Measuring Stability and Security in Iraq
Report to Congress
In accordance with the
Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2008
(Section 9010, Public Law 109-289)
Report to Congress
In accordance with the
Department of Defense Appropriations Act 2008
(Section 9010, Public Law 109-289)
Section 2-Iraqi Security Forces Training and Performance
2.3 Ministry of Defense
The GoI authorizes approximately 177,000 personnel in the MoD, with more than 190,000 personnel assigned. The decrease in authorizations from the previous report is due to a change to account for Prime Minister directed personnel over-manning increases as assigned rather than authorized personnel. The MoD has assumed lifesupport responsibilities and is working to attain self-sufficiency in maintenance and logistics, although it still needs significant Coalition support before achieving this goal. The MoD is showing genuine, but inconsistent, progress in its acquisitions processes. Recent events in Basrah have illustrated that coordination and lines of authority remain confused and do not fully allow for full unity of command.
Ministry of Defense Transition Issues
Ministry Capacity Development
The MoD shows continued, but slow, progress to refine and institutionalize its internal processes, eliminate corruption, strengthen cross-MoD/JHQ relationships and more effectively engage with other Iraqi ministries and other countries. Recent operations in Basrah and elsewhere have demonstrated growing capacity in the areas of force management, resource management, personnel, acquisition, logistics and sustainment and training and development. However, the MoD needs to do more to be fully selfreliant. The ministry itself has shown some progress in the areas of FMS management oversight and performing requirements-based budgeting. However, the continued reluctance to obligate funds to equip and provide infrastructure to forces planned for generation impedes Iraqi capabilities.
MoD force-management efforts experienced some success during this reporting period in the areas of force planning, recruiting and command and control. The MoD continues to employ the unit set fielding concept that combines leaders, soldiers, equipment and training in an integrated force generation effort that results in units that are more cohesive. The MoD conducts unit set fielding at multiple locations in order to leverage existing training capabilities. The MoD integrates Embedded Coalition Military Training Teams in this process to the greatest extent possible. Upon completion of unit set fielding, units enter their operational area at a higher level of staffing, training and equipping readiness and achieve initial operational capability earlier than expected. This process is now a systemic part of MoD and JHQ force generation procedures.
The MoD has made some progress developing defense policies and directives that provide a sufficiently firm foundation upon which the Iraqis can build their security forces. The MoD recently formed its own contracting committee with new procedures that ensure an audit trail and a collective decision-making process to approve FMS cases and direct contracts. This committee enables the MoD to approve contracts up to $50 million without referral to higher authority and results in less processing time for approvals and signature. The ministry has also streamlined its process to assess and make recommendations to the contracting committee; however, it is too soon to assess whether this provides sustained improvement in contract throughput and budget execution.
The MoD 2008 budget allocation is approximately $5.1 billion. Based on service plan requirements, this has resulted in a 2008 MoD funding shortfall of approximately $3 billion. The MoD will seek a 2008 supplemental budget request in excess of $2.5 billion, which could enable additional progress in meeting planned growth and modernization. Ongoing Coalition efforts are assisting the MoD to improve its direct contracting capacity and transparency. This effort, combined with the FMS program, will enable more rapid and effective budget execution. The force modernization program will ultimately require the development of a multi-year planning and budgeting system, for which the Coalition is laying the groundwork. The remaining FY 2008 ISFF request of $1.5 billion in the 2008 Global War on Terror Supplemental is crucial for continued MoD force generation and professionalization. The MoD share of this total is $604 million.
The MoD continues to develop a comprehensive personnel management program, with policies and processes now in place to support life-cycle personnel functions from recruitment to retirement. The infrastructure for the Human Resource Information Management System (HRIMS) is now in place. Data loading has commenced and MNSTC-I has approved ISFF funding for the hiring of Oracle subject matter experts that will assist the Iraqis in training a cadre of database managers as well as with system development. December 2008 is the target date for HRIMS functionality as a payroll and personnel management system. The MoD incorporated the HRIMS into the Basic Combat Training processing of new soldiers, military occupational specialty training and NCO education at 11 training centers. This will allow the Iraqis to eventually automate and connect all training center databases for pay, specialty qualifications, unit assignments and weapons accountability.
