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1999 Military Reports

  • INTERNATIONAL GAME '99 - GENEVA An Occasional Paper of The Center for Naval Warfare Studies by Captain James T. Harrington, U. S. Navy Strategic Research Department Research Report 12-99 United States Naval War College - The scenario posited Georgia as an important transit route for Caspian oil, which was assumed to be important to Europe. Further assumptions included robust Partnership for Peace interactions in the Caspian/Black Sea region, good relations between Russia and the West and a mature European Security and Defense Identity. General game observations included a reluctance of most Europeans to place their forces in harm's way without an international mandate, NATO's continued primacy as a European military actor, Russian pragmatism as it attempted to limit the influence of the West while avoiding the appearance of being the "spoiler".
  • INTERNATIONAL GAME '99 - GARMISCH An Occasional Paper of The Center for Naval Warfare Studies by Captain James T. Harrington, U. S. Navy Strategic Research Department Research Report 13-99 United States Naval War College Based in 2009, the scenario premised a large humanitarian disaster in the Republic of Georgia compounded by a need to protect the delivery of humanitarian aid and, later, to respond to requests from a new Georgian President to help stabilize his government. Russia, understandably concerned about NATO and Western involvement in its near abroad, sought to exert influence by impeding, when it thought necessary, the attempts of regional organizations to decide and act.
  • SAKHALIN REGIONAL UPDATE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE - 06 December 1999
  • Some Provisional Notes On Current Russian Operations In Dagestan & Chechnya Michael Orr 3 December, 1999
  • SOME PROVISIONAL NOTES ON CURRENT RUSSIAN OPERATIONS IN DAGESTAN & CHECHNYA Michael Orr Conflict Studies Research Centre, Sandhurst UK 3 Dec 99
  • KAMCHATKA REGIONAL PROFILE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE - 03 December 1999
  • OVERVIEW OF MURMANSK REGION U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE - 01 December 1999
  • THE CHINESE ARMED FORCES IN THE 21ST CENTURY Edited by Larry M. Wortzel Strategic Studies Institute, United States Army War College, Carlisle Barracks December 1999
  • Army Professionalism, the Military Ethic, and Officership in the 21st Century Authored by Major John A. Nagl, Colonel Tony Pfaff, Dr. Don M. Snider. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College December 1999
  • The "Big Gun's" Two-Theater TLAM Tally by LTJG Alexander Barbara, USN Undersea Warfare Winter 1999-- "You are more likely to shoot a Tomahawk missile than any other weapon during your time in the military - even a handgun," the instructor told us as he introduced the topic of Tomahawk Land Attack Missiles (TLAMs) and over-the-horizon targeting at the Submarine Officer Basic Course last fall. Although this segment only lasted three days, it would prove to be one of the more relevant subjects during my follow-on deployment. It was only a matter of weeks until USS Miami (SSN-755) was to leave for six months in the Mediterranean Sea and Arabian Gulf. With international tensions beginning to rise at that time, the deployment was sure to include plenty of real-world operations, as well as a few visits to interesting places.
  • SSGN: A "Second Career" For The Boomer Force by CDR Robert Aronson, USN Undersea Warfare Winter 1999-- Recently, the President signed the FY 2000 Defense Authorization Act, which for the first time will allow the Department of Defense (DoD) to reduce TRIDENT-class ballistic missile submarine (SSBN) force levels below 18 TRIDENTs. In 1994, the Nuclear Posture Review recommended a two-ocean-based, 14 TRIDENT SSBN force - all carrying the TRIDENT II (D-5) missile - as sufficient to meet U.S. national security requirements under the Strategic Arms Reductions Treaty II (START II). As a result, four TRIDENT SSBNs will be available for conversion to nuclear-powered guided-missile submarines (SSGN).
