zone, Berlin, 23 Jun 44; Memo, SHAEF G-3 for SHAEF Staff Divisions, sub : Organization and Administration of the International Zone, Berlin, 24 Jun 44, in SHAEF G-3, 388.3-3 GPS.

62 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 384.

63 (1) Msg, JCS to U.S. Military Mission, Moscow, 27 Feb 45, in CAD 014, 7-10-42, sec. II. (2) Min US Gp CC, Staff Meeting of Division Directors, 16 Mar 45, in OMGUS 178-1/3. (3) Memo, SHAEF, Assistant Secretary of the General Staff, for CofS, sub : Freedom of Transit Across Zones of Occupation, 10 Mar 45, in USFET SGS 371. (4) History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. VIII, pp. 1-7.

64 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. I, p. 756.

65 Memo, OPD, Policy Section, 19 Oct 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 4-E.

66 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 155-59.

67 (1) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1943, vol. I, p. 541. (2) Department of State, Cairo and Tehran, in "Foreign Relations," p. 253.

68 Ltr, JCS to Sec of State, Appendix B of JCS 623, 18 Dec 44, in OPD, ABC 387, sec. 1-A.

69 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 185-88.

70 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 185-87, 247f.

71 Ibid., pp. 299-301.

72 Memo, Patterson for Stimson, sub : Military Occupation of Germany, 17 Oct 44, in USFET SGS 334/2.

73 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 409.

74 (1) Senate Committee, Documents on Germany, pp. 5-8. (2) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 404-06.

75 Memo [no source] for Mr. McCloy, sub : Protocol Agreement in EAC 14 Nov 44, 23 Nov 44, in ASW 370.8.

76 Ltr, Wickersham to Smith, 28 Dec 44, in USFET SGS 334.

77 (1) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 86. (2) History of CAD, bk. VI, ch. VII, p. 1.

78 Department of State, Foreign Affairs, 1944, vol. I, p. 351.

79 Memo, Maj Gen G. V. Strong for Mr James C. Dunn, sub : COMEA and EACOM Messages, 27 Sep 44, in CAD 334 (12-18-43) (1), sec. II.

80 Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol, I, pp. 246 and 375.

81 (1) Memo, Lt Col D. C. Fahey, Jr., for Gens Tansey and Roberts, 29 Sep 44, in CAD 334 (12-18-43) (1) , sec. I I. (2) Memo, AACof S OPD for Gen McNarney, sub : Amb. Winant's Report on EAC Difficulties, 10 Oct 44, in OPD 336 (sec. I I) (cases 16- ) . (3) History of CAD, bk. I I, ch. I, p. 50.

82 Ibid., p. 53.

83 (1) Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, p. 361 n. (2) Memo for Record [no source], sub : The British Draft Directives for Germany, 1 Nov 44, in ASW 370.8.

84 History of CAD, bk. II, ch. IV, p. 73.

85 (1) Ibid., p. 74. (2) Memo of Conference held in Mr. McCloy's Office on 8 Dec 44 at 1030 AM, in ASW 370.8.

86 US Gp CC, Min of Meeting of Staff Conference Held 20 Nov 44, in SHAEF G-5, 31.04.


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