The Prime Minister’s initiative required assigning personnel to fill 120% of required authorizations for IA divisions. Additionally, a temporary assigned manning increase to 135% of authorized strength for the 2nd through 5th IA divisions has been initiated. As of May 1, 2008, all generated IA divisions reached an average of 111% of authorized strength.32 As of the same date, IqAF and IqN staffing is at 54% and 94% of authorization, respectively. As these platforms grow in number, the IqAF and IqN will experience commensurate personnel growth.
IA monthly attrition averages 2.5%, in part due to casualty rates two-to-three times higher than that of Coalition forces. On average, the monthly AWOL rate is approximately 1.2%. The MoD’s leader-to-led ratios are also improving. During this reporting period, the MoD successfully vetted 1,761 officers and 2,956 NCOs from the former regime and allowed them to “re-join” the IA. Prior-service officers and NCOs attend a three-week course to prepare them for service in the IA. The MoD expects an additional 1,500 officers and 13,000 NCOs to enter the force based on the current re-joining effort. The IA collects individual biometric data as it screens rejoiners. This screening facilitates the achievement of important security-related objectives. For example, MoD forces use this data for identification cards and to associate issued weapons with individual service members.
The JHQ personnel directorate (M1) has recognized the success of many IA initiatives (e.g. re-joiners, NCO and officer education systems) and is beginning to work with the other services, especially the IqAF, to facilitate their necessary growth in 2008 and 2009.
The Budget Execution and Acquisition Requirements Operations Center (BEAR-OC) continues to develop its processes. MoD and Coalition action officers and contracts and acquisition specialists jointly staff the BEAROC. Its primary mission is to enable the MoD to more efficiently equip and sustain the Iraqi armed forces and implement a genuine force generation and sustainment program. Current emphasis focuses particularly on the FMS effort, with plans to broaden this to include direct contracting. In addition to its acquisition tracking tasks, the BEAR-OC enables MoD leadership to monitor FMS case progress from requirements identification to materiel delivery. Through the efforts of the BEAR-OC, the MoD has already identified improvements in internal management of FMS actions and has made staffing processes more transparent.
The Coalition continues to make progress on negotiations with the MoD to secure an Acquisition and Cross Servicing Memorandum of Understanding. The MoD General Counsel and Inspector General have reached concurrence for approval. The Minister of Defense is seeking concurrence from the Prime Minister prior to a signing ceremony that may occur by late-summer 2008.
Logistics and Sustainment
The MoD’s logistics and sustainment capacity is showing improvement and remains a key area for development in 2008. The development of warehouse and depot operations is a critical component of the plan. Once completed, the Taji National Depot Complex will provide fourth-line logistics and additional third-line maintenance support to the Iraqi forces. The facility will include warehousing for all classes of supply, deep-level repair and overhaul of wheeled and tracked vehicles, generators, small arms and ground support equipment. Additionally, the Taji National Depot Complex will provide continued technical trade training for graduates of the Iraqi Army Service and Support Institute. Training of these specialists has begun for the tracked and wheeled vehicle depots. The Iraqis will begin to assume control of these facilities by early 2009; however, Coalition advisory and transition team support will remain necessary for some time afterward. The supply depot reconstruction and refurbishment will reach completion by the third quarter of 2009.
MNSTC-I has taken significant steps to improve its logistics capability based on the recommendations made by the Government Accountability Office, the Special Inspector General for Iraq Reconstruction and the DoD Inspector General. The MoD has written a logistics standard operating procedure (SOP) that provides guidance to all units, organizations and agencies entrusted with the care of ISFF and FMS purchased equipment and munitions. Additionally, the JHQ Combined Logistics Operations Center (CLOC) continues to collect and track the amount of issued, onhand and fully mission capable equipment in the Iraqi armed forces. The CLOC recently expanded its scope to include monitoring Iraqi Air Force aircraft mission readiness and sustainment requirements. Furthermore, the JHQ and Iraqi Ground Forces Command (IGFC) began corrective actions to improve maintenance reporting procedures.
