Techniques and Procedures (TTP)
in Support of Operations Other Than War
DISCUSSION: Mine education for soldiers deploying to foreign counties is one of our greatest challenges. There are over 2,700 different types of mines in the world today. The most commonly used mines in Third World countries are nonmetallic antipersonnel mines.
LESSON(S): The combat engineer is not always available to clear mines. Devise a program of drills for extracting troops from mined areas and rehearse them. All soldiers need to know how to identify, mark, and report the presence of minefields.
TOPIC: MINE AWARENESS.
DISCUSSION: Land mines are a constant threat during many operations other than war. The mine or suspicious object immediate action drill is to WARN THOSE IN THE IMMEDIATE VICINITY, DETERMINE LIMITS OF THE MINE FIELD, MARK THE LIMITS OF THE MINEFIELD, REPORT TO HIGHER, and AVOID. In areas which may be mined, always move with your eyes open and treat with suspicion any object, natural or artificial, which appears out of place in its surrounding. If a soldier is wounded from a mine, use the following casualty immediate action drill. One person clears a route to the casualty. LOOK, PROBE, DETECT. Clear the area immediately around the casualty. Administer essential first aid. Drag casualty away from minefield using cleared route. Administer additional first aid. Evacuate the casualty ASAP.
- Expect constant changes in local techniques.
- Never disarm a landmine; report its location through your chain of command.
- Do not move over the most obvious and easiest ground without checking it for mines first.
- Be careful when tired.
- Never pull, stack, or cut any wire, taut or slack, without first examining both ends. It is preferable that you do not touch the wire while examining it.
- Ensure the lead vehicle proofs route of march. Use sand bags, flak vests, steel plates or lumber to protect crew and limit the number of personnel in the vehicle.
TOPIC: TACTICAL MOBILITY.
DISCUSSION: Light infantry units do not have enough vehicles for soldiers to travel great distances across open terrain. Since the area of operations in Somalia is large and will require convoy security for relief supplies, there will be a need to provide transportation to ground units. During Operation PROVIDE COMFORT (humanitarian assistance in Northern Iraq), the Joint Task Force (JTF) used aviation assets in a show of force role. This lessened the need for soldiers to be on the ground. Use of aviation assets in an escort role for relief convoys may be a way to ensure they reach their destination.
LESSON(S): During Operation PROVIDE COMFORT, units reallocated vehicles to form mobile infantry companies. Careful allocation of 2 1/2- and 5-ton assets must be planned to move large number of troops. HMMWVs can be used to move troops and provide security at the same time, but must be converted to troop carriers by removing the canvas and installing troop seats.
DISCUSSION: Checkpoints are often scenes of violence or have the threat of violence. Leaders must take this into consideration and provide appropriate instructions to personnel who man these points. The Rules of Engagement must be clear, but flexible to accommodate rapid changes in any situation that may develop. During Operation PROVIDE COMFORT, a technique was used called a flying checkpoint." Mobile units, usually consisting of mounted infantry, combat engineers, and TOW vehicles, overwatched by attack helicopters, moved forward to key intersections in areas where armed Iraqi or guerrilla fighters were known to operate and set up hasty roadblocks to disrupt unauthorized or unwanted military activity. This mission always required designating soldiers to detain and search intruders, a sizeable element to overwatch the checkpoint, air cover on station, mobile mortar support, and a quick reinforcement force of TOW and infantry carriers that could extract or reinforce the flying checkpoint. Leaders should also ensure that checkpoints are designed so that only the minimum number of soldiers are exposed at any given time and that they are covered by automatic weapons when they are exposed.
LESSON(S): Be imaginative while performing in an operation other than war; develop tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) which can be applied to the situation to help accomplish the mission and restore hope to a desperate people. It is imperative that reinforcement and counterattack plans be made and rehearsed. Units during other peacekeeping operations have developed situational exercises to train soldiers on checkpoint procedures. Included are a few examples of these situational exercises:
|SITUATION||RESPONSE (A TECHNIQUE)|
|Receive Sniper Fire||Take cover; employ smoke; protect wounded; identify location of sniper; REPORT; respond IAW ROE|
|Projectiles Thrown||REPORT; protect self and others; do not throw objects back|
|Imminent Harm||Protect yourself and others; use force IAW ROE; REPORT|
|Civilian Casualty||REPORT; provide first aid|
|Drive-by Shooting||Take cover; REPORT; respond with force IAW ROE|
NOTE: Execute response IAW the JFT ROE.
TOPIC: SITUATIONAL TRAINING CONSIDERATIONS.
DISCUSSION: Units will encounter situations for which they are normally not trained. These situations will present challenges to the leaders and generate confusion and stress for soldiers to deal with. Each unit should develop a training program to familiarize soldiers with anticipated problems they might encounter. These situational exercises can easily turn into battle drills for each unit. Some examples of training considerations are:
- An appeal is received for medical assistance.
- A civilian criminal is apprehended.
- A crowd mobs a food distribution truck or center.
- A land mine is discovered.
- A dead body is found.
- A non-government organization (NGO) individual asks for medical treatment.
- A NGO individual asks for transportation on a military vehicle.
LESSON(S): Develop situational training exercises to prepare soldiers for unexpected problems or dilemmas. The unit commander must prepare the proper responses for his soldiers. These responses are method of expressing the commander's intent for the operation. Turn the responses into battle drills so that unexpected situations become routine operations for the soldier.
TOPIC: RULES OF ENGAGEMENT (ROE).
DISCUSSION: Soldiers must know and understand the ROE. The degree of force used must ONLY be sufficient to achieve that task at hand and prevent, as much as possible, loss of human life or serious injury. Leaders must ensure that soldiers are not limited by the ROE in their ability to defend themselves.
