Endnotes for Chapter VII
1 Interv Sheet, SHAEF G-5, Hist Sec, sub: Interview with Sir T. St. V. Troubridge on Achievements and Policy of British CC, 23 Aug 44, in SHAEF G-5, 30.
2 Memo, SHAEF CAD for CofS SHAEF, sub: Organization of CA at SHAEF, 5 Feb 44, in SHAEF G-5, 35.08.
3 German Country Unit, Hist Div, Historical Statement of the German Country Unit, Aug 44, p. 1-3, in SHAEF G-5. 60, Jacket 1.
4 Ibid., p. 1-2.
5 Memo, SHAEF CAD, Actg Chief, German Unit, for DCCAO and Executive, sub: Formation of the German Unit, 22 Feb 44, in SHAEF G-5, 16.01.
6 German Country Unit, Historical Statement, p. I-7f.
7 SHAEF SGS, Summary of Decisions, vol. I, in SHAEF SGS 016.1.
9 German Country Unit, Historical Statement, P. I-9.
10 Memo, SHAEF G-5 for Distribution, sub: CA Organization in the Field, 19 Apr 44, in SHAEF G-5, 35.08.
11 Analysis Sheet, SHAEF G-5, Hist Sec, Ltr, C. E. D. Bridge, British Officer in German Unit, to Brig E. A. L. Gueterbock, sub: War Establishment, 23 May 44, in SHAEF G-5, 15.02.
12 German Country Unit, Historical Statement, p. I-14.
13 Ibid., pp. 1-15-19.
14 Ibid., p. I-23.
15 Ibid., p. II-1.
16 Ibid., p. 11-2.
17 Department of the Army, FM 27-10, The Law of Land Warfare, p. 140, par. 357.
18 USFET, General Board, Study No. 85, legal Phases of Civil Affairs and Military Government, 15 May 46, in Hist Div, Hqs, ETO, 97-USF 5-03.0.
19 US Gp CC, Hist Sec, sub: Handbook for MG in Germany, Comparison of Drafts 15 Aug 44 and 1 Sep 44, in SHAEF G-5, 17.05.
20 Memo, SHAEF G-5 for all Branches, sub Role and Responsibilities of Country Units, 5 Jun 44, in SHAEF G-5, 16.03.
21 War Department, Army-Navy Manual of Military Government and Civil Affairs, FM 27-5, 22 Dec 43. Later critics have sometimes attributed a deliberate hardening of policy to the revised FM 27-5. (See Carl J. Friedrich, ed., American Experiences in Military Government in World War II [New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1948], pp. 31-37.) The manual does seem to have struck a more severe tone by its emphasis on employment of civil affairs to aid and promote military operations and its consequent apparent abandonment of the overt humanitarianism of the 1940 edition. But by 1943 the tone was bound to have changed somewhat. In the interval between the two editions the United States had become involved in a war in which humane considerations were more than usually disregarded on both sides. Still, for its time, the 1943 FM 27-5 was a remarkably mild document. The shift in approach was mostly toward recognizing civil affairs and military government as having a place in the active conduct of the war, hence the concern with using them to promote combat operations necessary at some expense to the welfare or comfort of civilian populations. Otherwise, the manual continued to insist on "just and reasonable" treatment of civilians and prompt rehabilitation of economies.
22 CCAC 119, Directive for Military Government in Germany (Post-Surrender), 15 Aug 44, in CCS 383.21 (2-22-44) , sec. 2.
23 See "Draft Directive to the Three Allied Comanders-in-Chief, General Directive for Germany" by the Planning Commitee, U.S. advisers to Ambassador Winant, in Department of Estate, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 244-46. See also German Country Unit, Historical Statement, P. I-17.
24 John Morton Blum, From the Morgenthau Diaries, vol. III (Boston : Houghton Mifflin Company, 1967), p. 334.
25 (1) U.S. Senate, Committee on the Judiciary, Subcommittee to Investigate the Administration of the Internal Security Act and Other Internal Security Laws, Morgenthau Diary (Germany), 20 Nov 67, vol. I, pp. 440-45. (2) Cordell Hull, Memoirs, vol. II (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1948) , p. 1602. (3) Notes on Conference in Col Gunn's Office, 1130-1145, 14 Nov 44, in SHAEF G-5, 17.11, Jacket 3.
26 Telecon, Maj Gen J. H. Hilldring, Col J. B. Sherman, 28 Aug 44, in USFET SGS 337/2, vol. II.
27 Cable, Smith to Hilldring, 30 Aug 44, in SHAEF G-5, 25.31.
28 Cable, Gov 100, CCS-CCAC, to SHAEF, 31 Aug 44, in SHAEF G-5, 25.31.
29 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. I, p. 62.
30 US Gp CC, Hist Sec, sub: Handbook for MG in Germany, Comparison of Drafts 15 Aug 44 and 1 Sep 44, in SHAEF G-5, 17.05.