The MoD continues to receive monthly fuel allocations from the MoO that are below required levels. In December 2007, the MoO authorized an 80% increase in its allocation to the MoD, bringing the total amount supplied to 20 million liters of diesel, which equates to 71% of the requirement, and six million liters of benzene per month.
Iraqi Army maintenance procedures have shown improvement. Procedural improvements have stabilized the maintenance backlog and enabled the MoD to transition responsibility for nine of 11 maintenance sites from contractors to the IA. MNSTC-I approved a contract extension for the Coalition-funded Iraqi Army Maintenance Program (IAMP) contract through the end of October 2008. This extension allows repair work to continue on a substantial backlog of vehicles at the nine sites that have transitioned to IA maintenance. The MoD plans to transition the last two maintenance sites at Al Asad and Taji once these sites have sufficient Iraqi mechanics and are capable of self-sustainment. MNSTC-I is enhancing maintenance training and drivers’ training and offering on-the-job training to mechanics working on the refurbished HMMWV transfer program. The MoD has also submitted requests for $80 million in FMS contracts for the procurement of vehicle spare parts. However, the MoD still does not have an automated system to ensure accurate and timely parts ordering and distribution.
Training and Development
The MoD is addressing ministry-level training deficiencies and is seeking to improve the professionalism of the civilian and military work force through courses and seminars taught at the Ministerial Developmental Training Center. From January to March 2008, approximately 563 civilian and military students received instruction in 41 courses covering a variety of subjects. The MoD plans instruction for an additional 350 students in 22 courses in April through July. These numbers represent a significant increase in capacity since the initial report of 26 classes and 547 students taught from July to December 2007.
Formal officer training and development has improved but is still functioning at less than full capacity. However, the JHQ has made significant progress in the training needs analysis for the Iraqi officer education system since the last report. It is on track to achieve a new system by the end of 2008. The JHQ established a training needs analysis committee to conduct a thorough job analysis of the IA officer, in order to build the foundation for the development of a new officer training and education system.
JHQ initiatives to improve leadership capability within the ISF include accelerated officer commissioning programs for university graduates, waivers to current time-in-grade or time-in-service promotion requirements and active recruitment of former Iraqi officers and NCOs. The top 10% of each Basic Combat Training class continue to attend a Corporal’s Course. The IA completed a Master Instructor course on April 13, 2008. Graduates from this “proof-of-principle” course will be the coretraining cadre for the new Sergeant’s Course at each regional and division training center. Finally, the JHQ has embraced the idea of professionalism seminars for key leadership within the JHQ and each of the services, both officers and enlisted. The goal of these Iraqiled seminars is to establish a recurring forum to develop and institutionalize modern military professionalism to gain the respect and trust of the Iraqi population.
As part of the IA Training Base Expansion, training capacity will continue to increase in support of force generation and replenishment. The current capacity at regional training centers, division training centers and the combat training center has increased from 18,830 soldiers per cycle in the last report to 21,250. There are eight training cycles scheduled for the IA in 2008. This will support current force generation requirements and assigned strength goals through the training and assignment of 116,000 soldiers this year. In the first quarter 2008, the IA trained 31,004 soldiers in its basic combat, specialty and rejoiner leadership training courses. Through three training cycles, this number of graduates is on track to meet 2008 training requirements.
The IA is making steady progress toward implementing its Future Iraqi Army Training Concept for improved institutional, home station and combat training center training. With Coalition assistance, enhancements are in progress at the division and regional training centers to increase training capabilities for individual, leader, staff and small unit collective task training. To support this effort, the Tactical Training Command recently completed a comprehensive revision of training center organization and MTOEs to align Iraqi instructors and training center cadre in a modular approach to required training capabilities.