- Develop and issue a card that outlines the ROE to all soldiers.
- Keep the ROE realistic, simple, and easy to understand.
- Do not chamber a round unless you are prepared to fire IAW the ROE or ordered to do so.
- Do not tape over magazines to keep soldiers from accidently chambering rounds.
TOPIC: DO's AND DON'Ts.
DISCUSSION: As a member of an organization which represents both the United States and the United Nations, your conduct, self-discipline and bearing will have a great influence on the success of the mission.
- Be impartial.
- Be tactful; use common sense and discretion.
- Be inquisitive and observant.
- Maintain a high standard of military bearing. (Don't wear bandanas or "drive-on rags".)
- Make efforts to identify the local customs and obey all local laws.
- Know the ROE.
- Discuss operations, plans, intentions, or techniques in the presence of unauthorized personnel.
- Discuss or comment on the opposing forces except in the performance of duty.
- Discuss religion or politics.
- Discuss the composition, role, and employment of friendly forces.
- Have commercial dealings with local forces.
TOPIC: ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE.
DISCUSSION: To compensate for a lack of detailed maps, it is best to reconnoiter areas in advance of a convoy movement. If at all possible, guides should return to the main element at the completion of the reconnaissance to help the unit follow the route to the remote sights in the country. Deviation from planned routes can cause lengthy delays in needed supplies. Route reconnaissance provides a means to check trafficability of the roads. There are few hard surface roads in Somalia, and many of them are not well maintained. Trails crisscross the landscape and make reading a map difficult. Except for a few road signs, routes of march are not marked.
LESSON(S): Good route reconnaissance will improve the movement of supplies.
TOPIC: VEHICULAR SURVIVAL.
DISCUSSION: Military vehicles operating in Somalia need a higher degree of self-sufficiency than would normally be expected because of the environmental extremes. Another consideration is the civil war which has been raging in Somalia for a number of years. Reports from Somalia show that there are a large number of land mines present. Most are not marked, and, therefore, they will be a hazard that vehicles may encounter. Precautions that can be used to protect the soldiers riding in vehicles include lining the floors of the vehicles with layered sandbags.
vehicles with the following:
- OVE, to include a small general tool kit
- Flashlight and highway reflector
- Fire extinguisher
- Compass, binoculars and maps
- Communications equipment
- Shovel and tow rope or cable (at least 25-feet long)
- Five gallons of water per vehicle
- Personal food, clothing, and equipment
- Siphoning hose (1/2 inch outside diameter by 6 feet) and funnel
- Slave cables (one for each group of vehicles)
- Jack support plate (one foot by one foot piece of metal)
- Consumables, to include oil, radiator hoses, fan belts, heavy duty tape, air and fuel filters
- Spare tire for HMMWVs
- Layer sandbags in troop-carrying compartments of vehicles to protect personnel from landmines.
- Travel in pairs, file a movement plan and monitor times of arrival and departure.
TOPIC: SOMALIA MAPS.
DISCUSSION: Somalia maps from the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA) vary in scale from 1:100K to 1:500K and are limited in supply.
LESSON(S): Maps are a significant problem in every operation on terrain where U.S. forces do not routinely operate. During Operations DESERT SHIELD and DESERT STORM, units made their own maps using GPS.
TOPIC: INSTALLATION SECURITY.
DISCUSSION: As commanders establish base camp areas and move into work facilities, they must balance their security measures with the type and level of threat posed by the groups in their area. This will apply both in the relative security of forward operating bases and at assigned facilities within cities. Further information is available in FM 100-37, Terrorism Counteraction, and Joint Pub 3-07.2, Joint Techniques, And Procedures For Anti-terrorism.
LESSON(S): Security problems or shortfalls have contributed to the failure of force protection programs during terrorist attacks against U.S. interest in the Middle East since the 1983 Beriut bombings. Suggestions:
- Remember barrier systems were unreliable; vehicle access controls were inadequate. Use additional security measures, such as vehicles, to block high-speed avenues of approach.
- Do not use solely host-nation personnel to provide perimeter security of any facility.
- Make critical physical security improvements by installing additional barriers to screen high-risk targets.
- Ensure that the ROE does not limit the ability of the soldier to defend himself or the facilities.
- Sensitive work areas must not be located in portions of buildings vulnerable to explosives.
TOPIC: PERSONAL AWARENESS.
DISCUSSION: The single most proactive anti-terrorism measure is individual awareness-by soldiers on guard, while moving individually near or within the cantonment area, and while operating as a unit. Soldiers must look for things out of place, for example, packages left unattended, the same car parked near the front gate for an extended period of time, or the same person standing on a street corner daily. When combined with appropriate physical security measures, individual awareness and actions will defeat the terrorist plans.
LESSON(S): The following procedures have proven effective in operations other than war where a significant terrorist threat existed:
- Reinforce individual security awareness by reminding soldiers to report suspicious activities and out-of-place objects.
- Utilize a tactical versus an administrative posture when moving off post as a unit or during individual travel.
- Limit access to information about planned events, to include personnel movements and recreational activities.
- Employ security measures in an unpredictable, random fashion, including security checks outside perimeters.
- Maintain an adequate response force.
- Ensure soldiers understand the ROE.
- Impose substantial limitations on off-post travel.
- Employ helicopters during hours of darkness, to conduct random patrols along perimeters.
- Ensure soldiers remain alert, do not establish a routine, and keep a low profile.
Chapter II: Operations Other Than War (Emerging Doctrine)
Chapter IV: Preventive Medicine for the Soldier
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