31 Ltr, Brig John Foster to Charles Peake, 8 Sep 44, in SHAEF G-5, 25.31.
32 Cable, PWD, SHAEF, to SHAEF Forward, 17 Sep 45, in USFET SGS 388.5/1.
33 Military Government-Germany, Supreme Commander's Area of Control, Proclamation No. 1, in SHAEF G-5, 17.09.
34 (1) CCAC 122/5, Occupation and Control of Germany, Handbook, 21 Sep 44, in CCS 383.21 (2-22-44) , sec. 3. (2) F. S. V. Donnison, Civil Affairs and Military Government, Northwest Europe (London: H. M. Stationery Office, 1961), p. 201.
35 Memo, War Dept, AG, for CG, ETOUSA, sub : Organization and Plans for Conduct of Civil Affairs, 29 Jul 43, in Admin Hist Collection, ETOUSA No. 146.
36 Memo, COSSAC, Chief, CA Div, for Branches, sub : CA Administrative Appreciation, Nov 43, in SHAEF G-5, 11.02.
37 (1) SHAEF, Standard Policy and Procedure, pp 20 and 35. (2) CCAC 69/6, Memo by Dir, CAD, sub: Civilian Relief in Germany, 19 Jul 44, in SHAEF G-5, 3.a.
38 Cable, CCS to SHAEF Main, 6 Oct 44, in ASW 370.8.
40 Analysis Sheet, SHAEF G-5, Hist Sec, 3 Dec 44, in SHAEF G-5, 25.31.
41 Ltr, L. F. Field, SHAEF G-5, Economics and Supply Branch, to F. Hollis, British Element, Control Council for Germany, 2 Oct 44, in SHAEF G-5, 25.3 1.
42 (1) JCS 1060/1, Administration of Military Government in Germany-Occupation Period, 22 Feb 44, in SHAEF G-5, 30. (2) EAC (44) 3, Memorandum by the United Kingdom Representative to the European Advisory Commission (Strang), 15 Jan 44, in State Department, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 154-57.
43 Ltr, E. R. Stettinius to Hon Wm. Phillips, 11 May 44, and Ltr Eisenhower to Marshall, 27 May 44, in USFET SGS 371.
44 Donnison, CA-MG, Northwest Europe, p. 250.
45 EAC (44) 17, Memorandum by the United Kingdom Representative to the European Advisory Commission (Strang), 2 May 44, in State Department, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 211-16.
46 OMGUS, Hist Div, History, Office of Military Government for Germany (U.S.) (U.S. Group Control Council), to Nov 45, in OMGUS 12-1/5, p. 2.
47 (1) Ibid. (2) No. 16858, Ambassador in the United Kingdom to the Secretary of State, 11 Jul 44, in Department of State, Foreign Relations, 1944, vol. I, pp. 246-48.
48 SHAEF G-5, Min of lst Weekly Opns Br, G-5, Mtg, 7 Jun 44, in SHAEF G-5, 15.05.
49 Draft, from Brig Gen McSherry to . . , sub: Formation of Tripartite Control Commission for Germany, 13 Jun 44, in SHAEF G-5, 5.
50 Ltr Brig Heyman to Gen McSherry, 2 Jun 44, in SHAEF G-5, 5.
51 Memo, Hqs, ETOUSA, for JCS, sub: Post-Hostilities Planning, 20 Jun 44, in SHAEF G-5, 115.05A.
52 JCS 923/1, Post-Hostility Planning, 26 Jun 44, in CCS 334 (6-20-44), sec. 1.
53 (1) Memo, Wickersham for Smith, sub: Report of Visit to Washington, 17 Jul 44, in USFET SGS 319.1/4. (2) Hqs, US Gp CC, Hist Unit, Draft Historical Statement, 31 Oct 44, in SHAEF G-5, 30.
54 OMGUS History, p. 6.
55 (1) Cable, AGWAR-JCS to SHAEF, sub: Post-Hostilities Planning, 5 Aug 55, in SHAEF G-5, 31. (2) Hqs, ETOUSA, GO 80, Establishment of U.S. Group Control Council, 9 Aug 44, in SHAEF G-5, 5.
56 OMGUS History, p. 7.
57 Hqs, US Gp CC, Hist Unit, Draft Historical Statement, 31 Oct 44, in SHAEF G-5, 30.
58 History of the CAD, bk. VI, ch. XIII, p. 9.
59 Ibid., p. 11.
60 Staff Memo No. 104, SHAEF, sub : Relationship between SHAEF and the British and U.S. Elems. of the Control Council/Commission, in SHAEF G-5, 30.
61 Memo, SHAEF G-5 for Chief, Control Commission for Germany (British Elem), Chief, U.S. Group Control Council, sub: Supreme Commander's Requirements for Military Government in the City of Berlin, 12 Sep 44, in SHAEF G-5, 115.05.
62 SHAEF G-5, Ops/Fwd/803, sub: Agreements Reached at Meeting on Military Government of Berlin, 28 Sep 44, in SHAEF G-5, 31.
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