There are eight training cycles scheduled for the IqAF in 2008. These training cycles will support current force generation requirements with a total of 1,500 airmen. There is an additional training cycle scheduled for the Iraqi Navy in 2008. This will support current force generation requirements with a total of 400 sailors and marines.
Complementing the training effort is the NATO Training Mission–Iraq (NTM-I). NTM-I provides a variety of security training programs to the ISF, yet its core focus is training officers at Iraq’s military institutions and in their command and control centers. Prime Minister Maliki recently affirmed the value of the NTMI mission and proposed continued NATO-Iraq cooperation. NTM-I has trained thousands of Iraqi Government security personnel in areas such as civil and military staff training, police training and officer and NCO leadership training. These programs are based on a training model that allows Iraqi officers and NCOs to train new Iraqi security personnel. Recently, NATO expanded its training programs for the Iraqi Navy and Iraq’s NCO Corps.
As the Iraqi Military justice system continues to improve, it is developing into a system that can effectively promote good order and discipline. To develop capacity, the Iraqis planned, funded and conducted a three-week training course for 25 newly appointed military judges. The Coalition continues to assist the Iraqis in building an effective military justice reporting and management system.
The MoD and JHQ Inspector General (IG) system is maturing and must continue to reinforce adherence to the rule-of-law. The MoD IG now has a complaints hotline, and it receives approximately 400 calls and complaints per month. The IG investigates these complaints and forwards them to the appropriate investigative judge with the Joint Criminal Court for prosecution or to the Commission on Integrity for further investigation. The MoD has trained military inspectors from all branches of the ISF, and they are now present in most Iraqi divisions. They have developed a set of standards approved by the Minister of Defense and promulgated throughout the services. The MoD IG bases inspections on standard checklists used in executing an aggressive annual inspection plan designed to support readiness and detect fraud and corruption. To date, inspectors have uncovered instances of corruption in fuel theft and weapons accountability. Additionally, they have used on-site accounting to detect and deter the mismanagement of life-support funds.
Embedded Advisory Support
The MoD and the JHQ continue to have embedded Advisory Teams (ATs). A Senior Executive Service-level UK MoD civil servant leads the MoD-AT, which consists of 17 advisors including U.S. military personnel and contractors, as well as British and Australian civil servants. An Australian general officer leads the 24-person JHQ-AT. Comprised primarily of U.S. military advisors, the JHQ-AT includes a mix of U.S. civilian contractor and military personnel from other Coalition countries. Both ATs report through the Directorate of Defense Affairs to MNSTC-I and provide advisory, mentoring and subject matter expert support to senior officials in developing the Iraqi capacity to manage key ministerial functions.
Embedded Training Teams are in each of the Iraqi services (Army, Air Force and Navy) to provide advisory, mentoring and subject matter expert support to each of the services at the tactical, operational and strategic levels. Military Transition Teams (MiTTs), assigned to MNC-I, embed with the Iraqi Ground Forces Command (IGFC) and most division, brigade and battalion headquarters. At the tactical level, MiTTs consist of about ten personnel and advise Iraqi commanders and staff on planning processes and combat operations. The requirement for MiTTs is one per battalion and above, with 176 teams currently fielded with these units.
A U.S. Army Brigadier General heads the Coalition Army Advisor and Training Team (CAATT). CAATT has training teams embedded at the Iraqi Army Tactical Training Command, the divisional, regional and combat training centers and at other schools (such as the Iraqi Army Service and Support Institute). The CAATT also has 13 Logistics Military Advisor teams embedded at each Location Command and one at Taji National Depot. The CAATT is responsible for assisting the MoD and JHQ with force generation, force replenishment and force sustainment of the IA. These teams assist the development of IA capabilities for training and logistics support through a combination of direct training and mentoring in hands-on performance oriented training, training systems, inspections and logistics planning, preparation and execution.