  • Submarine Forward Presence as of November 1999 Undersea Warfare Winter 1999
  • Prognosis for China by Sidney Trevethan [Revision 4, November 1999] It appears the PLAN can deliver about two Agroup armies@ (i.e., corps) of amphibious units by ships and another two by large LCU type landing craft. In addition, it can deliver at least three or four more by merchant ships to any operating port.
  • PLA Colonels : "Unrestricted Warfare": Part I -- November 1999 report from U.S. Embassy Beijing
  • PLA Colonels : "Unrestricted Warfare": Part II -- November 1999 report from U.S. Embassy Beijing
  • PLA Senior Colonels On Globalism And New Tactics: "Unrestricted Warfare": Part III
  • PLA Senior Colonels On Strategy And Geopolitics: "Unrestricted Warfare": Part IV
  • The Fog of Peace: Finding the End-State of Hostilities Authored by Mr. Manfred K. Rotermund. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College November 1999
  • Land Power and Dual Containment: Rethinking America's Policy in the Gulf Authored by Dr. Stephen C. Pelletiere. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College November 1999
  • OVERCOMING UNCERTAINTY: U.S.-CHINA STRATEGIC RELATIONS IN THE 21ST CENTURY Walter Neal Anderson, USAF Institute for National Security Studies Occasional Paper 29, October 1999
  • Airpower in the Gulf War Air and Space Power Mentoring Guide Essays (Volume 2) [PDF] - Summary of the use of Air Power during the first Gulf War.
  • Urban Combat Operations CALL Newsletter No. 99-16 -- Military Operations on Urbanized Terrain (MOUT) is very complex. Yet, much of the doctrine and tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTP) used in MOUT are the same as in other offensive or defensive operations. The intent of this newsletter is to show, across the Battlefield Operation Systems (BOS), the TTP that work in MOUT. These observations are based on Combat Training Center (CTC) experiences, discussions with CTC observer controllers (O/Cs), and the reading of current doctrine.
  • A Concept Framework For RAPID DECISIVE OPERATIONS USJFCOM J9 Concepts Division (J92) 22 October 1999 - A joint force commander (JFC) can employ air, land, sea, space, and information-based capabilities in an intense, focused, non-linear campaign to defeat an adversary's strategic and operational centers of gravity.
  • The Growing Imperative to Adopt "Flexibility" as an American Principle of War Authored by Lieutenant Colonel Robert S. Frost. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College October 15, 1999
  • "Soft Log" and Concrete Canyons: Russian Urban Combat Logistics in Grozny by Mr. Lester W. Grau and Mr. Timothy L. Thomas, Foreign Military Studies Office, Marine Corps Gazette October 1999
  • Base Structure Report: Fiscal Year 1999 Department of Defense 30 September 1999 [PDF]
  • SADDAM HUSSEIN'S IRAQ US Department of State September 13, 1999 (Updated 3/24/00) -- "The purpose of this report is to present the facts concerning Iraq under Saddam Hussein. (...) Based on publicly available information, the facts contained in this report demonstrate that under the regime of Saddam Hussein, Iraq continues to repress its people, threaten the region, and obstruct international efforts to provide humanitarian relief." [PDF 3.72 Mb]
  • THE CHINESE PEOPLE'S LIBERATION ARMY: "SHORT ARMS AND SLOW LEGS" Russell D. Howard, USAF Institute for National Security Studies Occasional Paper 28 -- September 1999
  • GEOPOLITICAL CHALLENGES TO MOSCOW IN THE TRANSCAUCASUS (F67) Dr M A Smith Conflict Studies Research Centre, Sandhurst UK September 1999
  • China's Strategic Modernization: Implications for the United States Authored by Mark A. Stokes. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College September 1999
  • America's Army in Transition: Preparing for War in the Precision Age Authored by Major General Robert H. Scales. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College September 1999
  • Security and Civil-Military Relations in the New World Disorder: The Use of Armed Forces in the Americas by Dr. Max G. Manwaring. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College September 01, 1999
  • Confessions of an SSBN Sailor (A letter to my SSN colleagues) by CDR John Elnitsky, USN Undersea Warfare Fall 1999-- We may have reached the point where a real dichotomy exists between SSBNs and SSNs. Are SSBNs just this other part of the Submarine Force that we SSN purists tolerate, like F-18 jockeys tolerate their helicopter pilot counterparts? Have the myths generated a potential schism?
