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Military

Endnotes for Chapter I

1 Col. Irwin L, Hunt, American Military Government of Occupied Germany, 1918-1920, 4 Mar 20, p. 88.

2 In the interwar period and especially during World War II much thought was expended on attempts to establish a clear distinction between military government and civil affairs. Military government appeared to imply more complete control than might he assumed in all instances and was thought to ring rather too harshly on civilian ears; on the other hand, civil affairs sounded too bland for rise in enemy territory. As good a definition as any would probably he that civil affairs was military government conducted on one's own or friendly territory, and military government was civil affairs conducted in enemy territory.

3 History of the Civil Affairs Division, War Department Special Staff, World War II to March 1946, pt. I, p. 4. MS in CMH files.

4 Ibid., pp. 66-68.

5 G-3 Brief, 18 Sep 41, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal files 008.

6 Memo, OPMG for Gullion, sub: School of Military Government, 10 Jan 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 314.7.

7 Memo, G-1 for ACofS G-3, sub: Politico-Military Courses, 15 Sep 41, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 008.

8 G-3 Brief, 18 Sep 41, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 008.

9 Memo, JAG for ACofS G-1, sub: Training of Personnel for Military Government, 23 Dec 41, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 314.7.

10 Memo, G-1 for CofS, sub: Training of Personnel in Military Government and Liaison, 3 Dec 41, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 314.7.

11 Memo, OPMG for Gullion, sub: School of Military Government, 10 Jan 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 314.7.

12 Conf, Col Dillard with Lt Col Mason, 9 Mar 44, sub: Beginnings of the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va., in SHAEF G-5, 22.01.

13 Memo, PMG for CG, ASF, sub: Recommendation for Distinguished Service Medal, 1 May 44, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 200.6.

14 Memo, AG for PMG, sub: Training of Personnel for Military Government, 9 Feb 42., in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 008.

15 Conf, Col Dillard kith Lt Col Mason, 9 Mar 44, sub: Beginnings of the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va., in SHAEF G-5, 22.01.

16 Memo, Atg Asst CofS for CofS, sub: Training of Personnel for Military Government and Liaison, 5 Mar 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 008.

17 Memo, AG for PMG, sub: Establishment of School of Military Government, 13 Mar 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 008.

18 ASF, OPMG, Order No. 47, 2 Apr 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 008.

19 Conf, Col Dillard with Lt Col Mason, 9 Mar 44, sub: Beginnings of the School of Military Government, Charlottesville, Va., in SHAEF G-5, 22.01.

20 Memo, AG for PMG, sub: Establishment of School of Military Government, 13 Mar 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 008.

21 Memo, Jesse 1. Miller for Gen Wickersham, sub: Conference with Representatives of the Board of Economic Warfare, 21 May 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

22 Ibid.

23 Memo, Gullion for CG, SOS, 23 Jun 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 321.19. Partial text in Harry L. Coles and Albert K. Weinberg, Civil Affairs: Soldiers Become Governors, United States Army in World War II (Washington, D.C., 1964) , p. 14.

24 Memo, Gullion for CofS, sub: Training of Civil Affairs Officers, 13 Sep 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 353.

25 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, p. 14.

26 Ibid., p. 15.

27 Memo, PMG for Chief, Administrative Services, 31 Jul 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

28 Memo, OPMG, MG Div, for Control Div, sub: Monthly Progress Report for MG Div, 10 Oct 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 310.1.

29 Memo, Miller for Gullion, sub: Initial Organization of a Military Government Division, 25 Jul 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 310.1.

30 Edgar L. Erickson, An Introduction to Military Government and Civil Affairs in World War II, pt. I, pp. 8-10. MS in CMH files.

31 The division went into operation on 15 September 1942.

32 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, pp. 18-20.

33 Memo, OPMG, MG Div, for Control Div, sub: Monthly Progress Report for MG Div, 10 Oct 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 310.1.

34 Memo, Acting Chief, MG Div, sub: Treasury Department, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

35 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, p. 20.

36 Draft memo, Secretary of War for the President [no date, not sent], in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 333.

37 Memo, President for the Secretary of War, 29 Oct 42, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 333.

38 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, p. 24.

39 Memo, Gull on for CofS, sub: Training of Civil Affairs Officers, 13 Sep 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 353.

40 Memo, PMG for Sec War, sub: School of Military Government, 9 Nov 42, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 333.

41 Memo, Gullion for CofS, 27 Nov 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 210.63.

42 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, p. 25.