The Coalition Air Force Transition Team (CAFTT), headed by a U.S. Air Force Brigadier General, has advisor teams at the strategic (Air Staff), operational (Air Operations Center) and tactical (individual squadrons at bases) levels. The CAFTT is responsible for assisting the IqAF to develop near-term airpower capabilities to support the COIN fight while setting the conditions for a credible, objective, air defense force in the long-term. This includes advising along the full spectrum of IqAF activities from building, training, equipping and sustaining to flying operational and training missions. Also responsible for assessing the operational readiness of the IqAF, CAFTT will begin to report these assessments this year.
The Maritime Strategic Transition Team (MaSTT), headed by a British Royal Navy Captain, advises the Iraqi Head of Navy and Iraqi Headquarters Staff in the development of a capable and responsive IqN. Its Naval Transition Team (NaTT) embeds with the IqN at the Umm Qasr Naval Base and supports generation of a properly organized, trained and equipped naval force. The MaSTT will begin to report operational readiness of the IqN assessments this year.
Supporting the five MNSTC-I Directorate of Defense Affairs advisory and training teams are six functional capability teams comprising Coalition military and contractor subject matter experts providing expertise to develop acquisition of people, acquisition of materiel, budget, sustainment, training and development and force management capability in MoD. The capacity of these teams is vital to the success of the advisory and training teams as they work hand-in-hand with the supported advisors to devise potential solution sets and augment advisors as required. Although critically understaffed, MNSTC-I is filling these manning requirements as quickly as possible.
Ministry of Defense Forces
Joint Headquarters – Command and Control
The ability of the JHQ to deliver and execute operational plans and advise at the strategic level continues to show progress despite challenges brought on by organizational differences of opinion about operational and strategic boundaries. The JHQ was able to begin and sustain operations to support operations in Basrah, Mosul and Sadr City. During Operation Saulat-al Fursan in Basrah in March 2008, JHQ’s combined planning with Coalition planners and advisors resulted in the essential deployment of both personnel and supplies that materially aided the 10th and 14th IA Divisions and enabled the Iraqi Navy to secure the Port of Umm Qasr against militias and smugglers.
The Iraqi Army (IA) currently has 11 infantry divisions and one mechanized infantry division organized under the IGFC. It consists of approximately 169,000 assigned soldiers and officers. The IA also has approximately 18,000 soldiers assigned to training and support forces that are distinct from IGFC.
As part of his expansion and growth initiative, the Prime Minister has directed over-manning of the existing divisions and the establishment of one additional division in order to maintain adequate present for duty levels. This additional division is currently in force generation. Additionally, the IA has redesignated the naming convention of its brigades. Brigades are now numbered in sequence from 1 to 54 starting with the 1st Division. The IA continues to benefit greatly from training initiatives such as unit set fielding.
The IA continues to generate units as planned, and the MoD and JHQ are working together to prioritize which units to generate and determine their resourcing requirements. Logistics unit development is progressing at an accelerated rate based on overall projected 2008 IA force generation growth. Throughout the rest of 2008, the IA will grow one division headquarters, four brigade headquarters, 17 infantry battalions, five additional logistics commands, three motor transport regiments, one general transport regiment, one logistics battalion and an Army Ammunition Depot. Each of the additional logistics units will be dedicated to support specific IA divisions and are essential for the IA to achieve self-sufficiency. Coordination with the MoD and JHQ focuses on the continued effort to maximize training bases capacity to meet the requirements for force generation and replenishment.