  • A Dive's Eye View by ETCS(SS) James P. Barnes, USN Undersea Warfare Fall 1999-- A description of an SSBN diving
  • Henry M. Jackson Aces FCET by MTC (SS) Peter L. Beck, USN Undersea Warfare Fall 1999-- "MISSILE AWAY!!" sounded over the ship's announcing system, signaling the culmination of countless hours of complex planning and preparation for one of the most successful TRIDENT I (C-4) Follow-On CINC Evaluation Tests (FCETs) in the history of the TRIDENT Missile program. As the last of four FCET missiles roared into the night sky off the coast of Cape Canaveral, Florida, every man onboard the USS Henry M. Jackson (SSBN-730) felt pride and quiet satisfaction in having demonstrated once again the extraordinary reliability that makes our ballistic missile submarine force the keystone of our Nation's strategic deterrent.
  • A New SSBN Operating Cycle for Kings Bay by CAPT Butch Hansen Undersea Warfare Fall 1999-- The Submarine Force has recently observed the 38th anniversary of the first submarine Strategic Deterrent Patrol, commenced by the USS George Washington (SSBN-598) in November 1960. In addition to initiating a new era in naval warfare, the ballistic missile submarine introduced an innovative and unique operating cycle that used two alternating crews to keep the ships at sea for over 70 percent of their operational life, while maintaining both material and crew readiness at the highest levels. The success of this "Blue/Gold" crewing concept over nearly 40 years speaks for itself, and until recently, the SSBN operating cycle has required little change despite new classes of ships, maintenance facilities, and homeports.
  • The SSBN in National Security by ADM Richard W. Mies Undersea Warfare Fall 1999-- Adaptability and responsiveness have long been hallmarks of our strategic submarine force. When the Soviets launched Sputnik in October 1957, and our Nation was alarmed by an apparent missile gap, the Submarine Force was called upon to accelerate development of a ballistic missile submarine. Many people believed ballistic missiles were too large and dangerous for submarines - and that a submerged ballistic missile submarine was something from Jules Verne's science fiction. But a handful of visionary, innovative people thought otherwise. A little more than three years later, USS George Washington (SSBN-598) went to sea on its first strategic deterrent patrol - the first of almost 3,500 patrols to date.
  • Submarine Forward Presence as of August 1999 Undersea Warfare Fall 1999
  • USS Jimmy Carter (SSN-23) Expanding Future SSN Missions by RADM John P. Davis, USN Undersea Warfare Fall 1999 -- "What will the submarine of the future look like?" Over the years, the Navy has posed this question several times to the scientific community. In 1948, for example, the Navy asked the National Academy of Sciences to form a committee on undersea warfare to study the concept of a submarine designed primarily to maximize submerged performance. The Academy returned with recommendations for building a high-speed submarine capable of exceeding 20 knots underwater, based on a teardrop-shaped hull, a single screw, and HY-80 steel for the hull. As a result, USS Albacore (AGSS-569) was born, and the course of submarine design changed irrevocably.
  • TOP TEN DEFENSE & TECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY INTERNATIONAL MARKET INSIGHT 18 August 1999
  • Mediterranean Security into the Coming Millennium Edited by Dr. Stephen J. Blank. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College August 1999
  • Naval Oceanography - A Submarine Force Multiplier by RADM W. G. "Jerry" Ellis, USN Oceanographer of the Navy Undersea Warfare Summer 1999-- As the U.S. Submarine Force scales back, the Navy expects a lot more from each individual boat, and gaining a tactical edge over potential adversaries by exploiting the ocean and weather environment becomes increasingly im-portant. Interpreting the battlespace environment for our warfighters is the primary function of the Naval Ocean-ography community, which provides a wide range of specialized support to tactical and strategic submarine missions, such as anti-submarine warfare (ASW), land attack, special forces operations, and the whole gamut of intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR). Many of our products feed directly into tactical decision aids hosted in the Submarine Fleet Mission Program Library (SFMPL).