43 Memo, Guillion for CofS, 27 Nov 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 210.63.

44 Memo, ACofS G-1 to PMG, sub: Appointment of Persons Skilled in Military Government, 23 Nov 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 008.

45 Memo, Director, MG Div, for Gen Gullion, sub: Gen Wickersham's Tentative Estimate of Lists of Students for Third Course, 23 Nov 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 210.63.

46 Memo, Director, MG Div, for Gen Gullion, sub: Directive to Service Commands and Armies for Fourth Course, 13 Feb 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 210.63.

47 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, p. 38.

48 Ibid., p. 43.

49 War Dept, Statement of Policy of War Dept, sub: Provision for Care of Civilians in Territory Recovered by Invasion, 20 Jan 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

50 Coles and Weinberg, Soldiers Become Governors, p. 56.

51 Ibid., p. 60.

52 Ibid., p. 56.

53 Hqs, ETOUSA, Incoming Msg from Algiers, Eisenhower to Marshall, 9 Feb 43, in USFET, AG, 311.22.

54 Edgar L. Erickson, An Introduction to Military Government and Civil Affairs in World War II, pt. I, p. 11. MS in CMH files.

55 Memo, War Dept, AG, for Col J. H. T. Haskell, sub: Organization of CAD, 1 Mar 43, in SHAEF G-5, 26.

56 Ltr, CofS to the Commander in Chief of the Army and Navy to Sec War, 10 Apr 43, in CCS 014 (3-22-43).

57 Draft, Final Report of the Present Director, MG Div, PMGO, Mar 45, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 314.7.

58 Memo, OPMG, MG Div, for Control Div, sub: Monthly Progress Report for MG Div, 10 Oct 42, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 310.1.

59 Memo, Gullion for CofS, sub: Training of Civil Affairs Officers, 13 Sep 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 353.

60 Memo, Gullion for Director of Training, SOS, 22 Jan 43, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 353.

61 Untitled, undated memo in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 000.7.

62 Ltr, Oscar Chapman to Gen Gullion, 10 Feb 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 210.63.

63 The first universities to conduct courses were Yale, Harvard, Pittsburgh, Chicago, Michigan, and Stanford.

64 (1) War Dept, Bureau of Public Relations, "Civil Affairs Training Program," 13 Feb 44, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 000.7. (2) Memo, Gullion for CofS, sub: Training of Civil Affairs Officers, 13 Sep 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 353.

65 Memo, Wickersham for PMG, sub: Increase in Strength for the School of Military Government, 4 Jan 43, in PMG, MG Div, classified decimal file 352.01.

66 Ibid.

67 Memo, Guillion for CofS, sub: Training of Civil Affairs Officers, 13 Sep 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 353.

68 (1) Memo, PMG, MG Div, for ACofS G-1, sub: Securing AUS Officers for Military Government Training, 1 Jul 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 210.63. (2) Memo, MG Div for Col Gray, :10 Jul 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 310.1.

69 Memo, Gullion for CofS, sub: Training of Civil Affairs Officers, 13 Sep 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 353.

70 Memo, PMG, Director, MG Div, for Director, Control Div, sub: Annual Rpt, ASF-MG Div, 13 Jul 44, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 319.1. The universities added were Northwestern, Boston University, Wisconsin, and Western Reserve.

71 Draft, Final Report of the Present Director, MG Div, PMGO, Mar 45, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 314.7.

72 Ltr, President to Gov Lehman, 19 Mar 43 in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

73 Memo, Acting Director, CAD, for Assistant Secretary of War, sub: Meeting of Interdepartmental Committee, 17 Mar 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

74 History of the CAD, War Department Special Staff, World War II to March 1946, bk. II, ch. I, p. 5. MS in CMH files.

75 FM 27-5 (1940) , par. 9.

76 Memo, Military Government Branch, CAD, no date, in 26. CAD-War Dept.

77 Ltr, President to Secretary of State, 3 Jun -43, in PMG, MG D iv, decimal file 014.13.

78 Ltr, Stimson to the President, 11 Jun 43, and Ltr, McCloy to Director of the Budget, 15 Jun 43, in PMG, MG Div, decimal file 014.13.

79 History of the CAD, War Department Special Staff, World War II to March 1946, bk. II, ch. I, p. 32. MS in CMH files.

80 Ltr, President to the Secretary of War, 10 Nov 43, in SHAEF G-5, 10.04.


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