Recent events in Basrah demonstrated the IA’s growing ability to deploy rapidly as it moved nearly a division’s worth of soldiers in less than seven days. Many Iraqi forces in Basrah also demonstrated a capability to provide an Iraqi solution to provincial security challenges. However, some units that engaged in Basrah require improvement. While events unfolded in Basrah, provinces such as Maysan, Karbala and Najaf all experienced a short spike in violence, but Iraqi forces demonstrated effective responses to nearly every contingency with little or no Coalition involvement. During this same time, Iraqi forces in Baghdad saw an increase in the levels of violence but were largely able to maintain security with some support from Coalition forces. Iraqi forces in Mosul and Diyala continue to pursue the enemy while providing improved security in both areas. Overall, IA forces continue to improve but still rely on Coalition forces for close air support, fire support and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR). IA units can improve in their ability to specify command relationships and properly sustain units in the field.
As of May 15, 2008, the IGFC has assumed command and control of 12 IA divisions including 50 brigade headquarters and 164 battalions. The 6th and 9th Divisions are subordinate to the MoD Baghdad Operations Command for tactical control with IGFC retaining administrative control. Operational commands have expanded to include Ninewa, Karbala, Samarra, Basrah and Diyala. The IA plans an additional operations command for Anbar in 2008. These actions may ultimately result in the establishment of at least four corps headquarters, an Iraqi-conceived concept that is still in development.
The Engineering Infrastructure Battalion completed training at Taji Training Center. The MoE continues to provide training for Electrical Repair Company personnel and the MoO provides training for the Pipeline Repair Company. These units will provide the IA critical capability to repair damaged electrical power lines and oil pipelines in unsecured areas with the support of mobile security companies. Equipment funding is being provided via a joint effort between MNSTC-I and the DoS’s Iraq Transition Assistance Office.
The IA has expanded fielding of units and training on U.S.-standard weapons such as M16A4s and M4s, which the MoD has procured through FMS. Enforcement of accountability of M16A4s and M4s occurs through a process that uses multiple forms of identification, including biometric technology. To date, the IA and MNSTC-I have fielded approximately 31,000 M16A4 and M4s and have conducted weapons familiarization. In conjunction with the M16A4 and M4 fielding and training, the IA and MNSTC-I have instructed and certified 3,178 IA officers and NCOs as trainers on these weapons systems. Additionally, MNSTC-I has trained 53 IA soldiers as weapons maintainers.
The Iraqi Navy (IqN) has 1,839 assigned officers, sailors and marines. This sharp increase includes 499 IA soldiers fresh from training who have joined the IqN and formed the 2nd Iraqi Navy Marine Battalion. By the third quarter of 2008, the IqN will increase by another 300 sailors and 100 marines, taking it to 74% of its revised 2010 manpower requirement.
The IqN’s headquarters element at the MoD continues to improve its effectiveness in the day-to-day management of the IqN and in joint long-term planning. The Navy staff has published a comprehensive Navy Plan in support of the Iraqi National Military Strategy. The IqN operates out of a single base in Umm Qasr. It consists of an operational headquarters, one squadron afloat, one support squadron and two battalions of marines. On April 1, 2008, the IqN took responsibility for the point defense of the Khwar al Amaya Oil Terminal (KAAOT) and achieved the initial operational capability standard for Vessel Board Seize and Search (VBSS) operations. The IqN operates five small Patrol Boats and ten Fast Assault Boats (FABs) which patrol its territorial waters and make a significant contribution to the Coalition force effort protecting the Al Basrah Oil Terminal and the KAAOT. One Iraqi Navy Marine Battalion provides point defense of the offshore oil platforms and conducts VBSS operations; the second protects the Port of Umm Qasr. Additionally, the Navy conducts patrols and boardings from its FABs in the Khwar Abd Allah Waterway approaches to Umm Qasr. The IqN conducts, on average, 35 independent patrols— resulting in 12 boardings—per week. This represents an increase of nearly 100% of operational activity in the last six months.
On April 11, 2008, the 2nd Iraqi Navy Marine Battalion assumed responsibility for the perimeter defense of Umm Qasr commercial port and town in support of operations in Basrah. On April 19, 2008, the IqN took responsibility for the perimeter security of the port and power station at Az Zubayr. The IqN provided seagoing force protection for Royal Navy minehunters from April 13-20, 2008, which cleared the mine danger areas in the Khawr Abd Allah waterway. This will result in eventual reclassification of the waterway as unrestricted space and is part of returning the port to normal operations.