  • NR-1 - within Visual Sight of the Bottom Lieutenant Doug Perry, USN Undersea Warfare Summer 1999 -- It is the summer of 1997, and the U.S. Navy Submarine NR-1 is deployed to the Mediterranean for the second of two archaeological expeditions in cooperation with Dr. Robert Ballard, discoverer of the remains of the Titanic and Director of the Institute for Exploration in Mystic, Connecticut. NR-1 is assisting in the search for the wrecks of ancient Roman merchant ships on the Skerki Bank between Sardinia and Sicily on an expedition partly funded by the Office of Naval Research and the National Geographic Society. Two years earlier, NR-1 had surveyed the HMHS Britannic, sister ship to the Titanic, which was sunk in the Kea Strait off the coast of Greece while serving as a hospital ship during World War I. Both operations have been the subject of well-received television documentaries. If these sound like unusual assignments for a Navy submarine - they are. But then NR-1 is an unusual boat.
  • Submarine Forward Presence as of May 1999 Undersea Warfare Summer 1999
  • The Submarine Force of The Royal Australian Navy CDR David M. Hendricks, USN Undersea Warfare Summer 1999-- For many years, Australia has been one of America's staunchest allies, and the U.S. Navy and Royal Australian Navy (RAN) have long enjoyed close ties and the valuable experience of mutual cooperation. With the delivery of the first submarines of the new Collins class, the RAN is on the threshold of a new era of excellence in undersea warfare.
  • Report To The Minister For Defence On The Collins Class Submarine And Related Matters Australian Ministry of Defence June 1999 -- "The Collins class submarines constitute, on the one hand, probably Australia's most important strategic asset for the decades starting 2000, and on the other, Australia's most ambitious and technically advanced defence industrial project ever. Because of well publicised deficiencies in their performance, there is a widespread view that the submarines themselves are "duds" and the project is well over both time and budget."
  • The Battle of Grozny: Deadly Classroom for Urban Combat by Mr. Timothy L. Thomas, Foreign Military Studies Office, Parameters, Summer 1999, pp. 87-102.
  • RUSSIAN MILITARY AVIATION U.S. EMBASSY - MOSCOW, MAY 1999
  • Future Warfare Authored by Major General Robert H. Scales. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College May 1999
  • Freedom of Navigation: FY 1998 OPERATIONAL ASSERTIONS DoD 1999
  • Undersea Partners - The Mine Countermeasures Surface Force by Ensign Chuck Bell, USN Mine Warfare Command Public Affairs Officer Undersea Warfare Spring 1999 -- The mine warfare mission has never been more important. Today, at least 30 countries manufacture naval mines, and at least 20 of those export the mines they produce. More than 50 nations have some degree of mining capability, and as Desert Storm showed, strategic deployment of inexpensive mines can wreak havoc on Navy surface and subsurface forces, Marine amphibious forces, and commercial ships as well.
  • USS Asheville Leads the Way in High Frequency Sonar by LTJG Leonard Moreavek, USS Asheville, and T.J. Brudner, Applied Research Laboratories, University of Texas Undersea Warfare Spring 1999 -- As the mission area of the Submarine Force expands to embrace the shallow water littorals, the advantages of using high frequency (HF) sonar in tactical operations as an adjunct to more traditional medium frequency systems are becoming more apparent. The high range and bearing resolution that can be achieved with active HF sonar makes possible many new capabilities that are essential to success in shallow water operations of all kinds. USS Asheville (SSN-758) has been a pioneer in demonstrating the value of HF sonar ever since she was selected as the operational test platform for the High Frequency Sonar Program (HFSP), and had her basic HF system installed in March 1995.