During this reporting period, Iraqi contracts have been signed and shipbuilding has commenced for two offshore support vessels, with the first due in October 2009; four patrol ships, with the first due in June 2009; three patrol boats, with the first due in April 2009; and 36 fast interdiction craft, which will commence coming on line in early 2009. The IqN has signed the letter of acceptance for the Iraqi-funded FMS projects for the major sea wall and pier construction in Umm Qasr to support the new fleet, the next tranche of six Malaysian Patrol Boats and numerous smaller projects ranging from spare parts to new uniforms. In addition to these efforts, the considerable amount of investment into the Naval Base infrastructure is starting to bear fruit, with billeting and dining facilities opening to meet growing naval manpower needs.
Despite these positive steps, the IqN still faces challenges in matching its infrastructure requirements, training needs and command and control enabling systems to its ambitious acquisition program. In order to meet the maritime transition goals set for late 2010, responses to these challenges include an additional 2008 FMS project that is pending to address command and control requirements, a planned infrastructure review, utilization of offers of sophisticated training in other countries and continued Coalition advice in developing the IqN.
Iraqi Air Force
There are 1,580 personnel assigned (up from 1,305 in the last report) to the Iraqi Air Force (IqAF), representing 54% of authorized strength with planned growth in 2008 to 2,900. The IqAF currently has 61 assigned aircraft and anticipates receiving 20 more aircraft in 2008. The IqAF recruited an additional 30 trainees to begin pilot training in May 2008. There are nine already in training, with graduation planned for May 2009. The IqAF has flown 2,525 sorties so far this year, to include a surge in support of Basrah operations.
The IqAF successfully reacted to operational and mobility requirements during the recent events in Basrah, flying 353 missions supporting IA operations. These sorties include ISR, transport, and training missions. From March 27 to April 4, 2008, the IqAF conducted fixed wing air mobility missions to Basrah. Two C- 130 aircraft flew 111 sorties transporting 283 tons of cargo (175 tons of ammunition, 26 tons of food, 8 tons of medical supplies and 74 tons categorized as other miscellaneous support items). During those 111 sorties, 2,952 passengers and 119 casualties were transported, demonstrating ISF mobility to the battlefield. Additionally, four IqAF Mi-17 helicopters performed 66 missions and two Huey helicopters performed 51 missions in support of operations including carrying food, water and medical supplies, dropping leaflets for Information Operations, providing perimeter defense and transporting personnel, including casualties. Three IqAF CH2000 aircraft flew 125 missions providing 210 hours of ISR missions in direct support of IA operations in Basrah.
The two training institutions in the IqAF are the IqAF Training Wing at Taji and the Flight Training Wing in Kirkuk. The IqAF Training Wing at Taji Air Base is responsible for the Basic Military Training school, the Basic Technical Training school, the Air Force Academy and the Air Force Officer Course at the Iraq Military Academy at Rustamiyah, all of which were stood-up in 2007. There are 20 IqAF instructors currently teaching at the Taji Air Base Technical Training School; it graduated 118 warrant officers in January 2008. Of these trainees, 22 have become aircraft gunners and 96 graduated from Fundamentals of Aircraft Maintenance in April 2008. Additionally, fifteen English Language Training students graduated in April 2008, with 45 more scheduled to graduate in June 2008. The IqAF plans to assess 1,200 new trainees by June 30, 2008 to meet its 2,900 authorized personnel requirement by December 31, 2008. Flight training takes place at the Flight Training Wing in Kirkuk. There are 24 trainees currently enrolled in the Basic Flight Training course, and three trainees are currently enrolled in the Instructor Pilot course. There are 46 Iraqi aircrew instructors (instructor pilots and mission sensor operators) available to conduct ISR mission training. The flight-training wing has an annual basic flight training capacity of 130 students.