  • "Water Balloon" Shoots Weapons In Future Launching System by John Little Undersea Warfare Spring 1999 -- The same physical principles that govern the power of a slingshot or loosing the contents of a water balloon are being used to create an innovative new weapon-ejection system planned for future USS Virginia-class (SSN-774) submarines. The Elastomeric Ejection System (EES) will use the potential energy stored in a large rubber disk to accelerate a slug of water for ejecting weapons from submarine torpedo tubes. It is a simple and elegant approach whose basic feasibility has already been demonstrated.
  • Sierra Leone: The Forgotten Crisis Report to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, the Honourable Lloyd Axworthy, P.C., M.P. from David Pratt, M.P., Nepean-Carleton, Special Envoy to Sierra Leone April 23, 1999 -- In many respects, Kosovo and Sierra Leone are two sides of the same coin which is intra-state conflict in the late 1990's. The conventional "Rules for Armed Combat" have essentially disappeared. With both the Serbs and the Revolutionary United Front (RUF), the rebel group in Sierra Leone, civilian populations, rather than being afforded protection, have become both targets and tools of war.
  • Culture of the New Independent States (NIS) Headstart/First Semester European I School Selected Aspects of the New Independent States Religion/Culture - APRIL 1999 Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center -- The goal is establishment of a "level playing field" where students and faculty can possess competency in a common cultural literacy for this area of the world.
  • Culture of the Russian Federation World Headstart/First Semester European I School Selected Aspects of Russian Religion/Culture - APRIL 1999 - Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center -- The goal is establishment of a "level playing field" where students and faculty can possess competency in a common cultural literacy for this area of the world.
  • The Future U.S. Military Presence in Asia: Landpower and the Geostrategy of American Commitment Authored by Dr. Larry M. Wortzel, Major General Robert H. Scales. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College April 1999
  • DEFENSE INDUSTRY U. S. Department of Commerce 31 March 1999
  • Pacific Security Today: Overcoming the Hurdles Authored by Thomas M. Molino. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College March 24, 1999
  • Landpower and Ambiguous Warfare: The Challenge of Colombia in the 21st Century by Dr. Richard Downes. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College March 01, 1999
  • Colombia's Three Wars: U.S. Strategy at the Crossroads by Dr. Gabriel Marcella, Dr. Donald E. Schulz. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College March 01, 1999
  • ALSOS FLOW Logistics to Other Services 23 Feb 1999 (PowerPoint document) The Army needed a more comprehensive look at the potential impacts on its capabilities as a result of having to meet its current assigned, implied and specified Army Logistics Support to Other Services (ALSOS) responsibilities.
  • East Asia in Crisis: The Security Implications of the Collapse of Economic Institutions Authored by Dr. Stephen J. Blank. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College February 01, 1999
  • U.S. Commercial Technology Transfers to the People's Republic of China Defense Market Research Report Bureau of Export Administration, Office of Strategic Industries and Economic Security -- January 1999
  • MACHINE-BUILDING INDUSTRY OF KHABAROVSKY KRAI U.S. DEPARTMENT OF STATE - 27 January 1999
  • Warriors in Peace Operations Edited by Dr. Douglas V. Johnson II. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College January 25, 1999
  • Technology and the 21st Century Battlefield: Recomplicating Moral Life for the Statesman and the Soldier Authored by Colonel Charles J. Dunlap Jr.. Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College January 15, 1999
  • Culture of the Central/South Central European World Headstart / First Semester European I School Selected Aspects of Central/South Central Europe (SCE) Religion/Culture JAN 1999 - Defense Language Institute Foreign Language Center -- The goal is establishment of a "level playing field" where students and faculty can possess competency in a common cultural literacy for this area of the world. In addition, this project introduces entry level military intelligence personnel to critical elements of the Balkan intelligence picture.
  • North Korean Military ROK NIS January 1999



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