The IqAF took delivery of its first of six King Air 350 aircraft in December 2007, later than anticipated. Monthly deliveries of five additional advanced ISR-version King Air 350s should start in June 2008. These aircraft add ISR training capacity not currently available to the IqAF. The five additional aircraft will increase IqAF and ISR fleet size by 36%, with simultaneous growth in time-over-target capability.
The IqAF rotary-wing fleet of 36 helicopters is located at Taji Air Base. The Mi-17 helicopters continue to have very limited operational capability due to defensive system and radio limitations. However, scheduled modifications are to begin in June 2008. The IqAF will add four additional Mi-17 helicopters in 2008 and another 24 in 2009. The new al-Muthanna Air Base has three C-130E aircraft, the only current IqAF aircraft on which IqAF technicians are fully qualified to perform routine maintenance with minimal Coalition support.
The IqAF health and medical programs are also growing significantly. IqAF medics dispensed the flu vaccine to over 300 IqAF personnel using a “Road Show” approach, traveling to the various units versus personnel having to come to the clinics. They broke ground on construction of the IqAF Aeromedical Center at New Al-Muthanna Air Base (NAMAB) on March 10, 2008. At Al Hurriya Air Base, the IqAF and MoD assumed full responsibility for routine care and medical coverage of IqAF personnel, relegating U.S. Air Force Expeditionary Medical Support to an interventional role involving the saving of life, limb or eyesight. This clearly demonstrates an increased willingness to accept medical missions, roles, responsibilities and capabilities.
In addition to transitioning to life-support selfreliance in December 2007, the IqAF is also progressing towards self-reliance in vehicle maintenance as the outgoing contractor trains IqAF personnel. Additionally, the IqAF increasingly utilizes the MoD to procure its own fuel instead of using FMS. IqAF is also working with MoD to develop a supply and distribution system that provides adequate accountability and security of assets in the supply chain.
Directorate General for Intelligence and Security (DGIS) and JHQ, Directorate for Intelligence (M2)
The DGIS is the lead MoD intelligence agency. Currently, it has over 3,800 assigned personnel. The Iraqi Military Intelligence Academy provides training support. The organization consists of a National Headquarters, the Intelligence Academy, 18 Provincial Headquarters and 91 field offices. The final MTOE is awaiting final approval by the Defense Council. DGIS conducts intelligence collection, processing, analysis and reporting of human intelligence (HUMINT), signals intelligence (SIGINT) and imagery and mapping. The MNSTC-I Intelligence Transition Team assessed the DGIS as effective with limitations. The newly established SIGINT and Imagery and Mapping Directorates are rapidly establishing basic capability. Dissemination has vastly improved as directorates become more familiar with secure automation architecture.
The MoD staffs the JHQ M2 at 107% against authorizations. The MNSTC-I Intelligence Transition Team assessed M2 capabilities as effective. The M2 has made significant progress over the last quarter in training, planning, collection management, analysis and exploitation. The main limitation to the M2’s ability to serve as a Joint Intelligence Headquarters is the promulgation of a secure architecture (I2N) to the intelligence service headquarters and division level, thereby allowing for the rapid reporting and dissemination of intelligence throughout the services.
The M2 routinely works in concert with the JHQ M3 (operations directorate), M5 (plans directorate) and the rest of the JHQ Staff in developing and producing JHQ operational level plans. The acquisition of the Iraqi Defense Network (IDN) along with promulgation of I2N to the Service Intelligence Headquarters and each Division G2 will increase Iraqi secure communications capability and further facilitate the exchange of intelligence throughout the armed forces.
The M2 has initiated and promoted the establishment of intelligence fusion centers within the regional operations centers in order to better assess and leverage intelligence from the national level to the tactical level. M2 tasking, reporting and use of IqAF-produced intelligence in support of ground combat operations continue to improve, especially with regards to training and implementing recently approved Iraqi Intelligence Doctrine.
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